The emotional-volitional sphere of the personality of each child has no analogues. With admission to school, the maximum of emotional reactions falls not so much on the game and communication, but on the process and result of educational activities, satisfaction of the needs for evaluation and good attitude of others. At primary school age, most children react very emotionally to grades and teacher’s opinions. Each student reacts in his own way to the same mental process, so for one, an unfamiliar situation can cause an emotional upsurge, and for another, sadness and apathy. The volitional sphere is also an important component of the child’s psyche, since it is inextricably linked with the motivational sphere of the personality, cognitive and emotional processes. The main function of the development of the will is the strengthening of motivation for learning and the improvement on this basis of the conscious regulation of actions.
Unfortunately, not all children, for various reasons, can perceive and understand the feelings of others, for example, “children with a high level of anxiety, increased emotional sensitivity, or motor disinhibition often have a negative attitude towards educational work, the teacher and his requirements.”
In this regard, we will consider the methods of different authors, which are aimed at researching and studying the emotional-volitional sphere of children of primary school age.
The analysis of the diagnostic tools allows us to identify the following methods aimed at researching and studying the emotional-volitional sphere of children of primary school age:
1) methodology “Determining the level of self-regulation” (N.A. Mishina);
2) methodology “Study of the level of will mobilization” (Sh.N. Chkhartashvili);
3) test “Self-portrait” (V.V. Vetrova);
4) the technique of “Emotional Faces” (N.Ya. Semago).
Let’s consider these methods in more detail.
Methodology “Determination of the level of self-regulation” (author N.A. Mishina).
The purpose of this technique: the study of the emotional-volitional sphere of younger students.
Equipment and materials: the sample presented in the appendix and a simple pencil are used as stimulus material.
Instructions for conducting: children are offered the task: “This sheet gives a sample of writing sticks. Continue writing sticks, observing the following rules:
1) write sticks and dashes in the same sequence;
2) correctly transfer them from one line to another;
3) do not write in the margins;
4) do not write in every line, but through one.
The time to complete the task is 5 minutes.
Data processing. The analysis is carried out according to the following criteria : 5 points – the child perceives the task completely and retains it in all components until the end of the lesson; works without being distracted, at approximately the same pace throughout the entire time; if he makes mistakes, he finds them himself and corrects them; does not rush to turn in the work after the signal, strives to check it, does everything possible to ensure that the work is done correctly and accurately. 4 points – in the course of work, the student makes a few mistakes, but does not notice and does not eliminate them; he does not care about the quality of work, its design, although there is a desire to get a good result. 3 points – the child perceives only part of the task, but he cannot keep it to the end in full; gradually (after about 2-3 minutes) the system of signs is broken, mistakes are made, he does not notice them, does not show a desire to improve the quality of work; indifferent to the result of the work. 2 points – the child perceives only a small part of the task, but immediately loses it and writes sticks and lines in random order; he does not notice and does not correct mistakes, he is indifferent to the quality of work. 1 point – the child does not perceive the tasks and writes (or draws) something of his own on his sheet or does nothing.
Methodology “Study of the level of will mobilization” (author Sh.N. Chkhartashvili).
Purpose: to determine the level of mobilization of the will of a younger student.
Instructions for conducting: “Here is the album. It has pictures and circles. You need to carefully look at each circle in turn: first at the bottom, then at the top. And so on every page. You can’t look at the pictures ”(the last word is emphasized intonation). The correctness of the task is fixed by the teacher in the direction of the subject’s gaze.
Equipment and materials: an album with pictures and circles presented in the application, a simple pencil and a blank sheet.
Processing of results. Performance analysis is carried out according to the following criteria: 10 points – the highest score. It is set if the student was not distracted by the pictures when completing all the tasks. Failure to meet the conditions for each task reduces the score by 1 point. High level – 9-10 points. The average level is 6-8 points. Very low level – 1-2 points.
Test “Self-portrait” (author V.V. Vetrova).
Purpose: diagnosis of unconscious emotional components of the personality – self-esteem, neurotic reactions, anxiety, fear, aggressiveness.
Equipment and materials: a blank sheet of paper, a simple pencil.
Instructions for conducting: children are invited to draw themselves in full growth.
Processing of results.
Interpretation of the results of this test are presented in the appendix.
Interpretation of results
|1 – self-assessment (location of the picture on the sheet)||1.1 in the center – adequate; 1.2 at the top of the sheet – too high; 1.3 at the bottom of the sheet – reduced.|
|2 – intellectual and social adequacy (head)||2.1 proportional, normal-sized head – intellectual and social adequacy; 2.2 big head – high intellectual and social claims; 2.3 small head – intellectual and social inadequacy.|
|3 – control over bodily desires (neck)||3.1 normal neck – adequate (balanced) control over bodily desires; 3.2 long neck – the need for protective control; 3.3 short neck – behavior is guided more by impulses than by intellect; concessions to weaknesses; 3.4 no neck – no control.|
|4 – location of basic needs and drives (torso)||4.1 normal, proportional torso – balance of needs and drives; 4.2 small torso – denial of needs and drives; 4.3 large, large torso – dissatisfaction with conscious drives; 4.4 absence of a torso – loss of body schema, denial of bodily desires.|
|5 – sensitivity to criticism, public opinion||5.1 big ears – increased sensitivity to criticism, reactivity to criticism; 5.2 big eyes – increased sensitivity to criticism.|
|6 – anxiety||6.1 strong pressure; 6.2 placing a drawing on the left side of the sheet (introversion); 6.3 redrawing and erasing; 6.4 shaded hair (anxiety); 6.5 hands are pressed to the body.|
|7 – fears||7.1 intense shading; 7.2 outline; 7.3 shaded pupils.|
|8 – aggressiveness||8.1 strong pressure; 8.2 bold outline of the drawing; 8.3 legs apart; 8.4 visible teeth (verbal aggression); 8.5 highlighted “ears-nostrils-mouth” (pronounced aggressiveness); 8.6 the chin is enlarged and accentuated; 8.7 nostrils highlighted (primitive aggression – self-defense); 8.8 large hands, underlined – compensation for weakness; 8.9 weapons.|
|9 – pronounced protection||9.1 smile; 9.2 hands behind the back or in pockets; 9.3 the person is shown in profile (isolation).|
|10 – selfishness, narcissism||10.1 writes his name; 10.2 large drawing; 10.3 eyes without pupils; half-closed eyes (focus on oneself).|
|11 – depression||11.1 drawing at the bottom of the sheet; 11.2 low pressure and contour; 11.3 constrained, static posture; 11.4 sketch contour.|
|12 – dependence (including from the mother)||12.1 large (red) mouth; 12.2 buttons on the central axis; 12.3 small feet and hands; 12.4 the presence of pockets (dependence on the mother) in both men and women; 12.5 breasts are emphasized (dependence on mother) in a man.|
|13 – emotional immaturity, infantilism||13.1 eyes without pupils; 13.2 lowering the neck; 13.3 childish facial features; 13.4 fingers like leaves or bunches of grapes.|
|14 – demonstrative||14.1 long eyelashes; 14.2 much attention is paid to the hair; 14.3 prominent large lips; 14.4 clothing, carefully drawn, decorated; 14.5 make-up and jewelry.|
Methodology “Emotional faces” (author N. Ya. Semago).
Purpose: to assess the possibility of adequate identification of the emotional state, the accuracy and quality of this identification (fine emotional differentiation), the possibility of correlation with the child’s personal experiences.
Equipment and materials: two series of images of emotional facial expression presented in the application are used as stimulus material.
Instructions for conducting: the procedure for conducting the study in full consists of three successive stages.
1st stage: presentation of the 1st series of images for identification of emotional states (schematic images). The child is presented with schematic images of faces, laid out in random order in front of the child. The layout is made so that all images are in the field of view of the child.
Instruction 1: “Look at these faces and tell me what each mood is.”
Stage 2: presentation of real photographic images (according to the sex of the child). At this stage, the child is presented with images of the 2nd series: real photographs. At the same time, photographs corresponding to the sex of the child are presented.
Instruction 2 (modified depending on the gender of the child): “Now I will show you other pictures that show a boy (girl). Look at this photo, how do you think this (this) boy (girl) is feeling?
3rd stage: inventing a story based on any image. The child is invited to come up with a story, a story based on any of the previously presented real images. To do this, real images are laid out in the same order (from left to right) as they were carried out at the first stage of the examination, or they are simply given to the child with an offer to arrange them himself.
Instruction 3: “Look again at these pictures. Choose one of them, which one you like best and try to come up with a story about what could cause such a mood in a boy (respectively, a girl), why he feels it.
Processing of results. “High level – a detailed and detailed answer, the ability to adequately designate emotional states and evaluate facial expression; high ability to verbalize their own experiences. Intermediate level – answers to questions with help; difficulties in recognizing and naming abstract images, assesses mood and names emotions with the help of an adult. Low level – does not complete the task even with the help of questions, does not name the mood, cannot show it on himself.
Thus, the methods described by psychologists-teachers, such as: the method “Determination of the level of self-regulation”, the method “Research of the level of mobilization of the will”, the test “Self-portrait”, the method “Emotional faces” will help to identify the emotional-volitional sphere, determine the level of mobilization of the will, diagnose unconscious emotional components of the personality (self-esteem, neurotic reactions, anxiety, fear, aggressiveness), to assess the possibility of adequate recognition of the emotional state of younger students.