Read the text "Cartilaginous and bony fish" and complete the tasks

CARTILAGE AND BONE FISH

Modern representatives of cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) have lost the armor and bone skeleton of their ancestors. Stingrays have a flat body and swim near the bottom, feeding mainly on mollusks. Sharks live in the open sea, feeding on bony fish and sometimes mammals. Cartilaginous fish got their name because their internal skeleton is built from cartilage. There are no gill covers, so sharks breathe by swallowing water through their mouths and passing it through gill slits located in front of the sides of the body or below. Most stingrays that lie at the bottom for a long time pass water through a spray (the remnant of another gill slit) located on the upper side of the body.

Cartilaginous fish are viviparous, ovoviviparous and oviparous creatures. Embryos develop for a long time – from 4 months to 2 years, depending on the species. Fertility in viviparous and ovoviviparous is low. Sharks hatched in their mother’s womb can eat their brothers and sisters. Oviparous lay from two to several dozen eggs. The polar shark and some rays lay up to 500 eggs. The eggs are protected by a strong capsule that reliably protects the embryo from enemies. Most of these fish do not have a swim bladder. Only sand sharks have an “air pocket” of the stomach.

In bony fish, the skeleton is mostly bony. The gills are covered with covers, the movements of which actively drive water through the gills. The swim bladder is present in most types of bony fish. There are fish without a swim bladder, for example, flounder. Fertilization is external in most, although there are sometimes species in which fertilization is internal. Caviar develops from several hours to several months (in salmon). The fertility of bony fish is different. Some African fish lay from 12 to 14 eggs, and the process of their gestation takes place in the mouth. The moon-fish spawns up to 300 million eggs.

Task 29

29 . Using the text “Cartilaginous and bony fish”, answer the questions.

1) Why do stingrays, lying at the bottom, pass water through the spray, and not through the gill slits?

2) What can explain the greater fecundity of bony fish compared to sharks?

3) Why do sharks have to be in constant motion?

The content of the correct answer and instructions for grading (other formulations of the answer are allowed that do not distort its meaning) Points
The correct answer must contain the following elements : Answer to the first question : 1) Rays are benthic, and when they lie on the bottom, their gill slits are closed and protected from sand, so they pass water through the spritz – the remnant of the gill slit, located on dorsal side. Answer to the second question . 2) Bony fish spawn, which mostly dies, is eaten by predators, drowns, is washed ashore, etc. In sharks, the babies or eggs develop in the mother’s body. Answer to the third question . 3) Sharks do not have gill covers and a swim bladder. If they stop, then their gills will not be washed by water, and in the absence of a swim bladder, they will sink, since their density is higher than the density of water.
The correct answer contains all of the listed elements in the absence of biological errors
The answer includes two of the above arguments, does not contain biological errors OR The answer contains three of the listed elements if there are inaccuracies or non-gross biological errors
The answer includes one of the above arguments, does not contain biological errors. OR The answer includes the above two arguments, but contains non-gross biological errors
The answer includes any one of the above arguments, but contains biological errors. OR Answer is wrong
Maximum score 3

Example 1:

Student response score
1. Stingrays, lying on the bottom, pass water through the spray, and not through the gill slits, because their gill slits are located below the body, respectively, facing the bottom and you cannot breathe with their help. 2. Sharks care more about their offspring than bony fish. 3. Sharks must be in constant motion, as they do not have a swim bladder.

Example 2

Student response score
1) because lying on the bottom, the spray is on the upper side of the body, which contributes to better water transmission. 2) sharks, after hatching, can eat each other 3) while in motion, sharks can swallow water with their mouths, passing it through the gill slits and breathe with it.

Example 3

Student response score
1) When stingrays are at the bottom, it is easier for them to pass water through the sprinkler, since it is on top of the body. 2) Bony fish carry eggs in their mouths, protecting their offspring from enemies, and thus provide themselves with a large offspring. Sharks, at birth, can eat their brothers and sisters. 3) For better gas exchange, to search for food.

Example 4

Student response score
1) Rays allow water to pass through their spiracles because their gills are located on the underside of their bodies. If you pass water through the gills, then along with the water, sand and light stones will enter the body cavity, which leads to contamination of the gills 2) Sharks are viviparous fish, that is, fry are born and develop in the mother’s womb. And bony fish lay eggs (a large number of them) and for the most part fertilization is external. 3) sharks must always be on the move, as the shark is a cartilaginous fish, so it does not have gill covers. Sharks breathe by swallowing water and passing it through the gill slits. And the swallowing of water by mouth occurs only in motion.

Example 5

Student response score
1) Due to the remainder of the gill slit 2) Bony fish lay much more eggs than cartilaginous fish give birth or lay eggs. 3) Sharks can only breathe while moving.

Task 30

Using the table “Dependence of the intensity of photosynthesis on illumination”, in which the scientist wrote down the results of his experiments, answer the following questions. and knowledge from the biology course, answer the following questions.

Table

Light intensity (in candles) The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed in 1 minute. (in cm³)
Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Average

1) How can one explain that the data obtained in the three series of experiments are somewhat different?

2) How does the intensity of photosynthesis depend on illumination?

3) What other factor, besides illumination, that affects the intensity of photosynthesis in plants, can you cite?

The content of the correct answer and instructions for grading (other formulations of the answer are allowed that do not distort its meaning) Points
The correct answer must contain the following elements : Answer to the first question : 1) Differences in data may be due to measurement errors or statistical error. Answer to the second question . 2) with increasing illumination, the intensity of photosynthesis increases The answer to the third question . 3) temperature factor
The correct answer contains all of the listed elements in the absence of biological errors
The answer includes two of the above arguments, does not contain biological errors OR The answer contains three of the listed elements if there are inaccuracies or non-gross biological errors
The answer includes one of the above arguments, does not contain biological errors. OR The answer includes the above two arguments, but contains non-gross biological errors
The answer includes any one of the above arguments, but contains biological errors. OR Answer is wrong
Maximum score 3

Example 1

Student response score
1) in three series of experiments, the values fluctuate slightly. I believe this is due to the rays of the Sun or light that reached the photosynthetic plants. For example, or it was on the Sun, then some small cloud or some body created a shadow. 2) The greater the illumination, the more carbon dioxide is absorbed 3) the ambient temperature

Example 2

Student response score
1) lighting from candles is uneven 2) the (more) stronger the lighting, the more intense photosynthesis 3) Another factor that affects the greater intensity of photosynthesis is the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in space

Example 3

Student response score
1) the difference in the data can be explained by the fact that the light intensity was not absolutely accurate in all series 2) Photosynthesis depends on the illumination in direct proportion. That is, the higher the illumination, the more intense the photosynthesis 3) The amount of water available to the plant affects the intensity of photosynthesis

Example 4

Student response score
1) It may not always be accurate, but approximate. 2) The more light, the more active photosynthesis. 3) An additional factor is carbon dioxide

Example 5

Student response score
1) a different plant. 2) the greater the light intensity, the greater the volume of gas. 3) quantity of oxygen and water

Task 31

17-year-old Tatyana visited Tobolsk during her student winter holidays. Before starting the tour “Tobolsk Kremlin – a masterpiece of stone architecture”, she had lunch at a local fast food cafe. The girl ordered the following dishes and drinks: a small portion of French fries, Fresh McMuffin, Caesar salad and orange juice.

Using the data in tables 1,2 and 3, determine:

The recommended calorie content of lunch if Tatyana eats four times a day;

the energy value of the ordered lunch;

The amount of carbohydrates in meals and drinks, as well as the ratio of carbohydrates received with food to their daily intake.

Table 1

Table of energy and nutritional value of fast food cafe products

Dishes and drinks Energy value (kcal) Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbs (g)
Double McMuffin (bun, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato, cheese, pork)
Fresh McMuffin (bun, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato, cheese, ham)
Chicken Fresh McMuffin (bun, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato, cheese, chicken)
Omelet with ham
Vegetable salad
Caesar salad (chicken, lettuce, mayonnaise, croutons)
Rustic potatoes
Small portion of french fries
Ice cream with chocolate filling
Waffle cone
“Coca Cola”
Orange juice
Tea without sugar
Tea with sugar (two teaspoons)

table 2

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