Pedagogical activity of I. I. Betsky.

Lomonosov M.V.

Lomonosov was the creator of Russian classical philosophy, the founder of philosophical materialism, scientific natural science. He discovered the universal law of nature – the law of conservation of matter and motion, which underlies natural science.

The name of Lomonosov is associated with the creation of Russian grammar and the formation of a literary language in Russia, which was of great importance for the further development of literature, poetry, and art. Lomonosov enriched the vocabulary of the Russian language with scientific terms, he was the first academician to lecture on physics and write scientific papers in Russian.

Heading these educational institutions since 1758, Lomonosov determined the general rules for the work of the gymnasium and the university, developed the curriculum of the gymnasium and the schedule of the university’s educational work, and established the principles and methods of teaching in these educational institutions. In the “Regulations of the Academic Gymnasium” compiled by him in 1758, Lomonosov defended the idea of the general educational and classless nature of the secondary school.

For the gymnasium and the university, he created a number of textbooks. In 1748 he wrote “Rhetoric”, in 1755 – “Russian Grammar”, which for 50 years were the best textbooks of the Russian general education school. Lomonosov’s advanced teaching on language and literature found its application in them, in which, in his opinion, the real relations of reality are reflected. Lomonosov wrote a book on history. In the textbook “Experimental Physics” translated by him, natural phenomena were explained in the spirit of philosophical materialism. In this book, for the first time, not a dogmatic presentation of physical laws was given, but a description of physical experiments that lead students to an understanding of the laws of physics.

Lomonosov took an active part in the creation of Moscow University.

Closed class-noble educational institutions.

The measures of the state in the field of economy, politics and culture, carried out in the 18th century, contributed to the rise of the nobility.

The nobility turns into the ruling class, it enjoys great privileges. Starting from 1731, special military schools were created for the nobles – cadet corps, in which noble children were trained for military service in officer ranks.

The first closed class-noble school – the land gentry corps – was opened in 1731 in St. Petersburg. All cadet corps were built according to his model. In these schools, along with special military training, the children of the nobility received a broad general education and a “secular” upbringing.

Petersburg and Moscow open foreign boarding houses – private educational institutions. In landlord estates are invited from abroad, especially from France, educators and tutors who teach noble children the French language and secular manners.

Theological schools are organized for the children of the clergy. Special schools are reserved for the lower strata of the population; Thus, several digital schools that had survived by that time were transformed into garrison schools where soldiers’ children study.

The class system of education that had developed in Russia by the middle of the 18th century was distinguished by the following characteristic features: each educational institution was intended for a certain class, the programs of schools for different classes were different. While the schools of the nobility prospered, the schools for other classes eked out a miserable existence.

Pedagogical activity of I. I. Betsky.

I. I. Betskoy presented to Catherine a report on the general reorganization of the upbringing of children in Russia. The report was published in 1764 under the title “General Institution for the Education of both Sexes of Youth” and received the force of law. It spoke of the need to educate in Russia a “new breed of people” from all classes by organizing closed educational institutions in which children should stay from 5-6 years to 18 years of age. All this time they must be isolated from the surrounding life, so as not to be subjected to the “corrupting” influence of ordinary people.

Betskoy changed the organization of educational work in cadet corps and gymnasiums, extended the periods of stay of pupils in them, opened new educational and educational institutions for different classes, except for serfs, namely: the school at the Academy of Arts and the Commercial School for Boys, the Smolny Institute of Noble girls in St. Petersburg for noblewomen with a department for girls from the bourgeoisie.

Betskoy, like all educators of the 18th century, very highly placed the role of education in public life, saying that “the root of all evil and good is education.” He hoped to create by educating a “new breed of people” – educated nobles who were able to humanely treat the peasants and fairly manage the state, as well as raznochintsy – the “third rank of people” who would be engaged in industry, trade, craft. He also hoped that these new people would pass on the views and habits instilled in them to their children, who, in turn, to future generations, and in this way the morality and actions of people would gradually change, and consequently, society would improve. He proposed to carry out social transformations, but with the obligatory preservation of the feudal system intact.

Betskoy considered the main means of moral education to be the inculcation of “the fear of God”, the isolation of children from the environment, and positive examples. He proposed in closed educational institutions to maintain in children a tendency to industriousness, to create in them the habit of avoiding idleness, to be courteous, sympathetic to poverty and misfortune.

Betskoy attached great importance to physical education , the main means of which he considered clean air, as well as “amusement with innocent fun and games.” Concerning questions of mental education, he pointed out that the process of learning should be pleasant for children, carried out without coercion, based on children’s inclinations, recommended teaching youth “more from looking and hearing than from rejecting lessons”, warned that forcing children to learn can lead to the dulling of children’s abilities, categorically insisted on the prohibition of physical punishment. The “General Plan of the Moscow House” said on this occasion: “Introduce the law once and for all and strictly affirm – never and for no reason beat children .”

A supporter of women’s education , Betskoy recognized the important role of women in the upbringing of children, especially at an early age, spoke of the need to create respect in society for a woman as a mother and educator. He played a big role in the opening of the first women’s educational institution – the Institute for Noble Maidens (Smolny Institute). However, in the views of Betsky, the stamp of class, noble narrow-mindedness clearly appears: in his demand to “root” the “fear of God” in the hearts of children, in the illusory belief that through education it is possible

to improve the feudal system, in an effort to isolate children from the surrounding reality and organize a class system of education, in which only certain schools are available to each class, and serfs are deprived of the opportunity to study.

Pedagogical views of G. S. Skovoroda .

Skovoroda, like Rousseau, demanded a natural education, but did not consider the primitive state of people an ideal form of social life, did not idealize children’s nature and did not demand the removal of children from society into the bosom of nature. His idea of the need to build upbringing in accordance with the natural characteristics of children had a positive social content. He demanded that people be assigned to this or that activity in accordance with their abilities and interests, and not depending on their social affiliation and position in society.

Skovoroda believed that the educator should lead education, and the natural inclinations of children should be developed through exercises and activities. In the parable “Grateful Erodius,” the stork says to the monkey: “My father gave birth to wings for me, and I myself learned to fly. He gave me a good heart, but I will arbitrarily get used to it.

Skovoroda attached great importance to labor education in the matter of the moral perfection of man. He put forward advanced didactic requirements, insisted that students understand the material being studied, think it over on their own.

Skovoroda considered it necessary to educate all children and was a supporter of equal education for men and women.

Alexander Nikolaevich Radishchev (1749 – 1802) considered the issues of pedagogy from the standpoint of natural-scientific materialism of the 18th century, arguing that the natural abilities of people are different and largely depend on the influence of the external environment. In the development of abilities, primarily active thinking, he assigned a decisive role to education. The purpose of education A.N. Radishchev considered the formation of a human citizen, “capable of fighting for the happiness of his people and hating the oppressors.” In his work “A Conversation about the Son of the Fatherland”, he calls the formation of a person of high morality, who gives his all for the good of the people, as the main task of education, which was fundamentally at odds with the generally accepted understanding of patriotism at that time. A.N. Radishchev raised the question of educating a true patriot who fights against the autocracy.

Insisting on the need to instill in children a true love for the motherland, the people, the writer resolutely opposed the scornful attitude towards national culture characteristic of the nobility, against excessive enthusiasm for the French language; put forward an extensive program of education, which should have included knowledge about society, nature.

A.N. Radishchev criticized closed educational institutions isolated from the surrounding life, pointing out the need for such an organization of education that would promote interaction with society. Under the conditions of the educational process isolated from society, the educator emphasized, it is impossible to raise a person with social aspirations and interests.

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