Recommendations for preparing for the lesson

The first question is introductory. Here we should recall the concept of “estate”, list the estates of the Russian Empire during the reign of Catherine II: the nobility, the clergy, the urban population, the peasantry, the bureaucracy, the Cossacks. It is also necessary to determine the features of the class structure of Russian society in the period under study. For a visual study of the issue, students should draw up, together with teachers, a diagram of the estate structure of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 18th century. and on its basis to reveal the characteristic features of the social structure of that era.

When answering the second question , it should be noted that in the 2nd floor. In the 18th century, the process of consolidating the various strata of the ruling class into one nobility was completed. Here it is important to characterize the enshrined privileges and rights of the nobility.

The central place in the answer to the third question should be occupied by a description of the legal status of the privileged (exempt) estate – the clergy. When analyzing the legal status of the clergy, one should pay attention to the nationalization of the church, the secularization of church lands by the Decree of February 26, 1764, and the introduction of certain taxes for the clergy. At the same time, one should not forget that the clergy remained a closed category of the population, which manifested itself, in particular, in the transmission of estates by inheritance. One should also distinguish between the position of black and white clergy.

Considering the fourth question , it is advisable to talk about the fact that cities in the 2nd floor. XVIII century developed as centers of trade and large-scale production. To overcome the backwardness of the country and strengthen the defense, the tsarist government stimulated the development of trade and industry, providing various benefits, creating city self-government bodies, and judicial bodies for citizens. Ever since the beginning of the 18th century. there was a process of registration of the urban estate, which ended with the adoption by Catherine II of the Letter of Complaint for the rights and benefits of the cities of the Russian Empire in 1785. When answering the question, one should dwell on the characteristics of the rights, duties and privileges of certain categories of the urban population.

The fifth question is devoted to the consideration of the unprivileged (taxable) class – the peasantry. Here it is necessary to single out and characterize the legal status of the following categories of peasants: landlord (privately owned), state, economic, possessive and palace (specific).

For a more in-depth study of the material, it is recommended to watch a video about the situation of individual estates and discuss it by answering a number of questions.

Questions for discussion :

1. What was the structure of the nobility? Was it homogeneous?

2. What are the reasons for the acquisition of the nobility in the Russian Empire in the eighteenth century.

3. What was the basis of the privileged position of the nobility?

4. What duties did the nobility perform in relation to the state?

5. What changes did the policy of the state make in the middle of the XVIII century. in the legal status of the nobility?

6. What categories were the clergy divided into?

7. What are the features of the legal status of each category?

8. What category of the clergy was hereditary?

9. What place from the point of view of the state should have been occupied by representatives of the clergy?

10. What process regarding the clergy ended in the second half of the 18th century?

Recommended literature:

Main literature:

1. History of the state and law of Russia: textbook / ed. Yu.P. Titov. – M.: Prospekt, 2012.

2. Isaev I.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a textbook. – M.: Prospekt, 2009.

3. History of the domestic state and law. Part 1: Textbook / ed. O.I. Chistyakov. – M.: Jurist, 2007.

Collections of documents and anthologies:

1. History of the domestic state and law: Reader: At 3 hours – Part 2 (XVIII – early XX century). – T. I (XVIII – the first half of the XIX century) / comp. I.V. Bryzgalova, Yu.A. Perebinos. – Vologda: VIPE FPS of Russia, 2012.

2. Kutafin O.E., Lebedev V.M., Semigin G.Yu. Judicial power in Russia: history, documents. In 6 vols. / Scientific. project consultant E.A. Skripilev. T. II. The period of absolutism / Rev. ed. S.A. Koluntaev. M., 2003.

3. Russian legislation of the 9th–20th centuries. / Ed. O.I. Chistyakov. T. 5. M., 1989.

4. Reader on the history of the state and law of Russia: textbook / Comp. Yu.P. Titov. – M., 2010.

Additional literature:

1. Anisimov E.V. Imperial Russia. SPb., 2008.

2. Belyavsky M.T. Estates and class system // Essays on Russian culture of the 18th century. / Ed. B.A. Rybakov. Part 2. M., 1987.

3. Vasiliev A.V. Legislation and the legal system of pre-revolutionary Russia. SPb., 2004.

4. Kamensky A.B. Life and fate of Empress Catherine the Great. M., 1997.

5. Kirillova T.K. Legal status of the peasants of the Russian Empire during the period of absolute monarchy // History of State and Law. 2006. No. 2.

6. Pashentsev D.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a course of lectures. M., 2010.

7. Rikman V.Yu. Noble legislation of the Russian Empire. – M., 1992.

8. Semenov A.K. City civil reform of Catherine II and elections in the cities of the Central Chernozem region // Questions of history. 2006. No. 5.

9. Smirnov S.N. History of the domestic state and law: textbook. M., 2009.

10. Steshenko L.A., Shamba T.M. History of State and Law of Russia: Academic course. In 2 vols. T. 1: V – the beginning of the twentieth century. – M.: Norma, 2010.

11. Tolstaya A. I. History of the state and law of Russia. Textbook for high schools. M., 2010.

6.3. Estate legislation in the second half of the 18th century.

Practical lesson

The purpose of the practical lesson is to consolidate the theoretical material on the rights and privileges of the nobility and the urban population of the Russian state in the second half of the 18th century. through the formation of the ability to work with the text of the primary source – Letters of Complaint to the Nobility and Cities of 1785, the skill of analyzing and summarizing source data, compiling and filling out tables.

The lesson is supposed to work in small groups and fill in three tables: “ The rights and privileges of the nobility according to the Charter to the nobles of 1785 ”, “ The legal status of the urban population according to the Charter to the cities of 1785 ”, “ Features of the legal status of certain categories of the urban population according to the Charter literacy to cities in 1785 ”.

In preparation for the lesson, it is necessary to study the theoretical material, familiarize yourself with the relevant sections of educational and scientific literature.

I. Theoretical part. In preparation for the lesson, it is necessary to study the following theoretical questions in educational and scientific literature:

1. The rights and privileges of the nobility according to the Manifesto on granting liberties to the nobility of 1762 and the Charter to the nobility of 1785

2. Categories of the urban population, their legal status, city self-government bodies according to the Letter of Complaint to the cities of 1785

Basic concepts : estates, nobility, personal and hereditary nobility, titled and non-titled nobility, local and non-local nobility, philistines, guild merchants, eminent citizens, guild artisans, townspeople, poll tax, recruit duty.

Recommendations for preparing for the lesson:

When preparing for the first question , relying on the Manifesto on granting liberties to the nobility of 1762, the Charter on the rights, liberties and advantages of the noble Russian nobility of 1785, one should indicate and characterize the privileges and rights of the nobles enshrined in the Manifesto and the Charter.

Considering the material of the second question , it is advisable to dwell on the characteristics of the Letter of Complaint to the cities of 1785 from the point of view of dividing the urban population into categories, the legal status of each category, and the possibility of creating magistrates as city self-government bodies.

II. The practical part of the lesson involves filling in tables based on working with the source. At the same time, the study group should be divided into small subgroups in accordance with the structure of the tables, and then jointly check and discuss it, supplement it.

Table 1

Rights and privileges of the nobility
according to the charter to the nobles of 1785

Types of rights Rights and privileges Articles
1. Personal rights: the right to a title of nobility, inalienable, hereditary, hereditary: – a nobleman informs his wife and children of a noble title – a noblewoman does not lose her noble title by marrying a non-nobleman
Art. fifteen
Art.18; 20
the right to be employed in a foreign service
right to travel abroad
2. Property rights: the right to full ownership of the property. estates
prohibition of confiscation of the hereditary estate, its transfer only to legal heirs
the right to acquire real estate in cities
Art. 26
the right to open industrial and commercial enterprises in their estates
Art. 27, 32
Art. 33, 34
personal exemption from taxes and duties
3. Judicial rights the right to protect the title of nobility, honor and property in court
grounds for deprivation of the title of nobility
Art. 12, 13
4. Class self-government the right of the provincial and district nobility to their corporate organization – the Assembly of the Nobility (DS); at the head of the DS – the leader of the provincial (district) nobility
Nobles had the right to participate in the work of the DS: Art.63,64,65
The DS had the right (the competence of the DS): Art.38-44,47-48,54, 66-67

table 2

Legal status of the urban population
according to the charter to the cities of 1785

Types of rights Rights and privileges Articles
1. Personal rights: the right to a hereditary philistine title: – a philistine informs his wife and children of the philistine title
2. Property rights: full ownership of the property
Art. nineteen
Art. 20
Art.25,26
Art.23,27
Art. 90
3. Judicial rights the right to protection of honor, life and property in court
the right to their own class petty-bourgeois court
grounds for deprivation of the petty-bourgeois title: Art. 86
4. Class self-government Bodies of city estate self-government : – City society – General city duma – Six-voice city duma
City society The following people could participate in the work of the City Society: Art.51,52
Terms of convocation and competence of the City Society: Art.29-57
General City Council Composition and terms of meetings of the General City Duma: Art.157,172
Six-member City Council Composition and terms of meetings of the Six-voice City Duma: Art. 164-165, 174
The competence of the City Council Art. 167

Table 3

Features of the legal status of individual categories
of the urban population according to the Letter of Complaint to the cities of 1785

The ranks of the townspeople, their composition Features of the legal status (special rights, privileges, obligations) of individual categories Articles
1. Real city dwellers (Article 63)
2. Guild merchants (art. 64) 1st guild: 2nd guild 3rd guild
3. Guild artisans (art. 65)
4. Out-of-town and foreign guests (art. 66)
5. Eminent citizens (art. 67)
6. Posad people (art. 68):

Recommended literature:

Main literature:

1. History of the state and law of Russia: textbook / ed. Yu.P. Titov. – M.: Prospekt, 2012.

2. Isaev I.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a textbook. – M.: Prospekt, 2009.

3. History of the domestic state and law. Part 1: Textbook / ed. O.I. Chistyakov. – M.: Jurist, 2007.

Collections of documents and anthologies:

1. History of the domestic state and law: Reader: At 3 hours – Part 2 (XVIII – early XX century). – T. I (XVIII – the first half of the XIX century) / comp. I.V. Bryzgalova, Yu.A. Perebinos. – Vologda: VIPE FPS of Russia, 2012.

2. Kutafin O.E., Lebedev V.M., Semigin G.Yu. Judicial power in Russia: history, documents. In 6 vols. / Scientific. project consultant E.A. Skripilev. T. II. The period of absolutism / Rev. ed. S.A. Koluntaev. M., 2003.

3. Russian legislation of the 9th–20th centuries. / Ed. O.I. Chistyakov. T. 5. M., 1989.

4. Reader on the history of the state and law of Russia: textbook / Comp. Yu.P. Titov. – M., 2010.

Additional literature:

1. Anisimov E.V. Imperial Russia. SPb., 2008.

2. Belyavsky M.T. Estates and class system // Essays on Russian culture of the 18th century. / Ed. B.A. Rybakov. Part 2. M., 1987

3. Vasiliev A.V. Legislation and the legal system of pre-revolutionary Russia. SPb., 2004.

4. Glazov Yu.V. Class policy of Catherine II in relation to the merchants // History of State and Law. 2012. No. 3.

5. Kamensky A.B. Life and fate of Empress Catherine the Great. M., 1997.

6. Kirillova T.K. Legal status of the peasants of the Russian Empire during the period of absolute monarchy // History of State and Law. 2006. No. 2.

7. Pashentsev D.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a course of lectures. M., 2010.

8. Rikman V.Yu. Noble legislation of the Russian Empire. – M., 1992.

9. Semenov A.K. City civil reform of Catherine II and elections in the cities of the Central Chernozem region // Questions of history. 2006. No. 5.

10. Steshenko L.A., Shamba T.M. History of State and Law of Russia: Academic course. In 2 vols. T. 1: V – the beginning of the twentieth century. – M.: Norma, 2010.

11. Tolstaya A. I. History of the state and law of Russia. Textbook for high schools. M., 2010.

TASKS FOR SELF-CHECK:

1. Match the names of the emperors (empresses) and the periods of their reign:

1) Paul I a) 1761 – 1762

2) Peter III b) 1762 – 1796

3) Catherine II c) 1796 – 1801

4) Alexander I

2. During the reign of Catherine II, such transformations were carried out as: a) the abolition of serfdom; b) liquidation of colleges; c) reform of the Senate; d) the creation of the Council at the highest court.

3. Set the correct chronological sequence of events during the reign of Catherine II : a) convening the Legislative Commission; b) secularization of church property; c) provincial reform.

4. In accordance with the Manifesto “On the granting of liberties and freedom to all Russian nobility”, Peter III freed the nobles from: a ) compulsory public service; b) lifelong civil service; c) state duties and taxes.

5. Correlate the categories of peasants in the second half of the 18th century. and their characteristics:

1) palace peasants a) belonged to the imperial family

2) black-mowed peasants b) were acquired to work in factories

and manufactories

3) possessive peasants c) appeared as a result of secularization

church lands and were under

management of the Board of Economy

4) economic peasants

6. A charter to the cities was adopted in : a) 1714; b) 1764; c) 1775; d) 1785

7. In accordance with the Charter to the cities, the entire urban population was divided into: a) regular citizens and “mean” people; b) six categories (“real city dwellers”, guild merchants, guild artisans, eminent citizens, foreign and non-resident philistines, townspeople); c) guild merchants, guild artisans and townspeople.

8. The provincial reform of Catherine II assumed : a) the creation of districts; b) disaggregation of provinces; c) liquidation of provinces; d) consolidation of provinces; e) liquidation of counties.

9. In 1782, special police bodies were created in the cities – ______ deanery.

10. Correlate regulatory legal acts and the dates of their adoption :

1) The charter of the deanery a) 1762

2) Letters of grant to the nobility and cities b) 1775

3) Manifesto “On the granting of liberty and freedom c) 1782

to all Russian nobility”

d) 1785

11. According to the decree of Paul I “On succession to the throne” of 1797: a) the heir to the throne is appointed by the emperor himself; b) the throne is transferred only to the eldest son; c) women are excluded from succession to the throne.

TOPIC 7. STATE AND LAW
RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

7.2. The role of the individual in the history of Russian statehood (on the example of statesmen of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century)

Practical lesson

The purpose of the practical lesson is to familiarize students with the biographies of famous public figures who have made a significant contribution to the development of the system of power and government of the country. The lesson is supposed to present multimedia presentations about the life and work of such famous historical figures as Alexander I, M. M. Speransky, Czartorysky, Novosiltsev, Kochubey, Arakcheev.

At the final stage of the lesson, a written work is supposed, in which it is necessary to express your own assessment of the material received.

In preparation for the lesson, it is necessary to study the following theoretical issues in educational and scientific literature and develop multimedia presentations on them:

1. The personality of Emperor Alexander I and his entourage.

2. The secret committee and the indispensable council: composition and activities.

The preparation of the first and second questions is carried out by all students on the basis of general historical literature. The main work on the preparation of a practical lesson is carried out in groups. Each subgroup prepares material (theoretical and multimedia presentation) about the following personalities: Alexander I, M. M. Speransky, A. A. Arakcheev.

In the course of the work, it is important to present the following provisions (biographical information, leading directions and results of activities, assessments of their activities by contemporaries and historians).

The final part of the lesson is devoted to the analysis of the material received in the form of a written work, within which it is supposed to express one’s own assessment of what has been studied.

Basic concepts : ministry, imperial office, state council, secret committee, indispensable council, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, council at the highest court.

Recommended literature:

Main literature:

1. History of the state and law of Russia: textbook / ed. Yu.P. Titov. – M.: Prospekt, 2012.

2. Isaev I.A. History of the state and law of Russia: a textbook. – M.: Prospekt, 2009.

3. History of the domestic state and law. Part 1: Textbook / ed. O.I. Chistyakov. – M.: Jurist, 2007.

Collections of documents and anthologies:

4. History of the domestic state and law: Reader: At 3 hours – Part 2 (XVIII – early XX century). – T. I (XVIII – the first half of the XIX century) / comp. I.V. Bryzgalova, Yu.A. Perebinos. – Vologda: VIPE FPS of Russia, 2012.

5. Kutafin O.E., Lebedev V.M., Semigin G.Yu. Judicial power in Russia: history, documents. In 6 vols. / Scientific. project consultant E.A. Skripilev. T. II. The period of absolutism / Rev. ed. S.A. Koluntaev. M., 2003.

6. Russian legislation IX–XX centuries. / Ed. O.I. Chistyakov. T. 5. M., 1989.

7. Reader on the history of state and law in Russia: textbook / Comp. Yu.P. Titov. – M., 2010.

Additional literature:

1. Eroshkin N.P. History of state institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia. M., 1983.

2. Efremova N.N. Judiciary in Russia in the 18th – 1st half of the 19th century: Historical and legal research. M., 1993.

3. Efremova N.N. Judiciary in Russia in the 18th – early 20th centuries. M., 1996.

4. Kazantsev S.M. Manifesto of September 8, 1802 on the establishment of ministries in Russia // Bulletin of Leningrad State University. Ser.6. 1985. No. 3.

5. Medushevsky A.N. The establishment of absolutism in Russia. M., 1994

6. Mironenko S.V. Autocracy and reforms: political struggle in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century. M., 1989.

7. Mironenko S.V. Pages of the secret history of autocracy: the political history of Russia in the first half of the 19th century. – M., 1990.

8. Predtechensky A.E. Essays on the socio-political history of Russia in the first quarter of the 19th century. M.-L., 1957.

9. Prikhodko M.A. Preparation and development of the ministerial reform in Russia (February – September 1802). M., 2002.

10. The development of Russian law in the first half of the XIX century. Moscow: Nauka, 1994.

11. Safonov M.M. The problem of reforms in the government policy of Russia at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. L., 1988.

7.3. The development of the law of the Russian Empire in the first half of the XIX century.

Practical lesson

The purpose of the practical lesson is to consolidate students’ holistic ideas about the development of the main branches of domestic law in the first half of the 19th century. through developing the skill of working with the text of sources and analyzing their articles. In the classroom, it is supposed to analyze the content of certain provisions of the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire of 1835 and the Code of Criminal and Correctional Punishments of 1845.

In preparation for the lesson, it is necessary to study the educational and scientific literature on the topic.

I. Theoretical part . In preparation for the lesson, it is necessary to study the following theoretical questions in educational and scientific literature:

1. The development of civil (real, liability, family, inheritance) law according to the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire of 1835.

2. The development of criminal law according to the “Code of Criminal and Correctional Punishments” of 1845.

3. Development of procedural law according to the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire of 1835.

Basic concepts : ownership, “occupation”, legal and illegal possession, easement, usufruct, sale, partnership, general partnership, limited partnership, partnership in shares, artel, crime under the Code, misdemeanor, criminal penalties, corrective penalties, deprivation of all status rights, deprivation of all special rights.

Recommendations for preparing for the lesson:

Studying the material of the first question before the practical lesson, it should be pointed out that civil law, according to the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire, included property, obligation, family and inheritance law. Describing the real right, it is necessary to dwell on a detailed analysis of its institutions (the right of ownership, the right of possession, the right to someone else’s thing (servitude) and the pledge right). Considering the law of obligations, it is necessary to highlight the differences between an obligation from contracts and an obligation from causing harm, the subject and form of the contract, the means of securing the contract, the grounds for termination of obligations, and the types of contracts.

Then we should dwell on family and inheritance law. When preparing, it is important to identify the form and conditions of marriage, obstacles to marriage, grounds for divorce, determine the status of the wife and children, property of spouses, forms of inheritance of property. In conclusion, you need to think about how the legislation of the first half of the 19th century changed. in the field of civil law compared with the legislation of the XVIII century.

When preparing for the second question , it is necessary to dwell on determining the reasons for the development and adoption of the Code of Criminal and Correctional Punishments of 1845. It should be borne in mind, first of all, the crisis of the feudal-serf system, the development of capitalism in Russia, which led to the aggravation of class contradictions, the intensification of peasant uprisings and the uprisings of sessional working people. In connection with this, the strengthening of the punitive policy of the autocracy caused the need for a clearer definition of the composition of state crimes, crimes against the order of government. This problem was intended to be solved by the Code. Then it is necessary to consider the process of adopting the Code and the structure of this legislative act. Next, one should dwell on the norms of the Code relating to the General Part, first of all, on the concept of “crime”, briefly analyze the norms of the Code that established the forms of guilt, the stages of the commission of a crime, types of complicity, circumstances that mitigated or aggravated guilt, eliminated criminal liability. Then it is necessary to turn to the analysis of the system of crimes according to the Code. Speaking about the system of punishments, it is necessary to analyze that peculiar “ladder of punishments” that was provided for by the Code. It should be remembered that, despite the reflection in the Code of certain principles of bourgeois law, in its content it was a feudal-serf code of criminal law.

The coverage of the third issue should begin with the main features of the judiciary and legal proceedings in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century. When characterizing legal proceedings, it is necessary to indicate the nature of the judicial process – inquisitorial. The decisive role in the proceedings was assigned to the police, which carried out the investigation and execution of the sentence. It should be specially emphasized that there was no judicial investigation as part of the trial, no witnesses and experts were summoned to the court, and the accused himself was the object of the process. Also, one should not forget that the evidence, as before (according to the “Brief Description of Trials or Litigation” of 1716), was divided into perfect and imperfect, and torture, although it was prohibited (by the Decree of 1801), existed in practice. In conclusion, one should briefly outline the state of the courts, in which bribery, red tape, and arbitrariness flourished.

II. The practical part involves an in-depth consideration of theoretical material with the involvement of sources – the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire and the Code of Criminal and Correctional Punishments of 1845 and the solution of problems based on these monuments of law by subgroups.

Solving problems based on the analysis of documents in small groups:

Subgroup

Task #1

In 1840, the nobleman S.P. died. Khominsky. In his will, he indicated that he transferred the estate of the village of Khominki to the city treasury of the city of Kaluga for the arrangement of an almshouse there. Khominsky’s son was bequeathed all monetary savings in the amount of 200 thousand rubles, and his wife – an annual maintenance of 10 thousand rubles. However, Khominsky’s son decided to protest his father’s will on the grounds that Khominsky is the family estate of their family. What decision will the court make?

Task #2

Kadnikovsky merchant Yagodnikov owned a dairy, consisting of 3 shops: for the production of butter, cheese, cottage cheese; premises for the storage of manufactured products; shops for its implementation. In 1837, he decided to sell the cottage cheese workshop, because. owed a large sum of money. However, the lawyer refused to certify the contract of sale. Is the refusal valid? Justify your point of view.

Task #3

In 1854, the court heard a case on charges of extortion, a clerk of the district court, Zavyalov. From the materials of the case, it followed that in July of this year, the court sentenced three peasants to be punished with rods for a fight and riot. When the deadline came, two of the peasants turned to the clerk with a request for release from punishment, while they gave him 3 rubles in money, 1 pood of wheat flour, 10 apples and 80 kopecks of vodka. The clerk accepted the “gift”, but did not take any measures to free the peasants from punishment, in connection with which the peasants filed a complaint against the clerk in court. Is it justified to accuse a clerk of extortion? Justify your answer.

Task #4

In the 1860-1870s. in Russia there was a criminal community called “Jacks of Hearts”. One of their major scams was the sale of the house of Prince Dolgorukov. So, at one of the balls to the Moscow Governor-General Prince V.A. Dolgorukov was introduced to a young man named Pavel Karlovich Speer. He began to visit often the governor’s house on Tverskaya, known throughout Moscow. Once Speer asked the prince for permission to show the house to a familiar English lord. Dolgorukov, who did not expect any trick, agreed, and the next day, when the governor was not at home, the Englishman and Speer came to inspect the mansion. They were accompanied by an official who showed them all the premises, including the outbuildings. A few more days later, the lord arrived at the mansion on Tverskaya, accompanied by secretaries and a cart with belongings. He ordered that things be brought in and, in response to the indignation of the prince’s servants, presented the bill of sale for the house. I had to report to the police, who found out that the lord bought the house from Mr. Speer for 100 thousand rubles and legally executed the transaction at the notary’s office. Yes, that’s the trouble: the office lasted only a few days, and it was created by Speer himself, who managed to escape with the money in an unknown direction. What crime did Speer commit? How should he be punished according to the norms of the Criminal and Correctional Code of 1845?

Task number 5

In May 1844, the body of a young woman with a gunshot wound in her head was found at the Europa Hotel in St. Petersburg. The investigating officials who arrived at the scene established that the deceased Olga Palem, of petty-bourgeois origin, had shot herself. It turned out that shortly before the shot between Pal and student Alexander Dovnar, with whom she maintained an intimate relationship, a quarrel broke out due to the fact that Dovnar refused to marry Pal. After stormy proceedings, Dovnar ran out of the hotel room, and then heard the sound of a shot. Qualify the act committed by O. Palem, determine its legal consequences. If O. Palem had survived, would she have been punished? Will A. Dovnar be punished?

Subgroup

Task #1

In 1843, the Vologda merchant Maslennikov died suddenly without a will. At the time of his death, he owned: a wooden two-story mansion in the city, 70 thousand rubles in gold, 2 hardware factories, 3 hardware stores, 2 carriages for travel, bills for 20 thousand rubles. How will the inheritance be divided between his parents, a widow, a son of 22 years old and an unmarried daughter of 15 years old?

Task #2

The Novgorod nobleman Stepanov owned a cloth factory, where 400 possessive peasants worked. In 1839, he decided to sell 100 peasants, because. lost at cards and thus decided to cover the debt. However, the lawyer refused to certify the contract of sale. Is the refusal valid? Justify your answer.

Task #3

In 1856, the volost peasant court considered the case of a fight between two peasants. For the committed misconduct, the peasants were threatened with corporal punishment. To avoid him, the peasants turned to judge Nefedov and at the same time gave him 5 rubles in money, 1 goose, 2 dozen eggs, a bottle of liquor. Nefedov accepted all the offerings, after which the peasants were released from punishment. What offense did Nefedov commit? What punishment can he be subjected to?

Task #4

In 1860, in the Kargopol district of the Arkhangelsk province, a peasant Ivan Petrov committed an act of self-immolation, as a result of which he died. The investigation found that the motive was the Old Believer religious beliefs of Petrov, who believed that the end of the world and the day of judgment would soon come. Qualify the act committed by Petrov. What group of crimes does it belong to?

Task number 5

On the morning of April 19, 1851, the inhabitants of the house of the English industrialist Osip Medzher, who lived and worked in Yekaterinburg, witnessed a terrible picture: the owner was lying on the floor at the door of his living room with his head broken with an ax, and at the window of the room was the body of a guard, also hacked to death with an ax. At the same time, the police found that almost two pounds of gold worth more than 80 thousand rubles, belonging to an Englishman, were stolen. The investigation showed that the organizer of the crime was the Yekaterinburg merchant Pyotr Dmitriev, who for almost three years hatched plans to kill a prosperous gold miner. He carefully thought out all the details of the crime. I also found people who were ready to commit murder for some reward – these were the peasants Sidor Falaleev and Fedor Kostrov, and also picked up a channel for the sale of the kidnapped person in the person of the local tradesman Vasily Verkhodanov. Although the crime was carried out according to the planned scenario, its participants did not leave the reckoning. After some time, the police detained all the criminals, a trial took place. How will the act committed by Dmitriev and his accomplices be qualified? Determine the degree of complicity of each of the criminals. What punishment will the court give them?

Subgroup

Task #1

In 1844, the nobleman Panov was deprived of his noble status for an anti-state crime and exiled to the mines in Siberia. His wife Elena expressed her intention to voluntarily follow her husband to Siberia. However, Elena’s father, preventing her daughter from leaving, threatened that following her husband, a criminal, to Siberia would lead to the deprivation of her noble rank. Can Elena Panova be deprived of her nobility because she followed her criminal husband to Siberia?

Task #2

In 1837, the family estate of the noblemen Ushakovs, the village of Ushakovskoye, was sold by his elder brother Semyon due to his financial difficulties. After two and a half years from the date of the sale of the estate, Semyon improved his financial situation and decided to return the family property to the family, having bought it from the new owners. However, the court denied him this right. Was the judge correct? Can Semyon Ushakov himself exercise the right of a tribal redemption? If not, then who can return the village of Ushakovskoye to the Ushakov family? How long can this be done?

Task #3

In 1849, the police arrested M.V. Butashevich-Petrashevsky and 35 participants of his “Fridays” – evenings held on Fridays, at which various topical issues of Russian life were discussed. The investigation showed that starting from 1845, Petrashevsky “collected teachers, writers, students and people of different classes whom he knew and in general, and constantly aroused judgments that tended to condemn the existing state administration in Russia.” According to the investigation, on these “Fridays” the Petrashevites discussed “how to arouse indignation against the government in all classes of the people, how to arm the peasants against the landlords, officials against the bosses, how to use the fanaticism of the schismatics, and in other classes to undermine and destroy all kinds of religious feelings. how to act in the Caucasus, in Siberia, in the Ostsee provinces, in Finland, in Poland, in Little Russia. In addition, the police established that at the end of 1848, Petrashevsky consulted with a number of members of his circle “on the establishment of a secret society of people of advanced opinions who could move civil life forward on new principles, but this society, due to the disagreement of members, did not took place.” How can the actions of Petrashevsky and members of his circle be qualified in accordance with the Code of Punishment of Criminal and Correctional Punishments of 1845? What punishment awaited them?

Task #4

In 1856, in the Vologda Old Believer village of Bogomilovo, an act of “self-burial” was committed. Under the influence of rumors about the imminent end of the world, the peasant Fyodor Kovalev dug a hole in an earthen cellar, where he placed his wife and two young children, after which the entrance to the hole filled up. The investigation found that Kovalev’s wife and children died of asphyxiation. Kovalev himself remained alive, so that later he could “dig himself” along with his elderly

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