politics in the Russian Federation (2000-2005)

The period of stabilization of the development of the state youth

On April 21, 2000, by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 581-r, the Government Commission of the Russian Federation for Youth Affairs was formed under the chairmanship of Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation V.I. Matvienko.

In May 2000, the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Youth Policy was abolished (reformed from the State Committee for Youth Affairs on May 25, 1999) and the functions of implementing youth policy were transferred to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation.

In accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of June 26, 2000 No. 480, the Department for Youth Policy of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation was established. It was headed by G.V. Kupriyanov.

At the beginning of the period under review, the program “Youth of Russia”, which received the status of a presidential program for the period 1998-2000, ends. in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of August 15, 1997 No. 890.

Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 27, 2000 No. 1275 approves the Federal Target Program “Youth of Russia (2001-2005)”.

Its existence made it possible to develop a system of health-improving, leisure, creative, sports and preventive work among young people at the federal and regional levels, to form a system of youth affairs bodies in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and to continue work on creating a legal framework for youth policy.

This is an important regulatory document that determined the content of the main activities for the implementation of the state youth policy in the medium term, created at that time legal and organizational conditions for coordinating the efforts of the executive authorities of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and also supported and stimulated the managerial and organizational actions of local government .

The main activities of the program:

education of citizenship and patriotism;

preparing young people for military service;

preparing young people for participation in the socio-political life of the country, state activities and management;

creation of jobs for youth and minors;

growth of youth business activity;

creation of conditions for the realization of the scientific, technical, creative potential of young people;

stimulation of innovative activity of young Russians;

support for the activities of children’s and youth public associations;

development of the system of additional education: support for various forms of spiritual and moral education, intellectual, creative and physical development of children, adolescents and youth;

the creation of a juvenile justice system to provide legal protection for adolescents and young people;

development of a system of social services and clubs for youth and teenagers;

promoting a healthy lifestyle, strengthening the institution of a young family;

assistance in solving the housing problems of young families

and other programs.

Despite the shortcomings of the program (financing of individual events, the lack of clear criteria for the effectiveness of the program), Youth of Russia became the impetus for the adoption of many similar regional programs and made it possible to provide funding for many innovative social technologies and youth projects.

At this stage of the program implementation, the most important were two tasks: inclusion in the implementation of the program of all subjects of the Russian Federation (about 40% of them did not yet have their own appropriate youth support programs); more emphasis on rural and working, student youth.

Since the tasks set in the program and implemented in practice are not fully correlated with the scale of the existing problems of youth, it was problematic to achieve noticeable progress in solving them with limited resources and short deadlines.

The program-target method in solving the most important tasks of state policy had many advantages.

The federal target program “Youth of Russia” in this case acted as

an example of the implementation of such an approach at the all-Russian level.

However, it is good only in the case of well-defined long-term strategic goals.

The federal target program “Youth of Russia” has become the engine of “points of growth”,

but by no means replaced the daily, routine work of state and municipal structures, public institutions (families, schools, armies) in working with young people. Otherwise, we see blur and non-

clarity of goals, diversity and lack of coordination of structures with insufficient

the scarcity of material resources and the ambiguity of the final results.

The purpose of the program (creation and development of legal, economic and organizational conditions for educating young people of civic consciousness in a democratic society, market economy and rule of law, personal self-realization of young people as active participants in the transformations of modern Russian society) was clearly very ambitious and, in principle, not feasible in a limited four-year time frame.

On the other hand, some of its tasks were effectively solved throughout the entire implementation period, the main directions and mechanisms for the implementation of program activities were identified correctly, reflecting real problems.

This period of development of the state youth policy is characterized by the fact that it is recognized as an important component of the socio-economic, cultural and national development of Russia.

A distinctive feature of this period is that the state youth policy was given an intersectoral character. This is reflected

in the formation of the Government Commission on Youth Affairs, thanks to which almost all federal executive bodies were involved to one degree or another in solving youth problems.

These are, first of all, issues of education, employment, health protection and a healthy lifestyle, leisure and recreation, housing, birth and upbringing of children and

youth, prevention of antisocial behavior and others that require the consolidation of efforts of various federal ministries and departments.

The commission included representatives of a number of ministries (Ministry of Press, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Gosstroy, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Labor, State Statistics Committee, Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Federation, Ministry of Atomic Energy, State Committee for Sports, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Transport of Russia), regions (Yaroslavl, Perm, Oryol, Omsk , Tyumen region), federal districts, both chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, youth public associations (the national Council of children’s and youth associations, RAPOS, the Union of the WWC of Russia, RSM).

The main mechanisms for their participation in the implementation of the state youth policy were the implementation of social programs for which they acted as general customers, and their inclusion in their social programs of subprograms and sections on work with youth.

In the context of the disagreement between the processes of youth lawmaking at the federal and regional levels in order to conceptually update the foundations for the implementation of state youth policy, taking into account the comprehensive socio-economic transformations of Russian society in 2001, the Government Commission on Youth Affairs (minutes of the meeting dated December 5, 2001 No. 4) approved the Concept of State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation.

Its development was caused by the need to unify approaches to the implementation of youth policy at the federal level and in the regions of the Russian Federation.

In a number of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, experience has been gained in the development of such concepts (in the Leningrad Region, the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug).

In accordance with the Concept of State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation (Section III), the strategic goal of the regional GMP was to improve the state management system for the active inclusion of young people in the socio-economic, political and cultural life of society.

Youth is recognized as the most important strategic resource of society,

“… is a conscious participant in social transformations”,

that is, the subject of modern state policy and social development:

economic, political, sociocultural.

The concept was approved by the Government Commission on Youth Affairs on December 5, 2001 and submitted in 2001 for discussion at a board meeting of the Russian Ministry of Education, but was rejected.

In 2000, the work of federal executive bodies intensified to streamline the system of civil and patriotic education of young people and coordinate their actions.

Among the significant measures, the adoption on February 16, 2001 of the state program “Patriotic Education of Citizens of the Russian Federation” stands out.

One of the main executors of this program was the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation.

As part of its implementation, the Youth Policy Department held federal competitions for programs and projects on the patriotic education of youth, all-Russian and regional scientific and practical conferences, seminars, military sports games, and patriotic song festivals.

Solving the housing problem of young citizens is one of the most priority tasks of the state youth policy. In order to create a system of state support for young families in solving the housing problem and improving the demographic situation, on August 28, 2002, the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 638 approved the subprogram “Providing housing for young families”, which is part of the federal target program “Housing” for the period 2002-2010 years. This subprogram provided for the allocation of funds to create conditions for increasing the level of housing for young families, strengthening family relations, and reducing social tension in Russian society

and consolidation of positive demographic trends in it.

In July 2002 attention to the youth sector became more intense.

The President of Russia instructed to prepare the issue of state youth policy for consideration at a meeting of the State Council of the Russian Federation. For these purposes, a working group of the State Council was created, which worked until March 2004. Initially, this project was called the “Doctrine of the Youth of Russia” (2002), later it was renamed and largely reworked.

The working group developed 20 drafts of this Doctrine, in the content of which new principles of conducting youth policy were voiced, corresponding to the general strategy of long-term state development and democratic principles.

New trends, according to the developers, were reflected in the formed principles of youth policy: innovation principle, the principle of integrity, the principle of cross section, the principle of participation and self-regulation, the principle of openness, the principle of priorities and targeting, etc.

It was believed that the main idea in the “Doctrine” was to take the socialization of youth under state control. But this is possible in a clearly defined totalitarian state (according to the anti-utopia models of J. Orwell, E.I. Zamyatin, as well as by analogy with the samples available in the recent past).

For a democratic society, the very formulation of such a task turned out to be unacceptable.

And it should be noted that during this period the country did not have the legal and organizational levers, financial resources, personnel, and infrastructure necessary for comprehensive action to solve global problems.

20 months of work of this group did not give any result. The doctrine of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation has not received the status of an official regulatory document.

Thus, between 2002 and 2005 The Doctrine of the State Youth Policy prepared by the State Council and two versions of the Concept of the State Youth Policy developed by the Ministry of Education were consistently rejected.

On January 30, 2002, the Federation Council Commission on Youth and Sports was formed to consolidate the efforts of various federal ministries and departments on education, labor and employment, health protection and a healthy lifestyle, leisure and recreation, housing, etc.

After the abolition of the Department for Youth Policy and the Government Commission on Youth Affairs, legal regulation, as well as the development and submission to the Government of the Russian Federation of draft federal laws and acts of the President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation on youth policy, were ordered to be carried out by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

Created in 2004, the Federal Agency for Education under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation was called upon to carry out the functions of providing public services, managing state property, law enforcement functions in the field of education, upbringing and youth policy.

That is, a single coordinating body was not created again at the federal level.

Within the structure of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, a Department for State Youth Policy, Education and Social Protection of Children has been established, and within the structure of the Federal Agency for Education, a Department for Youth Affairs.

According to the Regulations on the Department of State Youth Policy, Education and Social Protection of Children, it was entrusted with the functions of developing and ensuring the implementation and legal regulation of state youth policy, education, guardianship and guardianship of minors, for psychological and pedagogical and socio-pedagogical support, social and legal protection of students and pupils of institutions of general, special and additional education for children.

The Federal Agency for Education was “the federal executive body responsible for the management of state property, the provision of public services in the field of education, upbringing, youth policy and the development of public educational resources.”

The Agency performed the functions of the state customer of federal targeted programs, and was not entitled to exercise legal regulation in this area of activity, as well as control and supervision, except in cases established by decrees of the President of the Russian Federation or resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Thus, the mechanism of state youth policy at this stage included two state executive bodies of the Russian Federation, which were assigned fundamentally different functions.

Thus, the Department of State Youth Policy, Education and Social Protection of Children of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation was engaged in the regulatory legal support of youth policy, the development and implementation of the legislative framework, the development of proposals for the formation of state youth policy, the identification of priority areas for its development, the coordination of the formation and implementation of federal target and other programs.

At the same time, the Department for Youth Affairs of the Federal Agency for Education was engaged in the implementation of state youth policy measures. The main responsibilities of the department included the implementation of targeted programs in the priority areas of the GMP, the organization of events to support students, organize leisure activities, civic and patriotic education of youth, help young families solve housing problems, issues of interaction with organizations working in the field of youth policy.

When implementing federal programs, the department organized interaction with

regional government and local government bodies that ensure the development and implementation of state youth policy in the subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities.

Such regional and local social administration bodies are also included in the mechanism of state youth policy.

The priority goal of the ministry, Russian educational and youth policy was the active involvement of the younger generation in the socio-economic, political and cultural life of the country.

Based on this, among the main tasks of the Department are the development of measures for the implementation of state policy aimed at the successful socialization of children and youth, the achievement of consolidation of society, patriotic and civic education, the formation of tolerance among children and youth, support for gifted children and creative youth.

The gradual introduction of a new edition of the federal law of October 6, 2003 No. 131-FZ “On the general principles of organizing local self-government in the Russian Federation” became a heavy blow for the GMP.

As a result of the reform, the line “youth policy” disappeared from the budgets of all levels. The issue of maintaining youth affairs bodies in the subjects of municipalities was transferred to the decision of regional and local governments. Following the inertia of the mechanism for curtailing the GMP at the federal level, a wave of closures and abolitions of youth affairs agencies swept across the country.

Despite this, the processes associated with the institutional support of the state youth policy were going quite intensively. They absorbed two groups of phenomena: the formation of bodies for youth policy at the state and municipal levels and the formation of a system of institutions for working with youth.

By 2004, in all constituent entities of the Russian Federation, executive authorities for youth policy functioned: in 56 regions they were independent (their number has not changed since 1999), in 17 – the functions of regulating youth policy are assigned to the management of physical culture and sports, in 6 – social protection, in 5 – education.

Thus, two-thirds of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation have youth affairs bodies dealing exclusively with youth problems.

More than 1.5 thousand youth social service institutions, more than 1.3 thousand young family clubs, over 1.2 thousand teenage and youth clubs, more than 7 thousand centers for recreation, rehabilitation and employment of children and youth, tens of thousands municipal, regional, interregional children’s and youth public associations. According to expert estimates, about 100,000 people are involved in the GMP infrastructure.

That is, despite a number of objective difficulties, the network of institutions is gradually expanding relative to previous periods, and the level of their financial support is noticeably increasing.

However, as before, the “density” of the network of children’s and youth institutions, the range and quality of the services they provide to the younger generation are insufficient, and only partially satisfy the existing demand of children and youth.

At this stage, the number of adolescent and youth children participating in the summer health campaign has increased. It is significant that in 1998 the number of children and adolescents who had a rest in the camps amounted to 5.1 million people, and in 2001 – 9 million people. This happened due to an increase in both the number of stationary camps and the share of low-cost forms of organizing recreation and recreation for young people: tent camps, day centers, military field training for high school students, hiking trips, archaeological and local history expeditions, family camps. Implementation of the federal target program “Development of the All-Russian children’s centers “Eaglet” and “Ocean” in 1996-2002. allowed to organize recreation for more than 120 thousand children from all subjects of the Russian Federation.

During this period, the interest of young people studying in institutions of secondary and higher professional education to participate in the movement of student groups has noticeably increased.

During this period, there has been an active growth of children’s and youth public associations. An important characteristic of a social movement is its uneven distribution throughout the country. Most of the unions of children and youth are concentrated in large cities – Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Volgograd, Saratov, in some other large economic centers, in the capitals of the republics that are part of the Russian Federation.

According to expert estimates, 2-4% of young people are covered by registered bodies of justice, public associations. The unification processes are most poorly represented in small towns and rural areas.

In general, at least half of the subjects of the Russian Federation have a legal basis for state support of public associations. In a number of regions, it was in the process of formation, which testified to the growing role of the public sector of youth policy and the awareness of this role on the part of state authorities.

The contradiction between the intensification of the practical actions of executive authorities to implement targeted programs and the absence of noticeable changes in the position of the vast majority of young Russians constituted the core of the problem of the effectiveness of the state youth policy at this stage.

During the period under review of the development of the state youth policy, the process of forming a personnel corps for ensuring youth policy was intensified, approaches to training specialists in working with youth are becoming more and more diverse. The state requirements for the minimum content and level of training for the qualification “Worker in the field of youth policy” additional to higher professional education were approved, draft state educational standards for secondary and higher professional education in the field of state youth policy were developed.

Increased attention to this area is also reflected in the fact that in 2002 the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation established an industry award – the badge “Honorary

youth policy worker.

During the period under review, the number of subjects of state youth policy is radically expanding. In their capacity in this period are not only state authorities and their officials, but also youth associations and their associations, and young citizens, local governments, employers, public associations, individuals and legal entities that carry out activities to create the necessary and sufficient conditions for the life of young people, their education, upbringing and development.

One of the leading roles in the implementation of the state youth policy in the period under study began to play the system of Russian education. This position was due to the fact that the Ministry of Education of Russia performed, among other things, the functions of the federal executive body for youth policy.

One of the most important problematic moments of this stage was that, despite the rather high activity of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the implementation of youth policy, there was still a lot of inconsistency in their actions.

An urgent need was the development and adoption of the Federal Law “On the Fundamentals of the State Youth Policy in the Russian Federation”.

Thus, the state youth policy at this stage of development, on the one hand, acquired sectoral outlines, and on the other hand, became intersectoral in those areas of social policy that required coordination of the work of various sectors and departments.

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