The essential characteristic of the pedagogical component in the professional activity of a doctor can be characterized as the upbringing and education of patients in order to form their individual qualities that contribute to the restoration and preservation of health .
An analysis of the essence and structure of a doctor’s pedagogical activity reveals that the upbringing of a patient deserves special attention, since it is able to form and develop the personal and behavioral foundations of self-preservation and thereby activate individual health promotion mechanisms.
The professional activity of a practicing doctor has an integral pedagogical component, which naturally developed in the process of the socio-cultural evolution of society – the education of patients with individual qualities that contribute to the restoration and preservation of health.
2. The methodology of patient education can be based on a personal-activity approach focused on the purposeful development of the characteristics of the patient’s personality and behavior (beliefs, responsibilities, attitudes, skills) that determine his activity in the field of health and disease.
3. The development of methodological foundations for the educational work of a doctor allows developing individual foundations for maintaining health in patients and thereby improves medical care
Physician and pedagogy. In a number of cases, the doctor has to bring his work closer to education and training. In the history of medicine, a border area has formed that links medicine with pedagogy. In our country, the attention of a number of prominent scientists was attracted to this area. (V. M. Bekhterev, S. S. Korsakov, V. A. Gilyarovsky, A. S. Griboedov, A. F. Lazursky, V. P. Kashchenko.) In special medical activity, it is important for a doctor to be familiar with pedagogical theory and practice
– in psychotherapy
– carrying out the actual pedagogical work, teaching and educating their fellow workers,
– training and education of patients,
– Carrying out sanitary and educational work.
– directly participate in the work of a teacher with children, as well as with parents who need knowledge in the field of education and upbringing of healthy and sick children.
Main types of pedagogical activity :
· methodological activities to familiarize patients of different ages, nationalities, social and (or) economic status with the principles and rules of organizing a healthy lifestyle;
practical activities for preventive education and training of patients;
· practical activities to educate and educate patients with certain diagnoses in behavior that prevents relapses of the disease;
· scientific and pedagogical research activity;
· methodical activity on training of average and junior medical personnel.
Depending on the type of activity, its subjects are defined:
a doctor, on the one hand, and almost all categories of patients, on the other;
a doctor on the one hand, and a healthy person at increased risk of disease, on the other;
a doctor and a patient with an established diagnosis of a chronic disease.
Carrying out different types of pedagogical activity, the doctor sets himself different goals :
▪ a broad socio-cultural goal of popularizing a healthy lifestyle, a preventive goal of forming attitudes and skills of self-preserving behavior in people with a predisposition to certain diseases;
▪ a specific practical goal to form attitudes and skills of self-preservation behavior in patients with chronic diseases;
▪ scientific and practical goal to identify the most effective pedagogical models, techniques and methods of interaction with patients, allowing to improve the quality of medical care to the population.
Differentiation of goals implies differentiation of the means to achieve them in different types of pedagogical activity of a doctor. The study of the problem showed that pedagogical methods and techniques of training and education, visual and technical means that a doctor can use in individual or group work with patients require special development. Each type of pedagogical activity will yield its own results , however, the main pedagogical result will be increased control of patients over their health and its determinants by intensifying activities to reduce health risks. Methodologically, this result is based on the fundamental categories of pedagogical science – upbringing, training and education .
The result of the education of self-preservation in a person will be personal characteristics and behavioral characteristics that ensure readiness to preserve health . Such education is focused not on obtaining knowledge about the disease, but on changes in personal and behavioral characteristics that determine health.
The subject of education is individual qualities as the basis of readiness for self-preservation activity. They have a very complex structure and include dispositions, needs, motives, values, attitudes related to health, behavior patterns and habits, skills and basic healthy lifestyle in general, as well as some individual personality traits that affect SJS.
The technology of forming the foundations of self-preserving activity in patients in the process of interaction with a doctor is defined as a set of methods and techniques of educational work for the development of the need-motivational sphere and consciousness of trained patients, for developing behavioral habits, its adjustment and improvement in the interconnected activities of educators and pupils (Levanova E. A.; Kharlamov I.F., 1997). Based on the concept of A.N. Leontiev and the classification of upbringing methods by V.A. Slastenin, it is proposed to use three groups of methods when educating patients:
1) methods of formation and development of the foundations of self-preservation in the mind of the individual (conversation, lecture, story, explanation, discussion, suggestion); are based on the principle of the unity of consciousness and activity (consciousness determines activity and is simultaneously formed in it) and are used to form and develop attitudes, ideas, concepts, relationships, values, views on the subject of self-preservation in the minds of patients. The action of these methods is based on the ability to internalize (translate into an internal plan of action) attitudes, beliefs, attitudes and social ideas that an individual learns in finished form from the social environment.
2) methods of organizing and developing the experience of self-preservation activities; a group of methods is singled out on the basis of the thesis about the formation of personality in activity and its “personal meaning” (A.N. Leontiev). The position of the educated patients is activated, their functions change from the role of the executor of recommendations and instructions to the role of the organizer of their own life. The doctor can use methods such as pedagogical requirement, training, exercise, educational situations, trainings and role-playing games (Bordovskaya N.V., Rean A.A., 2004).
3) methods of stimulating motivation, control, self-control and self-assessment of self-preservation activities. The third group of methods reflects the need-motivational component of activity. Their action is to induce, reinforce and reflect the results of self-preservation activity (Ilyin E.P.). That is, an operational impact on the patient’s motivation process by the doctor in order to initiate the motivational process, intervene in the already begun process of forming an intention (motive), or stimulate, increase the strength of motivation, motive.
1. The pedagogical foundations of the professional activity of a modern doctor are provided by the need to integrate the process of treating and educating a patient, forming his readiness for activities to preserve and improve health, focus on a healthy lifestyle and personal responsibility for overcoming a physical illness, which determine the patient’s subjective position. Patient education is an important component of the doctor’s professional activity, which significantly affects its results.
2. The formation of the foundations of self-preservation in patients involves the integration of medicine and pedagogy, provides for a significant change in the professional activity of a doctor, mastering knowledge about the patterns of occurrence of behavioral reactions, personal properties and character traits that affect health. Raising readiness for self-preservation of health in a patient is a holistic systemic process of educating a patient, including the formation of a psychological mindset for the preservation of health, the development of his convictions in the need to improve self-preservation activities and increased responsibility for its results, mastering the skills that help overcome the consequences of the disease and prevent occurrence of relapses.
3. The methodology for educating patients is provided by a set of goals, objectives, means and methods for forming the foundations of self-preserving activity in the minds of patients, based on the integrity and unity of all components of the educational process, the unity of actions and requirements of all subjects of education, an individual approach, humanism and respect for the patient’s personality, correlation of education with the socio-cultural environment, age and individual characteristics of the patient. The effectiveness of the technique is determined by the pedagogical guidance and competence of the doctor and the independent activity and activity of the patient in relation to health in a small group in a medical institution.
4. The criteria for the effective use of the methodology of educating a patient by future doctors are: internalization of attitudes towards self-preservation activities, the formation of stable beliefs in the value of health, responsibility for healthy behavior, skills to preserve and maintain health, and readiness for active work to preserve and improve health in general.
The doctor, communicating with the patient, conducting his examination and treatment, has to solve problems of a medical and pedagogical nature .
Psychotherapy (treatment by mental methods) contains a significant share of pedagogical influence, and the role of pedagogy in psychotherapy increases the more significant, the greater the role of conscious effort and self-education of the patient.
Patients with chronic diseases need to develop the right attitude towards their disease, disability, the need to stay in bed for a long time, etc.
A patient who has lost an arm or leg as a result of amputation should be taught how to use the prosthesis.
During psychoprophylactic preparation for childbirth, pregnant women are taught the correct behavior during childbirth, methods of counteracting pain (I. Z. Velvovsky).
Medical pedagogy and health education. Health education is one of the types of medical pedagogy.
Particularly important is the medical and psychological analysis of that section of health education, which includes the coverage of various kinds of diseases.
Different people have very different attitudes to information about serious illnesses. Those who have suffered the death of a loved one from cancer can be especially affected by a lecture about this disease, simply because it will revive painful memories again. For an anxious and suspicious person, even an optimistically structured lecture on cancer can leave, basically, only thoughts about the possibility of getting sick with this terrible disease. The lecturer has to take this into account in every possible way. Given this, first of all, one should very carefully determine the content of the lecture and its verbal design and even the manner of reading it. It is important here that all the expressive means of the lecturer be mobilized to prevent intimidation of at least a small part of the audience.
From the standpoint of medical psychology, one might wish that in lectures on health education sufficient attention was paid to the peculiarities of the psyche of patients and the requirements for others that arise in connection with this.
Not only the doctor and his assistants can inflict mental trauma on the patient. This is more often done by the people around him: relatives, other patients, acquaintances, etc. It is very important to teach widely how to behave towards sick people so as not to injure their psyche. In sanitary-educational work, one should especially recommend refraining from giving advice to patients by incompetent people, from inappropriate conversations between patients about their illness, from excessive stress on their nervous system, on their psyche.
In general pedagogy, a lot of research is devoted to the question of the most appropriate ratio of verbal and visual material in a lecture. Without touching here on this general issue, despite its importance for health education, we note that in a lecture on health education one should not overly impress the image of illness in the minds of listeners.
Sanitary-educational lectures should always have both psychohygienic and psychotherapeutic tasks in front of them. They should enlighten, convince, inspire faith in medicine, strengthen vigor and optimism.