Principles are the basic starting points of any theory, science in general, these are the basic requirements for something.
Pedagogical principles are the main ideas, following which helps to achieve the pedagogical goals in the best possible way.
Methodological work in an educational institution in the context of the introduction of new educational standards is built in accordance with the principles:
– the principle of the “zone of proximal development” (justified by L.S. Vygotsky for teaching children). The “zone of proximal professional development” is the zone in which the teacher, with the help of his colleagues, scientists, the studied literature, can solve the problems that have arisen in professional activity. At the same time, the “zone of proximal professional development” for each teacher is purely individual.
The implementation of this principle involves:
– the study of professional difficulties, the identification of problems in the activities of the teacher in the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standards;
– updating the knowledge and skills necessary for professional growth (assisting the teacher in understanding his professional difficulties and problems);
– definition of individual tasks of improving pedagogical qualifications;
– drawing up a program for the professional growth of a teacher;
– systematic assessment of the solution of the tasks set and the implementation of the program, their adjustment.
– The principle of stimulating the creative growth of teachers on the basis of the developed system of moral and material incentives requires the creation of conditions for the formation of motivation for professional self-improvement [4, p. sixteen]. Among the motives, the following can be distinguished: motives for success, overcoming professional difficulties aimed at improving material well-being, professional recognition, career motives, etc.
The implementation of this principle involves:
– systematic monitoring of the results of activities, an objective assessment of the professional growth of teachers and teaching staff;
– assisting the teacher, the teaching staff in determining those areas of activity where you can achieve success, show your strengths, show a model for solving the problem for your other colleagues;
– definition of a system of means that encourage everyone to search and creativity, taking into account the characteristics of teachers, their capabilities;
– development of regulations on collective and individual competitions, reviews based on the results of innovative, creative activities of teachers;
– support, encouragement of the initiative of teachers in the formulation and solution of professional problems, purposefully engaged in self-education.
– The principle of combining individual and group forms of methodological work suggests that each teacher can unite with other teachers or join the work of specially organized groups [4, p. 17].
The implementation of this principle provides for:
– study of professional problems, interests, needs of teachers, their classification and definition of the most common, typical requests of teachers;
– definition of demanded topics and, accordingly, various group forms of methodical work;
– providing an opportunity for each teacher to choose their own methods and forms of improving skills, to voluntarily participate in various seminars, courses and other forms of methodological work;
– the opportunity for the teacher to offer an individual form of advanced training.
– The principle of continuity and succession provides for the constant professional growth of teachers, as well as taking into account the level of their real professional readiness for the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard.
This principle means:
– ensuring the integrity, systematic methodological activities in the educational institution;
– coordination, consistency of activities of all subjects of the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard;
– preservation of the traditions of previously used effective forms of methodological work, as well as the introduction of new ones;
– taking into account the experience, level of preparedness of the teacher, as well as determining the prospects for his professional growth,
– the choice of forms and methods of methodical work, which ensures the development of creative abilities and provides for greater independence and responsibility of the teacher.
We found out that methodological work in an educational institution is a system of interacting structures, participants, conditions and processes, as well as directions, principles, functions, forms, techniques, methods, measures and activities aimed at comprehensively improving the skills, competence and creative potential of pedagogical and executives of the educational institution, and ultimately – to improve the quality of education in a particular institution.
Any system is a complex of interrelated elements that have such properties as purposefulness, integrity. Any system is open, i.e. connected with other system and non-system objects, and is a part of a system of a higher order. The system of methodical work in an educational institution is part of the system of working with teaching staff, part of the system for managing the work of the class teacher, part of the system for improving professionalism, continuous learning of the class teacher.
Choosing the option of methodological work, Deputy. director of educational work should consider:
– tasks assigned to teachers;
– quantitative and qualitative composition of the teaching staff;
– the results of studying the personality and activities of class teachers, especially their difficulties;
– qualitative and quantitative analysis of the current, final results of educational work;
– features of the content of methodological work;
– traditions of the educational institution; comparative effectiveness of various forms of methodical work;
– a measure in the use of certain areas, content, forms, methods of methodological work;
– features of a specific situation that has developed in an educational institution (presence of young class teachers, etc.);
– the availability of time for the implementation of the planned methodological work (possible reduction in the number of activities, postponement, etc.)
– material, moral-psychological and other conditions; the real opportunities available at a particular moment to involve class teachers in the organization of methodological work, to be the head of the MO, to be part of the creative group, etc.
Necessary conditions for methodological work: organizational and pedagogical (free time, coordination of activities), moral and psychological, sanitary and hygienic.