Operating system. Graphical user interface

Practical work No. 1

Purpose: acquaintance with the concept of “operating system”, types of operating systems, their purpose; learning the graphical interface of the Windows 7 operating system

The content of the work:

The operating system is a basic set of computer programs that provides control of computer hardware, work with the file system, input and output of data using peripheral devices, and execution of application programs. When you turn on the computer, the operating system is loaded into RAM before other programs and then ensures their execution.

For desktop and laptop personal computers, the most commonly used operating systems are Microsoft Windows and Linux . The Mac OS operating system is installed on an Apple PC. Windows Mobile and Palm OS have been developed for PDAs.

The minimum addressable element of the information carrier is a cluster , which may include several sectors (the sector size is 512 bytes). The cluster size can range from 512 bytes to 64 KB. Clusters are numbered in linear sequence (on magnetic disks from the first cluster of track zero to the last cluster of the last track).

The file system organizes clusters into files and directories (a directory is really a file containing a list of files in that directory). The file system keeps track of which clusters are currently in use, which are free, and which are marked as bad.

A command processor is a special program that prompts the user for commands and executes them.

Device drivers are special programs that manage the operation of devices and coordinate information exchange with other devices, as well as allow you to configure some of their parameters. Each type of device has its own driver.

Utilities . The operating system also includes utility programs that allow you to maintain disks (check, compress, defragment, etc.), perform file operations (archive, etc.), work in computer networks, etc.

Graphical interface. To simplify the user’s work, modern operating systems include software modules that create a graphical user interface. In operating systems with a graphical interface, the user can enter commands using dialog boxes and controls: buttons, text fields, lists, radio buttons, checkboxes, counters, sliders, etc.

Aero Interface

The Windows 7 operating system uses the Aero interface. The word Aero itself is an abbreviation of the English words: Authentic, Energetic, Reflective, Open (genuine, energetic, reflective and open). The Aero interface includes the following set of features:

Aero Glass – use the effect of frosted glass in relation to the headers and various panels of open windows. When using this effect, a blurry outline of the desktop wallpaper or a picture of the next open window may appear behind the window of a running application.

Active thumbnails are thumbnail images of open windows that allow easy and quick navigation between open windows. Active thumbnails can be shown when working with the taskbar or when switching between windows using the keyboard.

Aero Snap – when you bring the window to the edge of the monitor’s working area, the window is automatically aligned. If the window is moved to the top edge, it expands to full screen. If you bring the window to the right or to the left edge, it will take up exactly half of the screen.

Aero Shake is a feature that allows you to minimize all inactive applications with a mouse movement. To use it, you need to grab the title of the window and “shake” it a bit. If you do this operation again, the application windows will return to their original position (Win + Home)

Aero Peek – view a thumbnail of open windows when hovering over the taskbar area, switch between windows with a simple mouse click, quickly minimize all windows and see the contents of the desktop. To do this, just move the cursor to the far right edge of the taskbar ( WIN + Space ).

Computer performance evaluation :

Press the key combination ” Win + Break ” on the keyboard, after which the “View basic information about your computer” window will appear on the screen.

The base performance index is a measure of the power of the computer’s current configuration. The maximum Base Experience Index your computer can achieve is 7.9, and the minimum is 1. To use all Aero effects, your computer’s Base Experience Index must be at least “3”.

Select one of the Aero themes .

To do this, right-click on the desktop, select “Personalize “, then click on one of the themes in the ” Aero Themes ” section. If the performance index is higher than 3, the effects can be observed.

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