Read the text and do the tasks

Final diagnostics of the Unified State Examination 2017

1. Write down the word missing in the fragment of the table.

Branch

BRANCH OF POWER AUTHORITY
………………………. power The State Duma
Judicial branch Supreme Court

Answer:___________________.

2. In the row below, find a concept that is generalizing for all the other concepts presented. Write down this word (phrase) .

Political institution, state, political system, political party, political participation.

Answer:__________________.

3. Below is a list of features. All of them, with the exception of two,

relate to the legal grounds for termination of an employment contract.

1) agreement of the parties; 2) expiration of the term of the contract; 3) the desire of the employee; 4) recession

production; 5) changing conditions; 6) rising unemployment.

Find two terms that “fall out” of the general series and write them down in a table

the numbers under which they are indicated.

4. Choose the right judgments about the relationship between biological and social in a person and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) Man is a unity of the physical and the spiritual.

2) Basic human needs are social.

3) A person does not have spiritual needs until all physical needs are satisfied.

4) The social essence of a person is characterized by the concept of “individual”.

5) In individuality, both physical and spiritual traits of a person are manifested.

Answer:____________________.

5. Establish a correspondence between the type of society and its characteristics: for each position given in the first column, select the corresponding position from the second column.

FEATURES OF SOCIETY TYPES OF COMPANIES
A) the basis of the worldview is science B) the active solution of environmental problems C) the emergence of mass culture D) a closed society E) religion plays a dominant role in spiritual life 1) industrial 2) informational 3) traditional

Write in the table the selected numbers under the corresponding letters.

Answer:

BUT B AT G D

6. In the schools of city N, ramps were built and special computer classes were created for children with disabilities. What trends in the development of modern education does this example illustrate? Write down the numbers below

they are indicated.

1) humanization

2) humanization

3) democratization

4) informatization

5) internationalization

6) liberalization

Answer: ___________________________.

7. Select the correct judgments about the role of the state in a modern market economy and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) The state in the modern market economy is completely removed from its regulation.

2) The task of the state in a modern market economy is to set prices for essential goods.

3) The state in a modern market economy protects the rights of small and medium-sized businesses.

4) To regulate the modern market economy, states use both indirect and direct regulation.

5) Ensuring “full employment” is one of the tasks of the state in a modern market economy.

Answer: ___________________________.

8. Establish a correspondence between the factors of economic growth and their types for each position given in the first column, select the position from the second column.

FACTORS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH TYPES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS
1) advanced training of workers 2) improving the organization of labor 3) reducing production costs 4) purchasing additional equipment 5) computerization of production 6) increasing the length of the working day 1) intensive 2) extensive

Write in the table the selected numbers under the corresponding letters.

Answer:

BUT B AT G D

9. During inflation at the Sladkoezhka plant, workers had to pay their salaries in the plant’s products – sweets. Factory workers had to exchange sweets for other products. What economic processes characterize this situation? Write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) production

2) distribution

3) trade

4) consumption

5) exchange

6) barter

Answer: ___________________________.

10. The graph shows the change in the supply of domestic corn in the consumer market. Which of the following factors can cause the supply curve to shift from position S1 to position S2 ? (On the chart, P is the price of the good; Q is the quantity of the good.)

Write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) an increase in the number of farms growing corn

2) consumer income growth

3) a large crop of corn in neighboring countries

4) increase in electricity tariffs

5) progress in corn transportation

Answer: ___________________________.

11. Select the correct judgments about nationalism and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) Nationalism manifests itself only with the advent of nations.

2) The characteristic of nationalism is always the struggle for national liberation.

3) The radical form of nationalism is chauvinism.

4) The basis of nationalism is patriotism.

5) Strengthening of nationalism is one of the responses to the processes of globalization.

Answer: ______________________.

12. In one of the regions, the sociological service conducted a survey of adult citizens. They were asked the question: “What features characterize the modern family?”

The results obtained (in % of the number of respondents) are presented in the form of a diagram.

Find in the list of conclusions that can be drawn from the diagram, and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) The vast majority of respondents believe that the modern family is characterized by relations between husband and wife, built on the calculation.

2) Honoring elders as a feature of a modern family ranked third among the respondents.

3) The presence of quarrels, conflicts in the family was noted by the smallest number of respondents.

4) Those who believe that dictatorship, cruelty, and aggressiveness reign in the modern family are less than those who singled out indifference to the affairs and feelings of another.

5) Among the respondents, there are more of those who believe that the modern family is characterized by respect for the elders than those who noted dictate, cruelty and aggressiveness

Answer: ___________________________.

13. Choose the right judgments about the forms of the state and write down the numbers under which they are indicated

1) The democratic regime is typical only for federal states.

2) The most common state structure is the republic.

3) Absolute monarchy cannot be combined with a democratic regime.

4) According to the form of government, Russia is a constitutional state.

5) The presence of public authority is characteristic of any form of state.

Answer: ___________________________.

14. Establish a correspondence between the features of electoral systems and their types for each position given in the first column, select a position from the second column.

FEATURES OF ELECTORAL SYSTEMS TYPES OF ELECTORAL SYSTEMS
A) elections are held according to party lists B) in order to get into parliament, a party must overcome the percentage barrier C) the one who gets the most votes wins the election D) the candidate is personally responsible to his voters E) half of the candidates are elected according to party lists 1) majoritarian 2) proportional 3) mixed

Write in the table the selected numbers under the corresponding letters.

Answer:

BUT B AT G D

15. State Z has a democratic political regime and there is a civil society. The constitution enshrines the political rights of citizens. Find in the list below the legal ways of influencing citizens on state power and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) public appeal to representatives of authorities through the media

2) collection of signatures under appeals to the authorities

3) participation in single pickets

4) holding strikes

5) participation in unauthorized rallies

6) creation of terrorist organizations

Answer: ___________________________.

16. Select the correct judgments about changing the Constitution of the Russian Federation and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) The Constitution of the Russian Federation cannot be changed.

2) Amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation can only be made by the President.

3) Any changes to the Constitution of the Russian Federation are made by referendum.

4) Part of the chapters of the Constitution of the Russian Federation are changed in the order of the adoption of the federal constitutional law.

5) Part of the chapters of the Constitution of the Russian Federation can be changed only by a special Constitutional Assembly.

Answer: ___________________________.

17. Establish a correspondence between human actions and types of offenses: for each position given in the first column, select the corresponding position from the second column.

ACTIONS TYPES OF OFFENSES

A) false report of a terrorist act 1) misdemeanor

B) violation of the rules of operation 2) crime

production premises

C) receiving a bribe in the amount of 10,000 rubles

D) violation of traffic rules

D) absenteeism from work

Write in the table the selected numbers under the corresponding letters.

Answer:

BUT B AT G D

18. After many years of living together, the Gareevs decided to divorce. What property of the Gareev family is subject to division? Write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) personal items

2) luxury goods

3) things inherited by one of the spouses

4) property acquired before marriage by one of the spouses

5) things bought for the son

6) a country house built jointly

Answer: ___________________________.

19. Citizen G. applied to the district court in connection with a conflict that arose with his employer in connection with the procedure for the latter to fulfill the clause of the employment contract on remuneration.

Find in the list the terms that can be used in describing the trial in this case, and write down the numbers under which they are indicated.

1) criminal process

2) civil process

3) plaintiff

4) defendant

5) defendant

6) victim

Answer: ________________________.

20. Read the text below, in which a number of words are missing. Choose from the proposed list of words that you want to insert in place of gaps.

_______________ (A) – represents a consistent change of phenomena and conditions in the political life of society. It is done in three main ways. The first way – ______________ (B) – is a slow progressive self-development. It is the least dangerous, but very slow. The second method is _____________ (B), which is carried out by the state. It brings significant changes in one of the spheres of public life. If changes occur in all areas and radically change the entire social system, then this is already ______________ (D). The most important component of the political process is _______________(D). During the elections, the renewal of political power takes place, its ______________ (E) is approved.

The words in the list are given in the nominative case. Each word can only be used once . Choose sequentially one word after another, mentally filling in each gap. Note that there are more words in the list than you need to fill in the gaps.

List of terms:

1) political system

2) evolution

3) modernization

4) innovation

5) reform

6) election system

7) revolution

8) legitimacy

9) political process

The table below lists the letters that indicate the omission of a word. Write under each letter the number of the word you have chosen.

Answer:

BUT B AT G D E

Part 2

Read the text and do the tasks

An extremely important component of a person’s mental health is the ability to independently determine the goals of one’s life, the presence in the image of the world of an extended and meaningfully saturated temporal perspective of the future. This problem is touched upon by many researchers (Sh. Buhler, V. Frankl, L. Bozovic, and others).

Summarizing the results of research by psychologists, we can assume that time is one of the important, but extremely underused reserves of the mental organization of the individual, its self-realization in society. In complex social collisions, the problem of “man and time” is actualized. In a situation of instability, a person experiences the time of his own life in a different way, rethinks the past, present and future, sometimes loses the sense of time, and hence the purpose of his own being, which for a psychologist is one of the symptoms of a life crisis.

Studies of various aspects of human life in a situation of social instability are becoming more widespread. In the West, a whole series of studies on the psychology of life crises stands out, among which the works of the German scientists S. Fischer, K. Cooper and L. Pelzmann are of particular interest. These works explore various states of a person in connection with changes in the field of professional activity, in particular, in connection with the loss of a job. Constantly changing conditions of existence are accompanied by negative consequences for a person, have a certain impact on the process of self-realization of the individual. Two main plans of these influences can be distinguished. The first is the need to change the familiar social environment, the establishment of new social contacts, which is often associated with overcoming the aggressiveness of the environment, the difficulties of gaining a worthy place, status in the nearest social group.

The second plan is associated with changes in the spatio-temporal parameters of human life. These are not only violations of the usual rhythm and pace of life, its regularity in time, habitual space, but also the need for awareness, acceptance and development of new temporary mechanisms of cardinal life changes. In situations of social uncertainty, there is also often an attitude towards the occurrence of only negative events in the near future. This is regarded by psychologists as one of the stress factors. There is data showing that the situation of expecting an unpleasant event is more difficult for a person than the actual event itself.

It is important to take into account that unpredictable and uncontrollable events are more dangerous than predictable and controllable ones. When people are aware of the expected time of impending trouble in advance, their self-control, gradually forming and rebuilding, neutralizes the actions of the stressor. They have the opportunity to prepare for these events, seek support, advice from a specialist, adjust their plans and behavior patterns in the new conditions. If you can foresee some steps, the likelihood of stress is significantly reduced.

So, research suggests that time in psychoprophylaxis and overcoming the negative consequences of a situation of instability is a significant factor. This is confirmed by the results of a study of stress conditions in people who have lost their jobs.

(A. Kolitova)

21. What ability, constituting the mental health of a person, is mentioned in the text? What second component is the author talking about?

22. What meaning does the author attach to the concept of “time”? How does a person experience time in a situation of instability? Name two examples given by the author.

23. What two plans of influence on the process of self-realization of the individual are named in the text? Using the facts of public life and personal social experience, give an example of how they affect a person.

24. Using the text and social science knowledge, give two explanations

the idea expressed in the text that unpredictable and uncontrollable events are more dangerous than predictable and controllable ones.

25. What meaning do social scientists invest in the concept of “social institution”. Make two sentences about social institutions. One sentence should contain examples of social institutions; the second sentence should reveal the essence of the process of institutionalization.

26. Name three types of knowledge and illustrate each of them with a specific example.

27. Candidate N. in his election program promises to increase pensions, reduce inflation, make all secondary education free of charge and reduce taxes. What is the name of such political activity of candidate N.? On what basis did you define it? Name any other sign of this activity.

28. You were instructed to prepare a detailed answer on the topic “The role of competition in the economy.” Make a plan according to which you will cover this topic. The plan must contain at least three points, of which two or more are detailed in sub-points.

29. Choose one of the statements below, reveal its meaning, indicating, if necessary, different aspects of the problem posed by the author (the topic touched upon).

When presenting your thoughts on the problem raised (designated topic), when arguing your point of view, use the knowledgeobtained during the study of the social science course, the relevant concepts , as well as the facts of social life and your own life experience .

29.1

Philosophy “The world needs to be changed, otherwise it will begin to change us in an uncontrolled way” (S. Lem).

29.2

Economy “My problem is reconciling expensive habits with a more than modest income” (Errol Flynn).

29.3

Sociology, social psychology “Some unwritten laws are stronger than all written ones” (Seneca).

29.4

Political science “Dictators do not have power – they have violence” (S.E. Lets).

29.5

Jurisprudence “Laws are the most beautiful invention of the mind, but, while providing peoples with peace, they diminish their freedom” (L. Vovenarg).

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