Parameters measured in physical culture and sports.

FEDERAL AGENCY FOR EDUCATION

SEI HPE “Mari State University”

Faculty of Physical Education

M.M. Polevshchikov

A cycle of lectures on the course

SPORTS METROLOGY

LECTURE 1: The content of metrology.

Yoshkar-Ola

UDC 796

Polevshchikov M.M.

Sports metrology. Lecture 1: The content of metrology. / Mari State University. – Yoshkar-Ola: MarSU, 2008. -27s.

ISBN 5-900871-51-7

The series of lectures is intended for full-time and part-time students of physical culture faculties of pedagogical universities and institutes. The collections contain theoretical material on the basics of metrology, standardization, and reveal the content of management and control in the process of physical education and sports.

The proposed manual will be useful not only for students in the study of the discipline “Sports Metrology”, but also for graduate students, university professors involved in research work.

Mari State

university institute, 2007.

CONTENT OF METROLOGY

The subject and objectives of the course “Sports metrology”

Measured quantities

Systems of units of physical quantities

Parameters measured in physical culture

And sports

Subject and tasks of the course “Sports metrology”.

In the daily practice of mankind and each individual, measurement is a completely common procedure. Measurement, along with calculation, is directly related to the material life of society, since it has been developed in the process of practical development of the world by man. Measurement, just like counting and calculation, became an integral part of social production and distribution, as well as an objective starting point for the emergence of mathematical disciplines, and primarily geometry, and hence a necessary prerequisite for the development of science and technology.

At the very beginning, at the moment of their appearance, measurements, no matter how different they were, naturally had an elementary character. Thus, the calculation of a set of objects of a certain type was based on a comparison with the number of fingers. The measurement of the length of certain objects was based on comparison with the length of a finger, foot, or just a step. This accessible method was originally in the literal sense of “experimental computing and measuring technology.” It has its roots in the distant era of the “childhood” of mankind. Whole centuries passed before the development of mathematics and other sciences, the emergence of measuring technology, caused by the needs of production and trade, communications between people and nations, etc., led to the emergence of well-developed and differentiated methods and technical means in the most diverse fields of knowledge.

Now it is difficult to imagine any human activity in which measurements would not be used. Measurements are carried out in science, industry, agriculture, medicine, trade, military affairs, labor and environmental protection, everyday life, sports, etc. Thanks to the measurements, it is possible to control the technological processes of industrial enterprises, the training of athletes and the national economy as a whole. The requirements for the accuracy of measurements, the speed of obtaining measurement information, and the measurement of a complex of physical quantities have sharply increased and continue to grow. The number of complex measuring systems and measuring and computing complexes is increasing.

Measurements at a certain stage of their development led to the emergence of metrology, which is currently defined as “the science of measurements, methods and means of ensuring their unity and the required accuracy.” This definition indicates the practical orientation of metrology, which studies the measurements of physical quantities and the measurements that form these elements and develops the necessary rules and regulations.The word “metrology” is composed of two ancient Greek:

“metro” – measure and “logos” – teaching or science.

Modern metrology includes three components:

legal metrology, fundamental (scientific) and practical (applied) metrology.

Sports metrology is the science of measurements in physical education and sports. It should be considered as a specific application to general metrology, as one of the components of practical (applied) metrology. However, as an academic discipline, sports metrology goes beyond general metrology for the following reasons. In physical education and sports, some of the physical quantities (time, mass, length, force), on the problems of unity and accuracy of which metrologists focus the main attention, are also subject to measurement. But most of all, the specialists of our industry are interested in pedagogical, psychological, social, biological indicators, which in their content cannot be called physical. General metrology practically does not deal with the methods of their measurements, and therefore it became necessary to develop special measurements, the results of which comprehensively characterize the preparedness of athletes and athletes. A feature of sports metrology is that the term “measurement” is interpreted in it in the broadest sense, since in sports practice it is not enough to measure only physical quantities. In physical culture and sports, in addition to measurements of length, height, time, mass and other physical quantities, it is necessary to evaluate technical skill, expressiveness and artistry of movements, and similar non-physical quantities.

The subject of sports metrology is a comprehensive control in physical education and sports and the use of its results in planning the training of athletes and athletes.

Along with the development of fundamental and practical metrology, the formation of legal metrology took place.

Legal metrology is a section of metrology that includes sets of interrelated and interdependent general rules, as well as other issues that need regulation and control by the state, aimed at ensuring the uniformity of measurements and the uniformity of measuring instruments.

Legal metrology serves as a means of state regulation of metrological activities through laws and legislative provisions that are put into practice through the State Metrological Service and the metrological services of state governments and legal entities. The field of legal metrology includes testing and approval of the type of measuring instruments and their verification and calibration, certification of measuring instruments, state metrological control and supervision of measuring instruments.

Metrological rules and norms of legal metrology are harmonized with the recommendations and documents of relevant international organizations. Thus, legal metrology contributes to the development of international economic and trade relations and promotes mutual understanding in international metrological cooperation.

Measured values.

The subject of knowledge, as you know, are objects, properties, and phenomena of the surrounding world. Such an object, for example, is the space surrounding us, and its property is extension. It can be characterized in various ways.

The generally accepted characteristic (measure) of spatial extent is length. However, the extent of real physical space is a complex property that cannot be characterized by length alone. For a complete description of space, its length in several directions (coordinates) is considered, or other measures such as angle, area, volume are also used. Thus, space is multidimensional.

Any events and phenomena in the real world do not occur instantly, but have a certain duration. This property of the world around us is qualitatively different from spatial extension. It can also be characterized in different ways, but the generally accepted measure here is time.

The property of bodies to maintain a state of rest or uniform rectilinear motion in the absence of external influences is called inertia. The measure of inertia is mass.

The property of bodies, consisting in the fact that they are heated to a certain state, is qualitatively different from the previous one. It could be characterized by the average speed of the thermal motion of molecules, but a measure of the heating of bodies, called thermodynamic temperature, has become widespread.

Generally accepted or legally established characteristics (measures) of various properties that are qualitatively common for many physical objects (physical systems, their states and processes occurring in them), but quantitatively individual for each of them are called physical quantities.

In addition to length, time, temperature, mass, physical quantities include flat and solid angles, force, pressure, speed, acceleration, electrical voltage, electric current, inductance, illumination, and many others. All of them determine some general physical properties in qualitative terms, the quantitative characteristics of which can be completely different. Obtaining information about these quantitative characteristics is precisely the task of measurements.

Transition to quantitative research methods based on measurement information in biology, psychology, sports, art, medicine, pedagogy, sociology, etc. has become a hallmark of our time. It has become customary to measure the knowledge of students, the skill of athletes and performers of works of art, inspiration, beauty, talent and other properties that are common in quality, but individual in quantitative terms.

There are relationships and dependencies between the measured values, expressed by mathematical relations and formulas. These formulas and relationships can reflect the laws of nature, such as Ohm’s law:

I=U/R

Or Newton’s second law: F=m × a

In such dependences, some quantities act as the main ones, while others – as derivatives of them. The basic quantities are independent of each other, but they can serve as the basis for establishing relationships with other physical quantities, which are called derivatives of them.

It is customary to call the main units, the values of which are determined by special samples – standards. Having selected several basic units, the “derived” units of measurement associated with them are introduced. Derived units of measurement can be obtained from the basic ones by simple arithmetic transformations or formulas. So, the unit of length (meter – m) and the unit of time (second – s) are the basic units, and the unit of speed (meter per second – m / s) is a derived unit of measurement.

The word “value” is often used to express the size of this particular physical quantity. They say: pressure value, speed value, voltage value. This is wrong, since pressure, speed, voltage in the correct sense of these words are quantities, and it is impossible to talk about the magnitude of a quantity.

In the above cases, the use of the word “value” is superfluous. Indeed, why talk about a large or small “value” of pressure, when you can say large or small pressure, etc.

A unit of a physical quantity is a physical quantity that, by definition, is given a value equal to one. It can also be said that the unit of a physical quantity is its value, which is taken as a basis for comparing physical quantities of the same kind with it in their quantitative assessment.

A quantitative assessment of a specific physical quantity, expressed as a certain number of units of a given quantity, is called the value of a physical quantity. An abstract number included in the “value” of a quantity is called a numerical value.

Initially, the units of physical quantities were chosen arbitrarily, without any connection with each other, which created great difficulties. A significant number of arbitrary units of the same quantity made it difficult to compare the results of measurements made by different observers.

In each country, and sometimes even in each city, their own units were created. The conversion of some units into others was very complicated and led to a significant decrease in the accuracy of the measurement results.

The basis of the system of measures in ancient Russian practice was the ancient Egyptian units of measurement, and they, in turn, were borrowed from ancient Greece and Rome. Naturally, each system of measures differed in its own characteristics, associated not only with the era, but also with the national mentality.

The names of the units and their sizes corresponded to the possibility of carrying out measurements by “improvised” methods, without resorting to special devices. So, in Russia, the main units of length were the span and cubit, and the span served as the main ancient Russian measure of length and meant the distance between the ends of the thumb and forefinger of an adult. Later, when another unit appeared – arshin – a span (1/4 arshin) gradually fell into disuse.

The measure “elbow” came to us from Babylon and meant the distance from the bend of the elbow to the end of the middle finger of the hand (sometimes a clenched fist or thumb).

From the 18th century in Russia, an inch, borrowed from England (it was called “finger”), as well as the English foot, began to be used. A special Russian measure was a sazhen, equal to three cubits (about 152 cm) and an oblique sazhen (about 248 cm).

Perhaps every boy knows the size of a football goal – a width of 7.32 and a length of 2.44 meters. Weird numbers? Why 7.32 and not exactly 7 or 7.5 meters? But because the founders of football – the British, 7.32 meters is exactly 24 feet, and 2.44 meters – exactly 8 feet. Foot, in English, means leg, foot. It is equal to 0.305 meters.

Rice. 1. Visual meanings of the “ancient” units of “foot” and “oblique fathom”.

By decree of Peter the Great, Russian measures of length were harmonized with English ones, and this essentially became the first step in harmonizing Russian metrology with European.

With the development of technology, as well as international relations, the difficulties in using the results of measurements increased and hampered further scientific and technological progress. The situation was further complicated by the fact that the ratios between quotient and multiple units were unusually varied. As an example, here are some units used in Russia before the October Revolution, and the relationship between them and metric measures:

1 arshin u003d 16 inches u003d 28 inches u003d 0.71120 m;

1 inch = 25.4mm;

1 sazhen=3 arshins=7 feet=2.1336 mm;

1 ft=12 inches=304.8mm;

1 pood = 40 pounds = 16.38 kg;

1 lb=96 spools=409.5 g;

1 spool = 96 shares = 4.266 g.

In the second half of the eighteenth century in Europe there were up to a hundred feet of various lengths, about fifty different miles, over 120 different pounds.

Parameters measured in physical culture and sports.

The presence of various instruments and technical devices used in the research of specialists in pedagogical, biomedical and psychological disciplines of sports allows obtaining information about more than 3000 individual parameters.

All parameters measured in the science of sports are divided into four levels:

integral, reflecting the total (cumulative) effect of the functional state of various body systems (for example, sportsmanship);

complex, relating to one of the functional systems of the athlete’s body (for example, physical fitness);

differential, characterizing only one property of the system (for example, power qualities);

single, revealing one value (value) of a separate property of the system (maximum muscle strength).

Studies show that the number of measured complex parameters in sports ranges from 11 to 13 (Table 1).

Table 1. Frequency distribution of complex parameters measured in sports (body composition parameters are taken as a unit)

No. Complex parameters

payment order

1 Training load and recovery (physiological

physical, mental values) 4.57

2 Physical fitness (quality of strength, speed,

endurance, agility and flexibility) 4.35

3 Cardiovascular system (heart movement and

large vessels, the movement of blood in the heart and blood vessels,

biopotentials of the heart) 3.09

4 Dimensions of the body and limbs (linear and arc

body dimensions) 2.92

5 Technical preparedness (statics, kinematics,

dynamics, time and rhythm of sports movements) 2.60

6 Respiratory system (lung volumes, mechanics

respiration, gas exchange) 2.48

7 Biophysical and biochemical samples (blood and

lymph, urine and feces, sputum, sweat and saliva) 2.43

8 Neuromuscular system (bioelectric and

biomechanical activity of muscles) 2.05

9 Tactical training (competitive activity

and effectiveness of actions) 1.91

10 divisions of the central nervous system (parameters of the brain and divisions of the central nervous system) 1.82

11 Analyzer systems (visual, vestibular,

tactile, auditory, motor) 1.41

12 External body shape and proportions (body build,

posture, foot) 1.12

13 Body composition (fat content, specific gravity and

body density) 1.00

The data in Table 1 indicate a smoothly decreasing number of ratios of the frequency of using the parameters measured in sports – the differences between neighboring figures are insignificant. Attention is drawn to the ratio of energy-functional and anatomical-morphological parameters. The parameters of the external shape and composition of the body, used in sports for diagnosing physical condition and for other purposes, are used 4.0-4.5 times less often than the parameters of training load, recovery and physical fitness. Such important components of the training of athletes as the parameters of tactical actions are rather poorly used in measurements, measurements are relatively rarely used to help study the parameters of the influence of external conditions on the training process: atmosphere, water, soil, premises, natural forces of nature.

The main measured and controlled parameters in sports medicine, the training process and in sports research are:

– physiological (“internal”), physical (“external”) and psychological parameters of the training load and recovery;

– parameters of the qualities of strength, speed, endurance, flexibility and dexterity;

– functional parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems;

– biomechanical parameters of sports equipment;

– linear and arc parameters of body dimensions.

To study these parameters and control them, a wide range of various methods, techniques and methods for measuring the following physical quantities is widely used:

– force (these are the causes that cause changes in the speed and direction of body movement – repulsive forces, deformations, impacts, throws, etc., moments of forces and moments of rotation – swinging, swinging, revolutions and rotations when performing locomotor and gymnastic exercises; pressure for sports equipment, etc.);

– values related to speed (expenditure of the amount of energy during a given time; speed of acceleration, movement, stop and change of direction in motor actions; linear and angular acceleration during exercise);

– temporal (time intervals and frequency of actions per unit of time – a moment in time, duration of action, pace and rhythm of movements);

– geometrical (the position of an athlete – the coordinates of the location of the body or its links in a given system; dimensions – the distance between two given points when measuring results in jumping, throwing, etc., contours or shapes when measuring the correctness of drawing compulsory figures in figure skating; when measuring posture and flat feet);

– characterizing physical properties (density, specific gravity of the human body; measurements of humidity in sports hygiene; viscosity, hardness, plasticity of the musculoskeletal system);

– quantitative (mass and weight of the body and its individual links);

– characterizing the chemical composition (these quantities are too many to be listed here);

– thermal (body temperature and its thermal conductivity, determined by the amount of heat released or absorbed by the body under certain conditions);

– radiation (nuclear radiation – radioisotope methods for measuring the mass of individual parts of the human body and scanning; determining the bone age of young athletes; photometric measurements of the skeleton, etc.);

– electrical (biopotentials of various organs – heart, muscles, brain, etc.).

One of the promising approaches to solving the problem of identifying the most informative parameters and methods for examining athletes is the method of modeling various aspects of preparedness, the main purpose of which is to determine and scientifically substantiate specific quantitative model characteristics of functional, technical-tactical, psychological preparedness, upon reaching which this athlete with the greatest degree of probability can win these competitions or set a record.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.