Topic 7. ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES AT CAR SERVICE STATIONS
Types of production activities
The main activities of STOA are:
• pre-sale preparation and sale of automatic telephone exchange;
• Maintenance and warranty repair of vehicles during the warranty period of operation;
• post-warranty maintenance and current repairs;
• overhaul of components and assemblies.
The purpose of pre-sale preparation is to provide the buyer with a serviceable and prepared for operation automatic telephone exchange.
Maintenance, including during the warranty period of operation, is a set of preventive works aimed at preventing failures, malfunctions and restoring the values of the adjustment parameters of units, assemblies and systems installed by the manufacturer.
According to the frequency, list and complexity of work, maintenance is divided into the following types:
• daily maintenance (EO);
• periodic maintenance (PO);
• seasonal service (SO).
Daily maintenance includes cleaning and washing operations that ensure the maintenance of the proper appearance of the vehicle, and refueling operations.
Periodic maintenance including. performance of a certain list of works through the mileage of the vehicle established by the manufacturer, is divided into the following types:
• servicing by coupons of service books, which indicate the list of operations and the frequency of their implementation (for cars and some trucks);
• first (TO-l) and second (TO-2) maintenance (for trucks and buses of domestic production). In this case, the list of operations and the frequency are established by the manufacturer and are given in the operating instructions for the automatic telephone exchange.
Maintenance can be performed by the owner of the vehicle or carried out at the workshop.
Seasonal maintenance provides for the preparation of automatic telephone exchanges for winter or summer operation.
Repair of motor vehicles and their elements includes dismantling and assembly, metalwork, mechanical, copper, welding, tin, wallpaper, painting and other works. In accordance with the purpose, nature and volume of work performed, repairs are divided into warranty, current (TP) and capital (CR).
Warranty repair consists in carrying out work to eliminate factory defects and their consequences. The terms of its implementation are set depending on the complexity, but not more than 10 working days. It is carried out by the manufacturer or its dealer service stations.
The current repair is intended to eliminate the failures and malfunctions that have occurred by performing the necessary work to restore or replace:
• for aggregates – individual parts or assemblies, except for the basic ones;
• for motor vehicles – individual parts, assemblies or assemblies.
At auto maintenance enterprises, major repairs of complete vehicles are not carried out. Only units are overhauled in cases where the base part needs to be replaced or repaired, requiring a complete disassembly of the unit, and also when the unit’s operability cannot be restored through current repairs.
Organization of car trade
The purchase and sale of new vehicles is governed by the Rules for the sale of certain types of goods, the List of durable goods that are not subject to the buyer’s requirement to provide him free of charge for the period of repair or replacement of a similar product and the List of non-food products of good quality that are not subject to return or exchange for a similar product other size, shape, dimension, style, color or configuration. These documents, approved by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated January 19, 1998 No. 55 and developed in accordance with the Law of the Russian Federation “On the Protection of Consumer Rights”, regulate relations between buyers and sellers in the sale of motor vehicles, numbered units and spare parts.
Before concluding a trade transaction, the seller must provide the buyer with the necessary information about the brands and models of cars available for sale, and, if necessary, provide qualified assistance in choosing the right car model.
After the buyer has familiarized himself with all the cars for sale in the showroom and made a choice, he must pay the cost of the purchased goods. Payment is made either at the cash desk of the enterprise, or by bank transfer on the basis of an invoice issued for paying for the car. All payments are made only in rubles and using cash registers. The buyer receives a cash receipt for the full amount of the deposited funds.
After payment, the buyer becomes the owner of the car and picks up the purchased vehicle.
For the sold car, the seller must issue to the buyer:
• service book;
• care instructions and operation manual;
• a set of tools included in the vehicle kit, if provided by the manufacturer (special attention should be paid to this);
• documents certifying the ownership of the motor vehicle and necessary for its registration with the traffic police (a contract for the sale of a car or a certificate-account, a vehicle passport and a temporary registration mark “Transit”), for new cars with a purchase agreement; sale temporary registration plate “Transit” is not issued;
• act of acceptance and delivery (the form of the act is arbitrary).
The issuance and execution of the act of acceptance and delivery completes the implementation of the contract for the sale of automatic telephone exchanges.
When selling a numbered unit (engine, chassis, body, frame), the buyer is issued:
• technical documentation provided by the manufacturer (description);
• commodity (cash) check or other document certifying the fact of receipt of money;
• a document certifying the ownership of this unit, necessary for its registration with the traffic police.
In the event that the buyer loses the document certifying the ownership of the vehicle or the number unit, the seller is obliged, upon the owner’s application and presentation of a passport or other document replacing it, to issue a new document marked “Duplicate” indicating the series, number and date of the previously issued document.
When trading new cars, several sales schemes can be used: firstly, for the full price in cash or OS (cash); secondly, on credit; thirdly, on leasing.
Some sellers use the trade-in system when trading. In this case, there is a partial repayment of the cost of a new car due to the delivery of a used one.
In the case of a purchase on credit, the transfer to the buyer of the purchased car is made upon payment of at least 20 … 30% of its value.
As a rule, the bank takes 10 … 13% per annum in foreign currency and 16 … 22% in rubles for using a loan. The loan repayment time depends on the financial capacity of the car buyer. Usually it is from six months to five years and is prescribed in the loan agreement. It is generally accepted that the amount of the monthly installment should not exceed 40% of the buyer’s income.
In addition to interest payments and repayment of the loan amount, the buyer also expects other costs. The cost of transferring money from the bank to the car dealership is always paid by the client. Drawing up a loan agreement and opening a client account is also a paid operation in many banks. You may also be charged a fee for maintaining a credit account.
If a loan is opened in a foreign currency, then all conversion costs and the difference in rates are borne by the borrower. Therefore, despite the fact that the interest rate on a ruble loan is higher, just such a loan may turn out to be more profitable. This must be calculated separately in each specific case.
Sometimes there are cases of a loan to buy a car at 0% per annum. In this case, the interest is not paid by the client, but most often by the car dealer. Typically, such loans are issued for a period of not more than six months. The interest paid to the bank during this time is small, and the car dealership, in order to attract additional customers and increase sales, is ready to extinguish them from its own profit.
However, it happens that the cost of the loan is initially included in the price of the car. To avoid such deception, before agreeing to a tempting offer, you need to compare prices in different companies that sell cars with different lending conditions. If the cost of a car on a “zero” loan is not more expensive than that of competitors under normal conditions, then there is no deception in this case.
It is also worth considering that a car bought on credit will be insured under the CASCO program. The average cost of insurance is approximately 10% of the value of the car.
Those who need a car as a means of earning money, such as taxi drivers, can use the third sale option – a leasing deal.
Leasing is understood as property relations in which one organization (user) applies to another (leasing company) with a request to acquire the necessary property and transfer it to it for temporary use. There are relations between three participants: the manufacturer, the leasing company and the user (Fig. 7.1).
Rice. 7.1. The scheme of relations in leasing
The leasing company purchases a car from the manufacturer on the basis of a sales contract, and then leases it on the basis of a transfer agreement (leasing agreement) for temporary use.
The dominant role in leasing is played by relations for the temporary use of property, and the sale and purchase relations remain an auxiliary link. Although they serve as the basis for the emergence of leasing relationships.
The manufacturer and the leasing company, concluding a sales contract, act as a seller and a buyer. But when the buyer provides his property for temporary use on the basis of a leasing agreement, he relieves himself of responsibility for the quality of the goods, and this responsibility is already borne by the seller. The leasing company, while remaining the legal owner of the property, actually has nothing to do with it. The user, while operating the vehicle and performing all related duties (maintenance, insurance, repair), is not entitled to it.
A lease agreement is similar to a lease agreement. The difference lies in the fact that the leasing agreement may include a condition on the possible purchase by the user of an operated car. In this case, the user may be a potential buyer.
The main responsibility of the leasing company becomes the provision of a car for temporary use, and the main obligations of the user are the timely payment of periodic payments and maintaining the car in good condition. The user does not have the right to transfer the car to anyone without the consent of the leasing company. In addition, he is obliged to insure it for the duration of the contract.
To organize an enterprise for the sale of vehicles and numbered units in Moscow, you must have the following documents available:
1. State acceptance certificate.
2. The project of the building and the plan of the BTI indicating the premises intended for the storage of special products of the traffic police, as well as the layout of the sensors and detectors of the fire and security alarm.
3. Land lease agreement.
4. Lease agreement or certificate of ownership of the premises in which the enterprise is located.
5. Charter of the enterprise.
6. Certificate of registration of the enterprise.
7. Certificate from the State Tax Inspectorate on the registration of the enterprise.
8. Certificate of registration of cash registers.
9. Permission of local governments (district administrations) to trade and open food facilities if they have their own food outlets for employees and customers.
10. Medical books of employees of the store, food service.
11. Agreement with the department of private security on the protection of premises intended for the storage and issuance of special products of the traffic police.
12. Acts of inspection of the premises of the enterprise:
• conclusion of the district TsGSEN;
• Conclusion of the regional department of the State Fire Supervision Service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia.
13. Technical conditions for connecting electricity, water and sewerage.
14. List of employees with passport data, place of residence, position held and home phone number. Sample signatures, seals of the organization and office telephones.
15. Order of the head of the enterprise on the appointment of responsible persons for the receipt, expenditure and storage of special products of the traffic police and strict reporting forms.
16. Passports for advertising and signs.
Since the dealer service station, in addition to selling cars, provides maintenance and repair services, an additional list of documentation is required:
• list of services provided by the enterprise;
• certificate of conformity for the types of services provided;
• certificates of conformity for equipment;
• volume of maximum allowable emissions (MAE);
• project for placement of waste limits;
• contracts for the export and disposal of waste;
• forms of work orders for repaired cars. Special products of the traffic police are documents of strict accountability: certificates-accounts, temporary registration plates “Transit”, vehicle passports.
In other regions of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the resolutions of local authorities, when organizing a trading enterprise, additional documents may be added to the specified list.
Before selling cars, the seller must conduct their pre-sale preparation. The purpose of such preparation is to provide the buyer with a technically sound, prepared for operation vehicle without damage caused by transportation and storage, as well as without deviations from the norms in the operation of units and systems.
At medium and large service stations that sell cars, pre-sale preparation is carried out at a specialized production site, and at small service stations – at work posts in the MOT and repair area.
Pre-sale preparation includes the following works:
• checking the levels of oil, cooling, brake and other technical fluids in the units and systems of the motor vehicle and, if necessary, their refueling. Elimination of leakage of oil and technical fluids caused by a violation of the tightness of the joints;
• checking and, if necessary, adjusting the tension of the drive belts of the generator, fan, compressor (for vehicles with pneumatic brakes) and high-pressure oil pump (for vehicles with power steering);
• checking the level and density of the electrolyte and, if necessary, bringing them to normal;
• checking the air pressure in the tires and, if necessary, bringing it up to the norm;
• checking the condition and fastening of the protective covers of the constant velocity joints, steering mechanism, steering rod joints and suspension;
• check of fastening of wheels;
• checking the power supply system for tightness, monitoring the content of harmful substances in exhaust gases. Checking the ease of starting and stability of the engine at various crankshaft speeds;
• checking the fixation of tips on the battery terminals, as well as high-voltage wires on the terminals of the coil and spark plugs, electronic switch and distribution sensor;
• checking the operation of the drive and free travel of the clutch pedal;
• checking the operation of the service, parking brakes and free travel of the brake pedal;
• checking the operation of units and systems, mechanisms and devices of automatic telephone exchanges on the go or at the stand;
• removal of external conservation, cleaning of the cab, body, interior, cargo platform, washing and drying of the vehicle;
• inspection of motor vehicles, detection of external damage (checking the condition of doors, body (cabin), seats,
windows, rear-view mirrors, sun visors, plumage);
• checking the reliability of closing the hood, trunk, doors, fuel filler cap, serviceability of door locks, operation of power windows, locks and retractors of seat belts, adjusting devices for seats and head restraints;
• checking the operation of windshield wipers, washers, heating devices and windshield blowers;
• checking and, if necessary, adjusting the installation of headlights;
• checking the operability of control and measuring devices (lighting devices, light and sound alarms);
• checking on vehicles with disabled modifications of the performance of special and additional mechanisms;
• checking the availability of technical documentation, tools and components.
Detected defects and malfunctions, including those not included in the above list, are eliminated. At the same time, all work, including adjustment, is carried out by the enterprise conducting pre-sale preparation, and they are paid by the guilty party in accordance with a commercial act drawn up with the participation of a representative of the manufacturer.