Recommendations for preparing for the lesson

When preparing for the first question , attention should be paid to the content of such normative acts of the first days of the war as the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 22, 1941 “On Martial Law”, the Directive of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of June 29, 1941. “To the Party and Soviet organizations of the front-line regions.” They reflected the tasks that faced the country’s leadership at the start of the war. Next, it is necessary to characterize the creation and activities of emergency authorities: the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command, the State Defense Committee. Particular attention should be paid to the last body, it is necessary to characterize its structure, procedure, and effectiveness. Within the framework of this issue, one should also not forget that during the war years there were also constitutional bodies of power and administration: the Supreme Council, the Council of People’s Commissars, and People’s Commissariats. It is important to show their participation in the organization of defense against the enemy, the degree of interaction with emergency authorities. For a better assimilation of the material, it is recommended to draw up a diagram of the system of government and administration during the war years, including in it both emergency and constitutional authorities.

Studying the material on the second question , indicate the changes that have occurred during the war years in civil and family law. To do this, read the following regulations: Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On heirs by law and testament” of March 14, 1945, Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 22, 1941 “On martial law”, Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR of January 23, 1942 “On the arrangement of children left without parents”, Decree of the USSR Armed Forces of September 8, 1943 “On adoption”. The most important for characterizing family law is the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On increasing state assistance to pregnant women, mothers of many children and single mothers, strengthening the protection of motherhood and childhood, establishing the honorary title “Mother Heroine” and establishing the Order of Mother’s Glory” and the medal “Medal maternity” dated July 8, 1944. This decree abolished de facto marriage, complicated divorce and created conditions for the protection of motherhood and childhood.

In preparation for the lesson on the third question , pay attention to the fact that in labor law, to meet the needs of the army and the front, the state used emergency measures to regulate labor relations: labor service, labor mobilization, a special mode of work, criminal liability for disciplinary offenses, etc. d. To identify these features, study such regulatory acts as the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 22, 1941 “On martial law”, the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On the mobilization for the wartime period of the able-bodied urban population to work in production and construction” dated February 13, 1942, Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 26, 1941: “On the working hours of workers and employees in wartime.”

When characterizing the material on the fourth question , pay attention to what new types of crimes and punishments were introduced during the war years. To this end, analyze the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of April 19, 1943 “On punishment for Nazi villains guilty of killing and torturing the Soviet civilian population and captured Red Army soldiers, for spies, traitors to the Motherland from among Soviet citizens and for their accomplices “.

II. The practical part involves working with the texts of sources, their analysis, and the implementation of practical tasks:

Task 1. Expand the content and meaning of the order of the People’s Commissar of Defense No. 227 of July 28, 1942 (“Not a step back!”), Using Internet resources, additional educational and scientific materials and answering the following questions:

1. How can one explain the appearance of the order of the People’s Commissar of Defense No. 227 of July 28, 1942?

2. What are the main provisions of this order?

3. Give your assessment to the order “Not a step back!” Why can’t it be unambiguous?

Task 2. Expand the content and meaning of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On increasing state assistance to pregnant women, mothers with many children and single mothers, strengthening the protection of motherhood and childhood, establishing the honorary title “Mother Heroine” and establishing the Order of Maternal Glory and the medal” Motherhood Medal” of July 8, 1944, using Internet resources, additional educational and scientific materials and answering the following questions:

1. What were the reasons for adopting this document?

2. What has this Decree changed in the development of Soviet family law?

3. For what purpose did the state recognize as legal only a marriage registered with the registry office? How has the divorce process changed?

4. How were the interests of widows and orphans protected?

5. What is the significance of this Decree? How did the Soviet demographic and family policy change in connection with its publication?

Task 3. Compare the provisions of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On the working hours of workers and employees in wartime” of June 26, 1941 with the norms of the Labor Code of 1922 and the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces “On the transition to an eight-hour working day, to a seven-day working week and on the prohibition of unauthorized departure of workers and employees from enterprises and institutions “of June 26, 1940”. What changes took place in labor law during the war years?

Task 4. What changes did the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On heirs by law and by will” dated March 14, 1945, introduce into inheritance law? Compare with the norms of the Civil Code of the RSFSR of 1922.

Task 5. Analyze the content and determine the meaning of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On penalties for Nazi villains guilty of killing and torturing the Soviet civilian population and captured Red Army soldiers, for spies, traitors to the Motherland from among Soviet citizens and for their accomplices” dated April 19, 1943, answering the following questions:

1. To whom was the application of this Decree directed?

2. How were the convicts punished under this document?

3. What did the measure of punishment depend on?

4. What judicial institution handled such cases?

5. How was the execution of sentences carried out in such cases? What was the purpose of this form of execution?

Using the materials of additional literature, Internet resources, give examples of the application of this Decree, indicate the most famous cases based on it.

To consolidate the material, it is recommended to solve or compose tasks :

1. In August 1941, an infantry battalion was stationed in the village of Lesnoy, located 10 km from the front. Due to the lack of the required number of vehicles, the battalion experienced a shortage of ammunition, which there was nothing to bring. The battalion commander, Major Kirillov, ordered the chairman of the local collective farm and all the villagers to hand over their horses to the military. The collective farmers refused to comply with this order, referring to the Constitution of 1936. Who is right in this situation? What was Major Kirillov guided by when giving such an order?

2. In the autumn of 1941, the director of the defense enterprise Baranov, in order to increase the volume of output, introduced mandatory overtime work at the enterprise lasting 2 hours a day. Young workers aged 16 and 17 were also involved in overtime work. Were there any violations by the director of the enterprise?

3. In July 1941, the front commander introduced a ban on appearing on the streets from 10 pm to 6 am without the permission of the military authorities in front-line cities. For violation of this ban, the commander imposed a fine of 5 thousand rubles. How legitimate are the actions of the front commander?

4. Andrei Fedorov died at the front in April 1945. After him, property remained in his native village – a house and a household plot. Who will inherit this property of Fedorov, if his wife was killed by the Germans back in 1943, they had no children, like other relatives, except for his disabled mother and father working on a collective farm?

5. On July 14 – 17, 1943, the Military Tribunal of the North Caucasian Front considered the case of the atrocities of the Nazi invaders and their accomplices in the territory of Krasnodar and the Krasnodar Territory. The defendants Vasily Tishchenko, Vasily Pavlov and Ivan Paramonov walked along it. The investigation established that Tishchenko in August 1942 voluntarily entered the service of the German police, in September 1942 he was transferred as a promotion, first to the position of foreman of the punitive body of the Gestapo “SS-10-A Sonderkommando”, and then to the Gestapo investigator. While occupying these positions, Tishchenko, along with Gestapo officers, often went to round up and arrest partisans, communists and other Soviet activists. Under the leadership of Gestapo officers, he conducted their investigations, beat them with whips, on his initiative several people who were listed as imprisoned Soviet citizens were strangled by carbon monoxide poisoning in cars specially equipped for this purpose – “gas chambers”. The investigation also found out that Paramonov and Pavlov voluntarily entered the service in the Sonderkommando SS-10-A of the Gestapo and were in it until the Nazis were expelled from Krasnodar, guarding those arrested and the Gestapo building in this team, participating in raids and arrests of partisans, but at the same time, they did not personally participate either in the murders of Soviet citizens or in their torture. How should the court qualify the acts committed by Tishchenko, Paramonov and Pavlov? On the basis of what normative legal acts and how should they be punished?

Recommended literature:

Main literature:.

1. History of the state and law of Russia: textbook / ed. Yu.P. Titov. – M.: Prospekt, 2012

2. Isaev I.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a textbook. – M.: Prospekt, 2009.

3. History of the domestic state and law. Part 2: Textbook / ed. O.I. Chistyakov. – M.: Jurist, 2007.

Collections of documents and anthologies:

1. History of the state and law of Russia: Reader: At 3 hours – Part III (XX century). – T. II (1930s – 1991s) / comp. I.V. Bryzgalova, Yu.A. Perebinos. – Vologda: VIPE FPS of Russia, 2012.

2. Reader on the history of the state and law of Russia: textbook / Comp. Yu.P. Titov. – M., 2010.

3. Kutafin O.E., Lebedev V.M., Semigin G.Yu. Judicial power in Russia: history, documents. In 6 vols. / Scientific. project consultant
E.A. Skripilev. T. V. Soviet state / Ed. ed. R.S. Mulukaev, A.Ya. Malygin. M., 2003.

4. Reader on the history of the domestic state and law. 1917 – 1991 / ed. O.I. Chistyakov. – M., 1997.

Additional literature:

1. Grigut A.E. Soviet state apparatus and law during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) Proc. allowance. Vologda: VF RIPE Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 1998.

2. Ermolov I.G. Activities of law enforcement, judicial and legal bodies in the occupied territory of the RSFSR in 1941-1944. // Russian history. 2010. No. 3.

3. History of the domestic state and law in diagrams and tables: Textbook / ed. ed. V. P. Salnikova. SPb.: Foundation for the support of science and education in the field of law enforcement “University”, 1999. Korzhikhina T.P. The Soviet state and its institutions. November 1917 – December 1991. – M .: RGGU, 1995.

4. Senin A.S. History of Russian statehood: Proc. allowance. – M.: VLADOS, 2003

5. Steshenko L.A., Shamba T.M. History of State and Law of Russia: Academic course. In 2 vols. T. 2: XX century. – M.: Norma, 2010.

6. Syrykh V.M. History of the state and law of Russia. Soviet and modern periods: Proc. allowance. – M.: EKSMO, 2007.

7. SNK of the USSR. Council of Ministers of the USSR. Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR. 1923 – 1991. Encyclopedic reference book. – M.: Mosgorarkhiv, 1999.

8. Pashentsev D.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a course of lectures. M., 2010.

9. Smirnov S.N. History of the domestic state and law: textbook. M., 2009.

10. Tolstaya A. I. History of the state and law of Russia. Textbook for high schools. 3rd ed., ster. Moscow: Yustitsinform, 2010.

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