REVEALING THE MAIN INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE TEXT

EXERCISE 1.

Task 1 is a test of your ability to analyze the text and find its main idea. At first glance, the task seems very easy, but you need to remember that you get 2 points for it. And this, of course, is proof that the task is not easy and that it must be done very carefully.
What you need to know to do the first task correctly:

1) There should be two answers. Since the main idea in the text can be only one, then in the text you need to find two identical thoughts formulated in different words.

2) Any text that is presented in this task is built according to the following logical schemes:

Cause – Effect First, the causes of the event or phenomenon are spoken of, then the event or phenomenon itself is indicated (or vice versa)
Part – Whole First, the components of something are listed, then the phenomenon itself is called.
Fact – Conclusion Well-known facts are given, which serve only as background, which leads to a conclusion. As a rule, it is at the end.

IMPORTANT! The answer must contain both components of the statement.
Common Mistakes

When the response is:

– information that is not in the text;

– false information;

– incomplete information;

– two different answers.

Thus, if you carefully read the text, understand its logic, remember the tricks of this task, then it will not be difficult for you

Task execution algorithm:

1. Read the text carefully.

2. Pay special attention to the graphic study of the text to the second and third sentences: this is, as a rule, the semantic center of the text (what it was written for). The first sentence is a beginning that does not contain the main information.

3. Exclude from the available answers:

– a sentence that includes information that is not in the text;

– a sentence that literally quotes any part of the text and conveys small details and details that are not essential for understanding the main information;

– a sentence that conveys only part of the main information.

4. Choose those two answers in which the main information of the text is expressed as much as possible with the minimum expenditure of speech means.

5. Remember that the two correct options should:

– convey the same content, but differ only in speech design;

– combine the information presented in the second and third sentences of the original text.

EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION OF THE ALGORITHM:

Test task :

(1) On the surface of our body and inside it lives a huge number of bacteria, visible only under a strong microscope: on a small piece of skin the size of a little fingernail, there are five million bacteria. (2) Most bacteria are safe for the human body and even necessary for its functioning, but some types are dangerous – they can cause diseases. (3) That’s why it’s important to wash your hands with soap before eating.

Which of the following sentences correctly conveys the MAIN information contained in the text?

1) Most of the bacteria living on human skin are safe for the body and even necessary for its functioning.

2) A huge number of bacteria live in the human body, visible only under a strong microscope: on a small piece of skin the size of a little finger nail, there are five million bacteria.

3) Bacteria living on the surface of our body and inside it are not all safe for the human body, so it is important to wash your hands with soap before eating.

4) In addition to a huge number of bacteria that are safe and necessary for the human body, pathogenic bacteria can appear on the surface of the skin.

5) Before eating, it is necessary to wash your hands with soap and water, as a lot of bacteria, including pathogens, live on human skin.

Commentary on the assignment:

Let’s highlight in each sentence the key words that are important for understanding the main idea of the text:

(1) On the surface of our body and inside it lives a huge number of bacteria , visible only under a strong microscope: on a small piece of skin the size of a little fingernail, there are five million bacteria. (2) Most bacteria are safe for the human body and even necessary for its functioning, but some types are dangerous – they can cause diseases. (3) That’s why it’s important to wash your hands with soap before eating.

Let’s pay special attention to the second and third sentences – this is the semantic center of this text:

The second sentence clarifies, expands the meaning of the first sentence ( a huge number of bacteria live in the human body: some of them are safe and necessary for its successful functioning, while others are the cause of diseases). The third sentence contains a derivation from the second, as indicated by its beginning (” That’s why it’s important to wash your hands with soap before eating”). Therefore, the third sentence is the most important in the text.

Let’s retell the content of the text, starting with the last sentence:

It is important to wash your hands with soap and water before eating, as some types of bacteria that live on the surface of our body are dangerous to the body and can cause illness.

Let’s compare our version of the retelling of the main content of the text ( “It is important to wash your hands with soap before eating, since some types of bacteria that live on the surface of our body are dangerous for the body and can cause diseases”) with the proposed answers and find semantic matches:

1) Most of the bacteria living on human skin are safe for the body and even necessary for its functioning.

2) A huge number of bacteria live in the human body, visible only under a strong microscope: on a small piece of skin the size of a little finger nail, there are five million bacteria.

3) Bacteria living on the surface of our body and inside it are not all safe for the human body, so it is important to wash your hands with soap before eating.

4) In addition to a huge number of bacteria that are safe and necessary for the human body, pathogenic bacteria can appear on the surface of the skin.

5) Before eating, it is necessary to wash your hands with soap and water, as a lot of bacteria, including pathogens, live on human skin.

Note that the first answer is incorrect, since the information contained in it contradicts the content of the text (the text says that not all bacteria are safe; there are those that cause serious diseases of the body).

Let us also exclude the second answer from the number of correct ones, since it is a detailed retelling of the first sentence of the text – its beginning, therefore it does not contain the main information.

We cannot indicate the fourth answer as the correct one either, because it does not convey the essence of the third (most important) sentence of the text.

We choose options 3 and 5 as the correct ones, since they maximally express the main idea of the text (they convey the same content, but differ only in speech design).

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