Parenchymal and tubular organs.

There are two types of organs in the body: parenchymal and tubular.

PARENCHYMATIC organs – soft, compact, mostly large organs (lungs, liver, kidneys, gonads, spleen). All these organs consist of two parts: parenchyma and stroma. Parenchyma – the working part of the body, tissue-soft substance. In the liver, these are hepatocyte cells; in the kidney, they are nephrons. Depending on how much parenchyma is present, the organ may be denser or softer. The second part of the organ – the stroma, is the connective tissue part of the organ, it includes all the elements that ensure the normal functioning of the parenchyma: – connective tissue layers that divide the organ into lobes;

– blood and lymphatic vessels;

– nervous elements.

Parenchymal organs:

• Have a large amount of soft parenchyma, which forms the basis of the body.

• Compact and large in size.

• They have a round-elongated and somewhat flattened shape of the organ.

• They have numerous passages inside the organ, through which a secret is secreted.

• All internal organs are covered with a serous membrane, closely fused with their outer surface and giving them specific features – humidity, slipperiness and easy changeability. Due to this, the organs do not grow together and the friction between them decreases.

TUBE- SHAPED organs – serve as ways for the passage of certain contents, i.e. they are channels or paths in the Organism. The wall of a tubular organ consists of three membranes: mucous, muscular and serous.

1. The mucous membrane lines – the inner surface of the hollow organs, moist, shiny, covered with mucus. It has a rather complex structure and includes mandatory and optional components:

a) epithelial layer – covers the mucosa from the side of the lumen and has a different structure; b) the mucous membrane itself – is represented by connective tissue, with vessels and nerves suitable for it. This layer is separated from the epithelial basement membrane.

c) submucosal layer – an optional component of the mucous membrane, most pronounced in organs that can expand greatly when filled (intestines, stomach) and is absent where the mucous membrane should be tightly connected to the underlying layer (gums, tongue).

d) the muscular layer of the mucous membrane – due to the presence of smooth muscle elements, it allows the mucous membrane to gather into folds (longitudinal – in the esophagus, spiral – in the abomasum), which allows it to stretch.

2. Muscular membrane – the middle layer of the wall of a tubular organ, is represented by smooth muscle tissue, the fibers of which form two layers, longitudinal and circular. The circular layer, shrinking, changes the diameter of the tube, and the longitudinal layer changes the length.

3. Serous membrane – the outer layer of a tubular organ, represented by one layer of flat cells – mesothelium, which secrete a small amount of serous fluid, giving the organ a smooth and shiny appearance. The serous membrane develops in cases where the tubular organ lies in the serous cavity (thoracic, abdominal, pelvic), if the organ is located outside the cavity, the outer membrane is adventitia, represented by loose connective tissue, which, surrounding the tube, attaches it to the surrounding tissues (cervical part of the esophagus). In the thickness of the wall of the tubular organs or outside the tube are glands that secrete a specific substance (saliva, mucus, bile). The glands located at the base of the mucous membrane are called parietal. They can be unicellular or multicellular, and usually these glands are not visible to the naked eye. The glands that lie outside the wall of the tubular organ into which they pour their secret are called obstructive glands through the ducts (parotid salivary gland, liver, pancreas). In all tubular organs there are many blood and lymphatic vessels. They branch in the submucosal layer, and in the compact organ – in the stroma.

4. Patterns of the structure of a tubular organ.

TUBE- SHAPED organs – serve as ways for the passage of certain contents, i.e. they are channels or paths in the Organism. The wall of a tubular organ consists of three membranes: mucous, muscular and serous.

1. The mucous membrane lines – the inner surface of the hollow organs, moist, shiny, covered with mucus. It has a rather complex structure and includes mandatory and optional components:

a) epithelial layer – covers the mucosa from the side of the lumen and has a different structure; b) the mucous membrane itself – is represented by connective tissue, with vessels and nerves suitable for it. This layer is separated from the epithelial basement membrane.

c) submucosal layer – an optional component of the mucous membrane, most pronounced in organs that can expand greatly when filled (intestines, stomach) and is absent where the mucous membrane should be tightly connected to the underlying layer (gums, tongue).

d) the muscular layer of the mucous membrane – due to the presence of smooth muscle elements, it allows the mucous membrane to gather into folds (longitudinal – in the esophagus, spiral – in the abomasum), which allows it to stretch.

2. Muscular membrane – the middle layer of the wall of a tubular organ, is represented by smooth muscle tissue, the fibers of which form two layers, longitudinal and circular. The circular layer, shrinking, changes the diameter of the tube, and the longitudinal layer changes the length.

3. Serous membrane – the outer layer of a tubular organ, represented by one layer of flat cells – mesothelium, which secrete a small amount of serous fluid, giving the organ a smooth and shiny appearance. The serous membrane develops in cases where the tubular organ lies in the serous cavity (thoracic, abdominal, pelvic), if the organ is located outside the cavity, the outer membrane is adventitia, represented by loose connective tissue, which, surrounding the tube, attaches it to the surrounding tissues (cervical part of the esophagus). In the thickness of the wall of the tubular organs or outside the tube are glands that secrete a specific substance (saliva, mucus, bile). The glands located at the base of the mucous membrane are called parietal. They can be unicellular or multicellular, and usually these glands are not visible to the naked eye. The glands that lie outside the wall of the tubular organ into which they pour their secret are called obstructive glands through the ducts (parotid salivary gland, liver, pancreas). In all tubular organs there are many blood and lymphatic vessels. They branch in the submucosal layer, and in the compact organ – in the stroma.

5. The structure of the oral cavity, the characteristics of the teeth.

The oral cavity is formed by the lower and upper jaws, incisors, palatine bones, hyoid bone. The organs of the oral cavity include lips, cheeks, teeth, gums, tongue, hard and soft palate, salivary glands, and tonsils. In different animals, due to the nature of the function performed, their structure is different.

Lips . There are upper and lower lips. They are skin-muscular-mucosal folds and serve to capture and touch food and water intake.

The cheeks form the lateral wall of the oral cavity. Composed of skin, muscles and mucous membranes.

Teeth are very hard organs that serve to capture, hold and grind food. They are placed in the dental holes of the upper and lower jaws, as well as the incisive bone.

The tooth is divided into root, neck and crown. The crown of a tooth is made up of enamel, dentin, and pulp, while the root is made up of cementum, dentin, and pulp. The exception is horse teeth, in which the cementum extends to the crown and the enamel extends to the root.

There are incisors, canines, molars, which are divided into premolars and molars. All animals have two generations of teeth: milk teeth and permanent teeth.

The number of teeth is different – in ruminants 32 teeth, no upper incisors, in a pig – 42, in horses – in males 40, in females 36, since there are no fangs.

With the age of the animal, the shape of the chewing surface of the tooth changes, as well as the shape of the dental arcade. The cross section of the tooth changes from transversely oval to rounded, then to triangular, and finally to longitudinally oval. This change in the shape of the tooth makes it possible to determine the age of the animal.

Gums are the mucous membrane surrounding the neck of the tooth from the labial, buccal and lingual surfaces.

The tongue is a muscular organ located at the bottom of the mouth. With the help of the tongue, touch and examination of food for taste, intake of water and food, chewing, and swallowing of food take place. Distinguish between the root, body and tip of the tongue.

The hard palate forms the vault of the oral cavity. At the base of the hard palate is the bony palate. On the mucous membrane of the hard palate are palatine ridges, and in the middle there is a palatine suture.

The soft palate is a continuation of the hard palate. During the act of swallowing, the soft palate closes the entrance to the nasal cavity. It is made up of muscles and mucous membranes.

The salivary glands open their ducts into the oral cavity. There are three pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular and sublingual.

Tonsils in the oral cavity perform a protective function. There are lingual and palatine tonsils.

6. Characteristics of the organs of the oral cavity (tongue), salivary glands.

The tongue is a muscular organ located at the bottom of the mouth. With the help of the tongue, touch and examination of food for taste, intake of water and food, chewing, and swallowing of food take place. Distinguish between the root, body and tip of the tongue.

Its upper surface is called the back. The mucous membrane of the tongue is covered with papillae: filiform, cone-shaped, performing a mechanical function; mushroom-shaped, grooved and leaf-shaped, which are equipped with taste buds. In animals of different species, the language is arranged differently. On the back of the tongue of ruminants there is a pillow, there are no foliate papillae, but there are 8-17 pairs of grooved papillae. The pig has a long, narrow tongue with only one pair of grooved papillae. The horse has a long tongue, no cone-shaped papillae, one pair of grooved papillae.

The salivary glands open their ducts into the oral cavity. There are three pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular and sublingual.

The parotid glands lie under the skin at the base of the ear. The excretory ducts of these glands open into the buccal space. The submandibular salivary glands are located in the intermaxillary space below the parotid gland. The duct of the gland opens at the bottom of the oral cavity in the sublingual wart. The sublingual salivary glands lie in the sublingual fold of the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth, on the side of the tongue. In cattle and pigs, this gland consists of two parts – short and long duct. The horse has only a short duct gland. The excretory duct in the long ductal gland opens together with the duct of the submandibular gland, in the short ductal gland – along the course of the gland.

7. Esophagus, its topography, structure. Pharynx.

The pharynx is a funnel-shaped organ, the wall of which consists of three layers: mucous, muscular membranes and loose connective tissue (adventitia). The pharynx connects the oral cavity with the esophagus and the nasal cavity with the larynx. The dual function of the pharynx is reflected in the structure of its mucous membrane. The muscular layer of the pharynx is formed by three pairs of constrictor muscles. Through the openings of the auditory tubes, the pharynx communicates with the middle ear. The tonsils are located in the mucous membrane of the pharynx.

The esophagus is a tube that connects the throat to the stomach. There are cervical, thoracic and short abdominal parts of the esophagus.

OR CM TO TETR
The cervical part of the esophagus lies between the spinal column and the trachea, forming with it the esophageal-tracheal trough, in which there are large vessels and nerves. The length of this section of the esophagus depends on the length of the neck of the animal.

Upon entering the chest cavity, the esophagus straightens again and lies over the trachea. In the chest cavity, the esophagus is located in the upper part of the mediastinum between the dorsal (blunt) edges of the lungs, retreating ventrally from the aorta. At first, it lies on top of the trachea, and then reaches the dome of the diaphragm and passes through a special opening in it. The abdominal section of the esophagus is short (no more than 5 cm). After passing the diaphragm, the esophagus deviates to the left and almost sinks into the stomach.

Throughout the esophagus in domestic animals (especially in dogs) has an uneven lumen and wall thickness.

The wall of the esophagus consists of a mucous membrane, submucosa, muscular membrane and adventitia, passing into the serosa in the thoracic and abdominal parts of the esophagus.

The mucous membrane is collected in numerous folds and is lined with stratified squamous weakly keratinized epithelium of the ectodermal type. The thickness of the epithelium and the development of its stratum corneum depend on the type of animal and the nature of the food. The own layer of the mucous membrane is represented by loose connective tissue, protruding into the epithelium with high papillae. The muscular layer of the mucous membrane is represented by smooth muscle bundles located longitudinally. It thickens towards the stomach.

The submucosa consists of loose connective tissue, in which, in addition to large blood vessels, esophageal glands are also located. The terminal sections of the glands have a pronounced mucous character. The excretory ducts open into the lumen of the esophagus, moistening the surface of the mucosa.

The muscular membrane of the esophagus serves as a continuation of the similar membrane of the pharynx and is represented by circular and longitudinal layers of muscles. In connection with the act of swallowing and the rapid transport of the food coma moistened with saliva and the secret of the esophageal glands, in the upper third (cervical part) of the esophagus (in ruminants and dogs throughout) the layer is represented by somatic transversely striated muscles.

In the cervical region, the esophagus is covered with an adventitial membrane, the connective tissue of which connects it with the surrounding organs of the neck. In the thoracic part, the adventitia is replaced by a serous membrane – the pleura, and in the abdominal part – by the peritoneum.

At the level of the 10th rib, the esophagus enters the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm and flows into the vestibule of the scar.

PECULIARITIES:

In the horse, the initial part of the esophagus lies between the right and left air sacs; at the level of the 13th rib, it passes through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity; glands are present only in the initial part of the esophagus; the muscular coat before the bifurcation of the trachea consists of transversely striated muscle tissue, and then passes into smooth muscle.

8. Types of stomachs. The structure of a single chamber stomach. Glands of the stomach.

The stomach is an extension of the digestive tube in the abdominal cavity. There are single-chamber and multi-chamber stomachs.

SM NOTEBOOK

A single-chamber stomach is a sac-like cavitary organ, it contains an inlet cardial part with a cardiac opening of the esophagus and an outlet pyloric part, which passes into the duodenum. The body of the stomach is curved. Distinguish between the greater curvature of the stomach and the lesser curvature. In the region of greater curvature between the inlet and outlet parts, the wall of the stomach is called the fundus.
The peritoneum passes to the lesser curvature of the stomach from the diaphragm and liver and forms a lesser omentum. Three ligaments are distinguished here: gastro-phrenic; gastro-hepatic and gastro-duodenal.

The greater omentum begins at the greater curvature of the stomach. Between its sheets is located reticular and loose connective tissue, nerves, blood vessels and the spleen, associated with the greater curvature of the stomach by the gastro-splenic ligament. The greater omentum continues and passes to the intestines. In pigs, it lies between the intestinal loops, in dogs it separates the intestine from the abdominal wall, in the horse it passes to the duodenum and colon. The omentum forms a bag. Entrance to. it is located to the right of the median plane, medial to the right kidney, between the caudal vena cava and the portal vein.
The stomach is located in the cranial part of the abdominal cavity (more in the left hypochondrium) and is adjacent to the diaphragm and liver. The greater curvature is directed ventrally and, in pigs and dogs, is adjacent to the ventral wall of the abdomen in the region of the xiphoid cartilage. The lesser curvature is turned craniodorsally. The cardial part is located in the left hypochondrium. In the chest cavity, behind the diaphragm, opposite the inlet of the stomach, the heart is located, which served as the basis for calling the inlet of the stomach cardial, facing the heart.
The output, pyloric part of the stomach is directed to the right hypochondrium, where it passes into the duodenum.
The surface of the stomach facing the diaphragm is called diaphragmatic, parietal, facing the intestine – visceral.
There are glandular stomachs (in dogs, cats), esophageal-intestinal or mixed types (in pigs, horses), mixed multi-chamber (in ruminants). In glandular stomachs, the mucous membrane with glands occupies almost the entire surface of the stomach. In mixed stomachs, the mucous membrane in the cardial part does not have glands.

9. Multi-chambered stomach of ruminants. Topography of the chambers of the stomach, structure.

The multi-chambered stomach of ruminants consists of the fore-stomachs: scar, mesh, book and abomasum.

The scar is the largest chamber. It has the shape of a bag and occupies the entire left half of the abdominal cavity. The wall of the scar consists of mucous, muscular and serous membranes. The mucous membrane of the scar is glandless and bears papillae. Grooves pass on the surface of the scar, dividing it into half bags and blind protrusions. From the side of the mucous membrane, these grooves have the form of strands (scars).

Mesh is the protrusion of the scar down and forward. The mucous membrane of the mesh is glandless and forms folds that resemble a honeycomb. The esophageal trough runs along the wall of the mesh, which connects the esophagus to the book.

The book is rounded, laterally compressed. It is located in the right side of the abdominal cavity. The mucous membrane forms leaflets: large, medium, small and smallest. Between the edges of the leaves and the bottom of the book is its channel. At the entrance to the abomasum, the mucous membrane of the book forms two sails that prevent the return of food from the abomasum to the book.

Abomasum is actually the stomach of ruminants. It has a pear shape. There are greater and lesser curvature of the abomasum, cardiac and pyloric parts. The entire mucous membrane of the abomasum is covered with a cylindrical epithelium and forms spiral folds that increase its secreting surface. The abomasum is located on the right and partially in the region of the xiphoid process.

10. Small intestine, its divisions, structure.

The section of the small intestines is the longest: it starts from the pylorus of the stomach and stretches to the caecum. It forms many arcuate loops with a convex, free, and concave curvature to which the mesentery is attached.

The length of the small intestines in animals of different species is not the same and is determined mainly by the nature of the food. The small intestine is divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

The duodenum is so called because a person has 12 fingers (fingers) along its length. In animals, it extends] for 40-120 cm and, being suspended on a short mesentery, forms a series of convolutions. It is located in the right hypochondrium and right iliac region, in the initial part it is adjacent to the visceral surface of the liver. The ducts of the liver and pancreas open into the anterior part of the duodenum. At the site of their entry, the mucous membrane forms the duodenal nipple, which prevents the contents of the intestine from entering the duct.

The jejunum is the longest in the intestine and immediately follows the duodenum. It got its name because at autopsy it is not filled with food masses. This gut forms numerous loops suspended from a long mesentery. In ruminants, its loops form an intestinal garland attached to the periphery of the intestinal disc.

The jejunum lies in cattle – mainly in the right iliac and right hypochondrium; in the horse – in the right and left hypochondrium, left sigh.

The ileum is named for its position on the ilium in humans. It is somewhat shorter than the jejunum, and the structure of the wall is similar to it. Intestinal plaques on its mucous membrane are numerous. The end part has a significantly thickened muscular membrane.

The ileum opens in horses into the caecum in a bush-like manner, in animals of other species (cattle, pigs, dogs) – on the border between the cecum and colon, so that the contents of the ileum can enter both of these intestines simultaneously; in ruminants, the ileum is the extension of the jejunum from the point where it stops wriggling.

The ileum is located in cattle and horses in the right iliac region.

11. Large intestine, its divisions, topography, specific features.

The large intestine consists of the caecum, colon and rectum and ends with the anus.

The section of the large intestine is several times shorter than the section of the small intestine. The main difference between the large intestine and the small intestine is that it does not have villi. Among the bordered prismatic epithelium, there are many goblet cells. The mucus secreted by them covers the mucous membrane, and also serves to glue undigested particles into feces. There are much more common intestinal, or Lieberkühn, glands in the large intestine than in the small intestine. There are many single lymphoid follicles in the submucosa.

In the large intestines of horses and pigs, the longitudinal muscle layer forms longitudinal muscle bands – tenii. The intestinal wall between tenia gathers in semilunar folds and forms protrusions – pockets. Thanks to the tenias, the large intestine, especially in the horse, reaches a large volume.

The cecum of ruminants is cylindrical, smooth, up to 30-70 cm long. Its initial part, without any border, passes into the colon; blind, rounded, end facing caudally. It lies in the dorsal third of the right half of the abdominal cavity (in the right inguinal and iliac regions and in the lumbar region). When overfeeding or eating poor-quality food, gases can accumulate in the caecum, which are removed by puncturing the caecum in the right iliac region.

The colon is a direct continuation of the caecum.

In ruminants, it is long – in cattle 6-9 m, slightly wider than the small intestines, smooth. It is divided into three sections: the initial gyrus, the spiral labyrinth and the terminal gyrus. The spiral labyrinth forms in cattle 1.5-2, concentric and eccentric spiral turns, lying in the same plane. The curls of the labyrinth are interconnected by a short mesentery. At the level of the 1st lumbar vertebra, the terminal gyrus begins, which passes into the rectum. In the colon, ruminants do not have shadows and pockets. It is located on the right surface of the scar, occupying the right half of the abdominal cavity. The intestines of ruminants are represented as a flat disk: in the center of it lies the labyrinth of the colon, at the top is the duodenum and caecum, and along the periphery is the jejunum and ileum.

The large colon forms a horseshoe-shaped loop of two knees connected by a short mesentery – ventral and dorsal. The ventral knee has four tenii and four rows of pockets. In the lumbar region, this gut narrows sharply and passes into the small colon.

The small colon with two tenia and two rows of pockets is suspended on a long mesentery. Its loops, together with the loops of the small intestines, lie mainly in the central part of the abdominal cavity, in a plate-shaped depression formed by the caecum and large colon.

The rectum is a continuation of the colon, short, lies in the pelvic cavity under the sacral and first caudal vertebrae, ends with the anus. In front of the anus, the rectum forms a bottle-shaped extension (omnivores, horse, dog). Its mucous membrane is collected in numerous, easily smoothed longitudinal folds. At the end of the rectum, the serous membrane is replaced by adventitia.

In the anus area there is a special device for the act of defecation – ejection of feces. The annular layer of muscles forms two sphincters: the inner one is made of smooth muscle tissue and the outer one is made of striated muscle tissue. From the pelvis to the lateral surfaces of the sphincters, a paired anus lifter from the longitudinal layer of muscle tissue approaches. Anus lifters pull it inside after defecation.

12. Features of the structure of the horse’s caecum.

Horses have a caecum of considerable size, in the form of a comma. It is twice the capacity of the stomach, as if compensating for its small volume. In the horse’s caecum, indigestible voluminous vegetable food undergoes bacterial fermentation and is prepared for digestion and absorption. On the caecum, there are: head, body and apex. The head of the gastric type; its concave surface is called the lesser curvature, its convex surface is called the greater curvature. There are four tenia in the caecum, with four rows of pockets between them. In the region of lesser curvature, the ileum protrudes into the caecum. This sphincter opening is called the ileal orifice. Next to it lies an opening leading to the large colon, also closed by a sphincter. The head of the caecum lies in the right iliac, right inguinal regions, in the right hypochondrium and in the umbilical region; body – in the right sigh and in the region of the xiphoid cartilage; apex – in the region of the xiphoid cartilage.

When overfeeding or eating poor-quality food, gases can accumulate in the caecum, which are removed by puncturing the caecum in the right iliac region.

13. Liver, its functions. Topography. Anatomical structure.

The main function of the liver is the final processing of chemical products that enter this organ with the blood. The secretion of bile is only an additional property of the liver.

The liver is the largest gland. Two surfaces are distinguished on it: the anterior, adjacent to the diaphragm, and the posterior, in contact with the intestines; two edges: upper obtuse and lower – sharp. The liver is divided into lobes: left middle and right. In the center of the posterior surface are the mouth of the liver, through which the hepatic artery and vein enter and the hepatic duct exits. The liver is covered with a serous membrane, which forms ligaments (coronal, falciform, triangular) connecting the liver to the diaphragm. The round ligament (umbilical vein in the fetus) connects the liver to the abdominal wall.

The liver consists of hepatic lobules, which are separated from each other by connective tissue. The main functioning part of the liver is the liver cells that produce bile. Blood and bile capillaries pass between the rows of liver cells. Bile flows through the bile capillaries into the bile ducts, which join into the common duct.

In ruminants, the liver is poorly divided into lobes. It distinguishes between the right and left lobes, as well as the middle lobe, which is divided by the gates of the liver into the upper – the statue and the lower – the square lobes. The right lobe from the square – in ruminants is separated by the gallbladder. Above the gate hangs the mastoid process.

In the horse, only the left lobe is divided into external and internal. The gallbladder is absent.

On the liver of animals of all kinds, a convex diaphragmatic surface is distinguished – fades diaphragmatica and a flat or somewhat concave visceral surface – fades visceralis, facing the internal organs. The dorsal edge of the liver – margo dorsalis is blunted, the ventral edge – margo ventralis is refined. Outside, the liver is covered with a smooth, lean, slightly moistened serous membrane (visceral sheet of the peritoneum), fused with a connective tissue membrane, from which connective tissue layers extend inside the liver.
The liver is divided into lobes – lobus hepatis. Inside the lobes are liver lobules – lobuli hepatis from liver cells – hepatocytes. The lobules have a diameter of up to 1 mm in dogs, larger in cattle – 1.3 mm, and the largest – 1.5-1.7 mm – in pigs.
On the visceral surface of the liver, closer to the blunt edge, are the gates of the liver – porta hepatis. In the region of the gate to the liver enter: portal vein – v. portae, hepatic artery – a. hepatis – a branch from the celiac artery, nerves. The common hepatic duct, ductus hepaticus communis, emerges from the gates of the liver; lymphatic vessels that go to the lymph node located at the gates of the liver.
Ventral to the gate of the liver in most animals is the gallbladder – vesica fellea (not in horses). The cystic duct of the gallbladder – ductus cysticus – connects to the hepatic duct. The bile duct formed as a result of the fusion – ductus choledochus enters the duodenum. Horses do not have a gallbladder and the common hepatic duct, the ductus hepaticus communis, runs into the duodenum.
The liver is divided into lobes. Of the number, shape, depth of cuts between the lobes have significant differences in different animal species.
The liver of cattle is smooth, brown-red. The mass of the liver is within 1.1-1.4% of body weight. The cuts along the sharp edge of the liver between the lobes are relatively shallow. There are four main lobes: 1) to the right of the gallbladder, a large right lobe – lobus hepatis dexter; 2) to the left of the round ligament – the left lobe – lobus hepatis sinister; 3) above the right lobe lies the caudate lobe – lobus caudatus, which has two processes: the mastoid – processus papillaris lies above the gates of the liver and the large caudate – processus caudatus protrudes above the right lobe of the liver (it has a renal depression – impressio renalis); 4) between the gallbladder and the round ligament lies a square lobe – lobus quadratus, located ventral to the gate of the liver.

14. Pancreas, its functions. Topography. Anatomical structure.

The pancreas has a lobular structure and is built from the alveoli and their excretory ducts. It is divided into right, middle and left lobes. The duct of the gland opens into the duodenum either together with the bile duct (sheep, horse, dog) or independently.

15. Characteristics of the respiratory system, its significance and connection with other systems.

16. Upper respiratory tract: nasal cavity, larynx, trachea.

17. Lungs, their anatomical structure, features in domestic animals.

18. Heart, its location, structure, innervation. Circles of blood circulation.

19. Significance of the blood and lymph circulation system, its subdivision and connection with other systems.

20. Arteries, veins, capillaries. Their structure, blood supply, innervation.

21. Main arteries and veins of the body, head, thoracic, pelvic limbs.

22. Arteries of the pulmonary circulation.

23. Arteries of the systemic circulation, characteristics of the branches of the aortic arch.

24. Main vessels of the head

25. Characteristics of the anterior vena cava. What organs does it collect blood from?

26. Characteristics of the posterior vena cava. What organs does it collect blood from?

27. The main components of the lymphatic system.

28. Lymph nodes, their location, structure, functions, taking into account specific features.

29. Major lymph nodes of the body.

30. Hematopoietic organs. Spleen, thymus. Structure and functions.

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