Question 3. Types of crime (crimes)

The methodological basis of the system of criminology implies a close relationship between the general, special, individual levels of research, therefore it is advisable, along with the characteristics of the general concept of crime, to single out its individual types (forms).

Usually, in reality, crime manifests itself through the commission of specific crimes, which can be grouped according to various criteria. At the same time, different types of crimes identified within the framework of the general structure of crime will have a specific criminological (criminal-legal) characteristic, i.e. a set of data systematized according to certain parameters, characteristic only for crimes of this type.

The criminological characteristics of certain types of crime underlie their criminological classification. The purpose of such a classification is to identify the specific features of various types of crime in order to develop the most effective prevention measures.

Unfortunately, criminology has not yet developed a unified classification model for the types of crime.

Grouping features that are the basis of various classification models, according to criminologists, can be: the characteristics of the personality of the offender, motivation, the direction of the criminal assault, the form of guilt, the social sphere of activity, the “geography” of crime, etc., namely :

Depending on the form of guilt (Article 24 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation):

1. Deliberate crime.

2. Careless crime.

The share of careless crime in the total mass of registered crimes in different years ranges from 10 to 14%.

Depending on the nature and degree of public danger of the act (Article 15 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation):

1. Crimes of minor gravity.

2. Crimes of average gravity.

3. Serious crimes.

4. Particularly serious crimes.

The share of grave and especially grave acts is more than 26%.

Depending on the number of persons involved in the commission of a crime (Article 35 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation):

1. Crimes committed by one person.

2. Crimes committed by an organized group.

3. Crimes committed by a criminal community (criminal organization).

Depending on the stage of the commission of a criminal act
(Article 29 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation):

1. Completed crimes.

2. Unfinished crimes in the form of preparation.

3. Unfinished crimes in the form of an attempt.

Depending on the amount of harm caused to the material interests of citizens:

1. Crimes that caused significant damage to a citizen.

2. Crimes committed on a large scale.

3. Crimes committed on an especially large scale.

Depending on the sections and chapters of the special part of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation:

1. Crimes against life and health.

2. Crimes against property.

3. Crimes against public safety.

4. Environmental crimes.

5. Crimes in the field of computer information.

6. Other crimes.

Depending on the legal form of the plurality of crimes:

1. The crime is committed for the first time.

2. Committing crimes in aggregate.

3. Recidivism of crimes (dangerous or especially dangerous).

Depending on the fact of official registration:

1. Actual (committed), but unregistered crime (latent).

2. Registered crime.

According to experts, only every 8-10 committed crimes are currently registered in Russia.

Depending on the territorial prevalence (“geography”) of crime:

1. Crime in Russia.

2. Crime in the Federal Districts.

3. Regional crime: region, ASSR, region.

4. Crime in a separate point or object.

Depending on the functional feature and the pace of development of a certain territory:

1. Crime in the “new”, rapidly developing cities.

2. Crime in multifunctional capital cities.

3. Crime in industrial and transport centers.

4. Crime in port and resort cities.

5. Crime in the “border” and offshore territorial zones.

6. Crime in settlements with a mono structure of enterprises and organizations (mining settlements).

7. Crime in other territorial entities.

Depending on the direction of the criminal offense:

1. Accomplishment crimes.

2. Violent crimes.

3. Selfish-violent crimes.

4. Situational crimes.

Depending on sustainability, interconnection, “professionalism” and duration of existence:

1. Professional crime.

2. Recidivism.

3. Organized crime.

4. Transnational, international crime.

Depending on the characteristics of the structure of crime:

1. Urban crime.

2. Rural crime.

3. Street crime.

4. Household crime.

Depending on the scope of the crime:

1. Crimes in the sphere of trade.

2. Crimes in the credit and banking sector.

3. Crimes in transport.

4. Domestic crimes.

5. Crimes in the sphere of public services.

6. Crimes in other areas (construction, education, etc.).

Depending on the gender of the perpetrator:

1. Male crime.

2. Women’s crime.

According to statistics, every 6-7 registered crimes are committed by women or with their participation. Thus, in the commission of thefts, the proportion of men is 90.6%, and women – 9.4%, drug trafficking – 82.5% and 17.5%, respectively, fraud – 62.0% and 38.0%, misappropriation or embezzlement – 57.4% and 42.6%. The murder of a newborn child is 100% committed by women.

Depending on the age of the person who committed the crime:

1. Juvenile delinquency.

2. Adult crime.

3. Crime of various age categories of citizens.

4. Acts of persons who have not reached the age of criminal responsibility.

According to criminal statistics, every tenth or eleventh criminal offense is committed by minors.

Depending on the place of residence and nationality of the person who committed the crime:

1. Crimes committed by local residents.

2. Crimes committed by guest performers.

3. Crimes committed by hired workers.

4. Crimes committed by migrants.

5. Crimes committed by foreigners.

6. Crimes committed by travelers and guests.

Depending on the social status, occupation of the offender:

1. Malfeasance.

2. Crimes committed by law enforcement officers.

3. Crimes committed by persons without a permanent source of income (unemployed).

4. Crimes committed by pupils and students.

5. Crimes committed by other categories of citizens.

Depending on the state of the person at the time of the crime:

1. Crimes committed in a state of narcotic or toxic intoxication.

2. Crimes committed while intoxicated.

3. Crimes committed by persons with mental disabilities.

4. Crimes committed in a state of passion.

Depending on the temporal prevalence:

1. Daily crime.

2. Crime for the month, quarter, year, etc.

3. Seasonal crime.

4 “Holiday” (weekend) crime.

Depending on the object (subject), method and instrument of criminal encroachment:

1. Theft: pickpocket, motor transport, with the use of technical means, cultural property and others.

2. Murders: for hire, for mercenary motives, serial sexually motivated, etc.

3. Fraud: card fraud, insurance fraud, scammers, etc.

Depending on the level of latency:

1. Highly latent crimes (bribe taking and giving, misappropriation and embezzlement, environmental crimes)

2. Crimes with “medium” latency (theft, robbery, rape, average harm to health, theft of vehicles, etc.).

3. Low-latency crimes (causing grievous bodily harm, hostage-taking, riots, etc.).

Depending on the degree of criminalization and motivational stability of the criminal offense (according to Dolgova A.I.):

1. Sustainable crime: premeditated and actual-installation.

2. Situational crime: victim-situational and random-situational.

The ratio between sustainable and situational crime is estimated by experts as 6 to 1.

In the criminological literature, there are also other classification models of types of crime, for example, according to the following criteria: by the number of victims of crimes, forms of ownership, nationality, level of education, and others.

Question 4. Latent crime: concept, causes and methods
identifying

Latent crime is a part of the actual (committed) crime that is not reflected in criminal statistics within the statute of limitations for bringing to criminal responsibility.

Types of latency: natural, artificial and borderline.

Natural latency (hidden crime) – crimes that remain unknown to law enforcement agencies, not revealed by them due to the specifics of the crimes themselves, shortcomings in the activities of control and audit services, social and legal passivity of part of the population.

Artificial latency (hidden crime) – crimes that have become known to law enforcement agencies, but are hidden from accounting by individual officials for one reason or another.

Border situation – crimes that remain unregistered due to:

– deficiencies in the law enforcement accounting system;

– unintentional assessment of the recognition of a socially dangerous act as non-criminal – refusal material;

– a deliberately incorrect legal assessment of the act by compiling fictitious material with refusal about the absence of corpus delicti.

Expert assessments of latent crime are quite different from each other when considering the ratio of registered and latent crimes from 1:3 to 1:10 or more.

The scale of latent crime is not exactly known to anyone. According to some international estimates, unreported crimes account for about 60% or more of the actual acts committed. For certain types of crimes, this figure varies widely. This happens because the degree of latency of crimes is different. It is believed that the more serious the category of crimes, the lower the coefficient of secrecy for it.

According to this indicator, crimes are ranked from acts with a high to acts with a medium and low degree of latency. If we take registered acts by type as a unit, then the latency for murders can be 2.5, for causing harm to health of varying severity – 4.9; robbery attacks – 33.8; robberies – 57.7; bribery – 2935; extortion – 17500. Thus, when analyzing the actual state of crime, it is necessary to take into account its latency.

The causes of latency of crimes should be understood as a set of circumstances of a social, organizational, legal, personal and other nature that prevent the detection (establishment), registration and accounting of crimes.

In this case, a set of circumstances of a social nature, in addition to the above, should also be understood as certain costs in the activities of, first of all, law enforcement, judicial, as well as competent supervisory and control bodies, whose duty is to establish crimes and identify persons who have committed them, register and accounting of crimes, administration of justice.

The reasons for the natural latency of crimes are:

1. The block of reasons is connected with disbelief in the ability of the police to protect the rights and interests of the victims:

a) the police can do nothing to catch the criminal;

b) lack of confidence in law enforcement agencies, especially the police department;

c) the police do not want to do anything;

d) unwillingness to get involved or fear of the police.

2. Only the criminal knows about the committed crime.

3. Fear of revenge on the part of the criminal.

4. Unwillingness to publicize certain aspects of one’s life.

5. Loss of authority of the enterprise, institution.

6. Belief in the inappropriateness of criminal punishment for the crime committed.

7. The insignificance of the damage from the crime for the victim.

8. Fear of being exposed by the police department due to involvement in other crimes.

9. The committed crime belongs to the category of minor gravity.

10. The victim solved the problem on his own: he measured himself, did not want to bring the offender to justice in the future, dealt with him himself.

11. Due to the state of health, the victim was not aware of the fact that a crime had been committed against him.

12. Relationship between victim and perpetrator.

13. A lot of time has passed since the crime was committed, and there was no point in applying.

14. The victim herself was to blame (he provoked the criminal with his actions, insulted him, was very drunk, etc.).

15. Inefficient work of law enforcement agencies and other regulatory organizations in detecting crimes (theft by misappropriation, bribes, tax, etc.).

16. Crimes between organized criminal structures for spheres of influence, elimination of competitors, etc.

17. Ignorance of the criminal law – an incorrect assessment by the victim of moral and legal norms.

18. Crimes that no one knows or suspects (for example, environmental, work, etc.).

19. Payment by the criminal of “compensation” to the victim of the crime.

20. Inadequate civil position of individuals (witnesses, eyewitnesses) on the principle of non-interference in “foreign criminal” cases; and etc.

Reasons for the artificial latency of crimes:

1. The workload of law enforcement agencies, primarily the police department, and, consequently, the lack of desire to work on crimes that are “unpromising” in terms of solving crimes.

2. The desire to create an imaginary well-being in the field of crime detection rates. Concealment from registration of disguised, hard-to-solve crimes, with a simultaneous increase in detected crimes (in the field of drug trafficking, tax).

3. Weak material and technical support (equipment, vehicles), insufficient professional training of employees in detecting crimes, primarily in the economic sphere.

4. The dishonesty of individual law enforcement officers who accept applications from citizens about a crime and register them.

5. Due to the issuance of unreasonable decisions to refuse to initiate a criminal case (for example, according to reports from medical institutions, KRU).

6. Knowingly incorrect qualification of criminally punishable acts as non-criminal.

7. Costs of registration, accounting and statistical reporting on crime (for example, multi-episode cases); and etc.

Negative consequences of latent crime:

1. Distorts ideas about the actual volume, level, structure and dynamics of criminal acts, the magnitude and nature of the damage caused by them.

2. It makes it difficult to identify the circumstances that contribute to the commission of crimes and, accordingly, their timely elimination.

3. Reduces the degree of reliability of crime forecasts, makes it difficult to determine the directions for combating it.

4. Hinders the implementation of the principle of inevitability of responsibility and punishment of criminals for committed acts, develops impunity.

5. Artificial latency undermines the authority of law enforcement agencies and contributes to their alienation from the law-abiding population.

6. Contributes to the quantitative growth and qualitative change in crime (organized, professional), especially recidivism.

7. Reduces the activity of individual citizens in providing assistance in combating crime.

8. Often leads to spontaneous (outside the sphere of official influence) development of a part of crime in a direction unpredictable for society.

All techniques and methods for detecting (measuring) latent crimes, taking into account their specifics and areas of possible application, can be divided into two groups:

The first group , conventionally called sociological, includes sociological (criminological) techniques and methods for measuring latent crime and determining the latency of certain types of crimes. It may include such of them as observation (participant observation), surveys (questionnaires), expert assessments, content analysis of press materials.

The second group , conditionally called operational-investigative, includes a set of techniques and methods for detecting hidden crimes used in the operational and investigative activities of law enforcement agencies.

One of the widely used methods of sociological research for understanding the real state of crime is a mass survey of the population (victims), convicts . The application of this method makes it possible to reveal the opinion of respondents about the state of latent crime in the region as a whole and the latency of its individual types. In criminological literature, it is noted that in some cases this method acts as the main form of obtaining event information.

Method of expert assessments . This is the receipt of opinions expressed on certain issues by a group of specially selected experts from among scientific and practical workers who are well aware of the problems of combating crime in order to assess the level (size) of latent crime.

The study of abandoned materials in order to identify facts of illegal refusal to initiate criminal cases.

Studying the materials of the bureau of forensic medical examinations, hospitals in order to compare them with the data of law enforcement agencies.

Comparative analysis of statistical data (on the number of registered crimes) by the structure of crime – the ratio of serious and especially serious and other crimes.

It is important to use the content analysis of press materials, including, in particular, the verification of measures taken on critical statements in the press. This method is based on the study of information about the crimes committed, which were reflected in the media, about the measures taken against the perpetrators, and their adequacy to the deed.

Effective methods for detecting latent crimes, the extent of their manifestation on specific objects, in the spheres of economic and social or state activity include observation , the essence of which is the direct visual study of individual properties, forms of manifestations of the observed object, phenomenon. Involved observation implies that the researcher is in the “thickness” of the phenomenon being studied, as if inside it.

The second group of methods for detecting latent crimes (operational-investigative) covers a fairly wide range of methods and techniques for detecting crimes. Among them, a subgroup of methods of economic and legal analysis stands out, designed mainly to identify crimes against property and crimes in the field of economic activity ( analysis of economic information ).

The group of operational-investigative methods includes a number of other, no less effective methods and methods for detecting latent crimes. Some of them come down to a comparison and comparative study of information reflected in the relevant orders, decisions, submissions, official certificates, reports and other documents that contain quantitative indicators of crimes committed of a certain type, with official data of criminal cases initiated on them.

An important direction in the fight against latent crimes, one of the methods for their detection by specific methods and techniques in the conditions of corrective action in places of deprivation of liberty is to encourage convicts to turn themselves in. The identification of facts of criminal activity unknown to law enforcement agencies and persons who have committed unsolved crimes can be facilitated by checking the correspondence of persons serving sentences, which may contain information indicating accomplices in the crime.

Question 5. The state and trends of crime in the Russian
Federation, Siberian Federal District and Omsk Region

In January-December 2009, 2994.8 thousand crimes were registered in the Russian Federation, or 6.7% less than in the same period last year. The growth of recorded crimes was noted in 15 constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

The crime rate per 100 thousand people decreased by 149.8 points and amounted to 2110.5 crimes.

93.1% of all registered crimes are detected by the Department of Internal Affairs.

Almost half (42.6%) of crimes are recorded in republican, regional and regional centers – a total of 1.28 million, a fifth (19.8%) – in rural areas, where 591.8 thousand crimes are registered, which is 4 .6% less than in 2008.

As a result of criminal encroachments, 46.1 thousand people died (-8.9%), the health of 55.4 thousand people was seriously harmed (+9.0%).

The damage from crimes amounted to 1147.2 billion rubles, which is 456.0% more than the same period last year.

The share of grave and especially grave crimes increased from 26.5% in 2008 to 26.6% in 2009.

Almost half of all registered crimes (47.6%) are theft of other people’s property, committed by: theft – 1188.6 thousand (-10.4%), robbery – 205.4 thousand (-15.8%), robbery – 30.1 thousand (-14.9%).

Almost every third theft (32.1%), every twenty-third robbery (4.3%) and every twelfth robbery (8.4%) involved illegal entry into a dwelling, premises or other storage.

Every twentieth (5.1%) registered crime is burglary (11.7% decrease).

The number of identified crimes related to illegal arms trafficking increased by 7.2% and amounted to 34.2 thousand acts.

In 2009, 8.7 thousand acts were committed with the use of weapons (-13.6%).

In January-December 2009, 46.61 thousand environmental crimes were registered, which is 3.8% more than in the same period last year.

Law enforcement agencies revealed 428.8 thousand economic crimes (specific weight 14.3%).

In 2009, 238.5 thousand crimes related to drug trafficking were detected, which is 2.5% more than in 2008.

In 2009, 654 terrorist crimes (+1.9%) and 548 extremist crimes (+19.1%) were registered.

605.4 thousand acts (-5.5%) were registered in public places.

361.3 thousand (-6.4%) crimes were registered on streets, squares, parks and squares, including: 88.1 thousand (-18.4%) robberies, 121.5 thousand (-3 .9%) thefts, 9.2 thousand (-22.4%) robberies.

270 robberies (-13.2%), 573 robberies (-5.1%) were committed on roads and highways outside settlements, 136 facts of illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation or carrying of weapons, ammunition, explosives were revealed and explosive devices (‑44.3%).

In January-December 2009, 1651 thousand crimes (-3.6%) were solved, 1309.1 thousand crimes were not solved, which is 11.5% less than in 2008.

2.2 thousand murders and attempted murders (-7.1%), 7.3 thousand intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm (-15.2%), 757.8 thousand thefts (-12.9%) remained unsolved ), 124.1 thousand robberies (-19.6%), 11.2 thousand robberies (-21.7%).

1219.8 thousand persons who committed crimes (-2.9%) were identified.

The share of persons without a permanent source of income increased to 64.4%, and the share of previously convicted persons to 23.9%.

Organized groups or criminal communities committed 29.6 thousand grave and especially grave crimes (-15.2%).

Foreign citizens and stateless persons committed 58 thousand crimes, which is 7.6% more than in 2008. The number of acts against foreigners was 14.9 thousand.

In 2009, 516,209 crimes were registered in the Siberian Federal District (a decrease of 6.5% in relation to the APPG – 6.7% in Russia), of which 137,540 acts are classified as grave and especially grave (a decrease of 4.9% – in Russia 6.5 %).

56736 infringements of an economic orientation were revealed (a decrease of 0.8% – in Russia 4.5%).

3613 murders were registered (a decrease of 12.8% – in Russia 11.8%); 10571 infliction of grievous bodily harm (decrease 5.4% – in Russia 5.1%); 847 rapes (a decrease of 22.8% – in Russia 13.0%).

The following crimes against property were registered in 2009: thefts – 213,522 (9.8% decrease – 10.4% in Russia); robberies – 40841 (decrease of 15.5% – in Russia 15.8%); robberies – 5537 (decrease of 10.2% – in Russia 14.9%); misappropriation and embezzlement – 7006 (decrease of 1.1% – in Russia 14.6%).

62,166 were found on the streets in 2009 (an increase of 1.0% – a decrease of 6.4% in Russia); in a state of alcoholic intoxication 41615 (decrease of 10.8% – in Russia 7.5%).

The state of crime in the Omsk region in 2009:

quantity +/- in %
Registered crimes -10.3
Crimes of an economic orientation -2.1
Heavy and extra heavy -5.0
Murders -5.8
Serious bodily harm -7.3
rapes -13.9
Theft of another’s property -17.5
breaking into apartments -21.6
Vehicle -14.5
Fraud -4.3
Robbery -24.6
Robbery -17.9
Hooliganism -7.0
Corrupt practices +25.0
Crimes committed quantity +/- in %
Minors -8.2
Previously committed -3.3
In a group -6.9
In a state of intoxication -16.0
On the streets -3.8
With the use of weapons -4.0

Conclusion

Crime, its essence, origin, characteristics and indicators are studied by criminology in order to understand the causal relationships of this phenomenon, its internal structure, without which it is impossible to competently carry out measures to prevent it, control it, i.e. achieve practical results in combating this negative phenomenon.

Materials for the lecture prepared by Associate Professor of the Department of Criminology
Omsk Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ph.D. Panov S.L.

Discussed and approved at the meeting of the department on September 3, 2010.

Protocol No. 1.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.