The content of laboratory classes and self-control
Necessary individual accessories for laboratory work on the course “Botany”:
– an album for drawing (volume not less than 40 sheets);
– a set of colored pencils;
– ball pen;
– laboratory practice and textbook.
Requirements for the design of the album for laboratory work on the course “Botany”:
– The title page is formatted as follows:
– date, task number, topic, systematic position of the studied representatives and tasks are always recorded on the left page of the album:
– on the right page, the necessary drawings are made. If the drawings do not fit on the current page, their execution can be moved to the left and right pages of the next spread;
– drawings are always done in pencil , and captions to them – with a pen;
– Figures must necessarily have titles and captions, for example:
– Multiple images can be placed on one page. The size of the drawings should not be too large or too small. It takes a lot of time and space to make large drawings; it is often impossible to clearly detail important features of the microscopic structure of the object under study on too small drawings.
ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PLANTS
January 2019 Lesson No. 1. Topic: PLANT ANATOMY
Structural features of a plant cell.
Task 1: Draw the structure of a plant cell at high magnification. Label the organelles.
Task 1: Draw the educational tissue of the growth cone of the submerged hornwort ( Ceratophyllum demersum ).
Task 2: Sketch the primary integumentary tissue – the epidermis of a geranium leaf ( Geranium sp. ). Sketch the structure of the stomatal apparatus at high magnification. Specify guard cells of stomata with chloroplasts. Sketch covering hairs: simple unicellular and multicellular, branched, stinging hairs of stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica ), glandular hairs.
Task 3: Sketch the secondary integumentary tissue – the periderm of the stem of the elderberry, or red ( Sambucus racemosa ). Designate fabrics. Specify a lentil.
Task 4: Sketch the tertiary integumentary tissue – the crust on the example of the bark of woody plants.
Task 5: Draw a corner collenchyma in the leaf petiole of a common beet ( Beta vulgaris ); sclerenchyma fiber in the stem of fiber flax ( Linum usitatissimum ); sclereids of the fruit pulp of the common pear ( Pyrus communis ).
Task 6: Draw the conducting elements of the phloem: the sieve cell and the companion cell. Draw the conducting elements of the xylem: the tracheid of the stem of Scotch pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) with bordered pores; vessels with different types of thickening of the cell walls: annular, spiral, mesh, ladder.
Task 7: Draw different types of vascular bundles: closed and open collateral, bicollateral, amphivasal and amphicribral. Designate fabrics.
Primary and secondary structure of the root.
Task 1: Draw the functional zones of the root: the zone of division, stretching, absorption (suction), conduction.
Task 2: Draw the primary anatomical structure of the iris root ( Iris sp. ).
Task 3: Sketch the secondary anatomy of a pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ). Designate fabrics.
Task 4: Sketch the taproot and fibrous root systems.
Task 1: Draw the macro- and microscopic structure of the “root crops” of the carrot ( Daucus sativa ), radish ( Rhaphanus raphanisrum ) and common beet ( Beta vulgaris ). Designate fabrics.
Task 2: Sketch root metamorphoses: endo- and ectotrophic mycorrhiza on the roots of woody and herbaceous plants, bacterial nodules on the roots of legumes, support roots, pneumatophore roots, velamen.