One-part sentences are opposed to two-part sentences as an independent structural-semantic type of simple sentences. The predicative basis is represented in them by one main member . The main term expresses the main elements of predicativity – modality and syntactic tense.
The way of expressing the main member determines the division of one-component sentences into verbal and nominal . Verbal sentences talk about an action whose subject is not named. The main member in such sentences is expressed by verb forms – single or in combination with other words: We are building a house. It chills me. You already have to leave . In nominal sentences, being, presence, existence of an object is expressed: Late autumn . Here is the holiday . Laughter , laughter !
Verbal one-part sentences are heterogeneous in semantics and structure. They use different verb forms and express predicative relations in different ways. On these grounds, 5 types of one-component verb sentences are distinguished.
Definitely personal one-part sentences are sentences in which the main member is expressed by a verb indicating a personal ending to a specific (specific) person, which may be the speaker (speakers) or his interlocutor (interlocutors): Go to the library now. Come eat with me? That is, the main member in such sentences can be expressed: 1) by a verb in the form of the indicative mood of the first person singular: I drink birch sap. Oh, birch sap! I stand at a half-station in a colorful half-shawl. 2) with a verb in the form of the indicative mood of the second person singular or plural: Every day you answer more muffled, / Every day you disappear deeper … Are you trying to be witty ? 3) a verb in the form of the imperative mood, singular or plural: Beloved, sp and … What is the cause of insomnia? Don’t be angry with me! (in this case, the formal indicator is the suffix -i- and the ending -te); 4) a verb in the form of the indicative mood of the first person plural. With this form, the main member allows you to include an indefinite set of persons among the actors, therefore it is in these sentences that the actor has a less specific character than in other types of definitely personal sentences: Wed: Buy this toy for them tomorrow. We are opening a new store tomorrow .
It is very important to note that the main members of definite personal sentences CANNOT BE verbs in the form of the third person singular and plural, as well as verbs in the past tense, since these forms do not indicate a specific character. Sings (he, she, it, singer, heart, combined choir, student, etc.). Read (I, you, he, teacher, reader, someone, boy, student, etc.). Sentences with such verb forms are incomplete two-part sentences , the subject of which is restored from the context: And we went to work. They chopped firewood for the kitchen, dragged coal … In these sentences, the second main member must be restored to understand the meaning of the sentence, while in definite personal sentences the verb indicates with its ending a certain person.
Indefinitely personal one-part sentences appeared in Russian to focus on an action whose subject is unknown or unimportant for the situation described: Parquet is being laid in the classrooms. They pounded on the door for a long time. The attention of the speaker and listener is focused on the action itself, and the actor remains in the shadows. The actor can be either one person or several persons. But the main member of indefinite personal sentences is always expressed in the plural form of the verb: 1) a verb in the form of the present or future tense of the 3rd person plural; 2) verb in the form of the past tense plural: They shout outside the window. The school was renovated over the summer.
The character may not be known to the speaker, but this is not important for this message: The paths in the village were strewn with pebbles. The character can be known to all participants in the communication, so there is no need to name him: – Why don’t you go out into the street? – They’re not allowed . The speaker himself may be the protagonist, but he does not consider it necessary to emphasize this: – Move over! They tell you! And you know: while I’m alive, you have a place where they are waiting for you, always waiting , waiting for everyone.
Generalized personal sentences report actions that apply to any person, or – at least – to a wide range of people: In youth, they often try to imitate someone. What we have – we do not store , having lost – we cry .
Generalized-personal sentences 1) express general provisions, a conclusion related to a large circle of people, regardless of place and time: But you can’t mix wine with fire, / And you can’t replace fire with wine! The days of late autumn are usually scolded . What you sow is what you reap . Live a century – learn a century.
2) contribute to the expression of intimate thoughts, experiences, moods of a particular person under a generalized form. With this use of the 2nd person form, the interlocutor becomes, as it were, an emotional participant in the actions of the speaker, the action in this case is presented as typical for certain circumstances, and the construction takes on a generalized character: How quickly you pass at night along a long, it seemed, daytime path. Huge steps, you walk in the middle of the street, and your bat-shaped shadow lies somewhere on the side …
Foggy morning, gray morning…
The fields are sad, covered with snow.
Reluctantly remember the time of the past,
Remember faces long forgotten.
The main member in generalized personal sentences can be expressed by the verb in various forms:
1) 2nd person singular present or future tense. This is the most frequent way of expressing the main member in this type of sentence: You can’t even take a fish out of the pond without difficulty. You will understand a close person only when you part with him.
2) 2nd person singular or plural imperative: For the edge of your native go fearlessly into battle. Never regret anything after, / If what happened can’t be changed…
3) 1st person plural present or future tense: We will serve the Fatherland in battle / For our honor and freedom.
4) 3rd person plural present or future tense: Nightingale is not fed with fables. Chickens are counted in the fall.
5) 1st person singular present or future tense. This form is rarely used in these sentences: I will scout someone else’s misfortune with my hands .
These examples demonstrate the fact that generalized personal sentences do not have their own way of expressing the main member: they are the same ways as definite personal and indefinite personal sentences. And since it is impossible to distinguish generalized personal sentences from definite personal and indefinite personal sentences by the form of the verb, the semantic factor becomes decisive in these cases: the context or speech situation determines which person (definite or generalized, indefinite or generalized) the action refers to. . This gives a number of researchers a reason not to single out generalized personal sentences as an independent type of one-component personal sentences, but to distribute them between two other types. However, the formal features of generalized personal sentences also give grounds for separating them into an independent type: they do not have an uncommon variant, the secondary members in them are obligatory precisely to create the meaning of generalization.
Definitely personal, indefinitely personal and generalized personal sentences belong to the personal group, because the main member in them has a form that allows a noun or pronoun in the nominative case: I love a thunderstorm in early May. All chickens are counted in the fall. Workers over the summer repaired the school.
Personal one-part sentences are opposed to impersonal sentences.
Impersonal sentences are those in which an action or state is expressed that arises and exists independently of the producer of the action or the carrier of the attribute. That is, in these sentences there cannot be a noun or a pronoun in the nominative case, because the action is thought of as occurring spontaneously: I suddenly felt sad . By evening the weather cleared up . An indication of the producer of the action (carrier of the state) in impersonal sentences may be present, but it is carried out in the form of the dative case, that is, this word is not the subject: He is unwell . The students did not work .
According to the meaning and morphological nature of the main member, impersonal verbal and impersonal nominal sentences are distinguished. In verb sentences, the main member is expressed 1) by an impersonal verb: He was nauseated . In May it dawns early; 2) a personal verb in impersonal use: Sucks in the pit of the stomach (Compare. A child sucks on a pacifier). All around it rumbled , whistled , howled . Smells like hay; 3) a negative word or a negative construction: There is no bad land, there are bad plowmen. Soon there was no bread in the city.
In nominal sentences, the main member is expressed by 1) a brief passive participle of the middle gender: I am instructed to make a report. Little lived , much experienced ; 2) the word condition category: Deserted around. I’m sad because you ‘re having fun . He became more and more sad . However, the presence of participle and SKS as part of the predicate dependent infinitive makes the sentence verbal: We were destined to wait for the train for three hours. It’s good to walk, wash yourself with the breeze! Samghin decided that it was safer to go with this guy.
A special group of one-part sentences are infinitive sentences . In these sentences, the main member is expressed by an independent infinitive denoting a possible or impossible, necessary or inevitable action: Line up in one line! Do not turn a stone out of the way with thought. With the infinitive, there can be particles would , whether , only , only , at least , expressing various shades (doubt, reflection, desirability, preference, restrictiveness of the action): Is it possible to return it? I would live and live , rushing through the years! Just to get to the forest.
Nominal one-part sentences are divided into three groups: impersonal (see above about them), nominative and genitive .
Nominative sentences affirm the existence of an object or phenomenon, their presence, existence: Cries of locomotives, white smoke , frosty night .
The main member in nominative sentences is expressed: 1) by a noun in the nominative case: Evening . seaside . Sighs of the wind. The majestic cry of the waves; 2) quantitative-nominal combination: Two hours . How much trouble , however! 3) pronoun in the nominative case: She ! All my blood stopped. That’s all .
Depending on the meaning and structure, several varieties of nominative sentences are distinguished.
1. Existential sentences affirm the presence, existence of an object or phenomenon without complicating any additional shades: May thunderstorm . Flashes of lightning. Being can be represented by the meaning of a) place: Moscow . Kremlin Palace ; b) time: Winter . Second hour ; c) the situation and its details: Frost and sun ! The day is wonderful. Big room . Round table ; d) objectified action: Oblique flight of crows. Performance of the combined choir.
2. Demonstrative sentences indicate not so much the presence of an object as its appearance in front of the speaker; they include pointing particles here and there : Here is my gate . Here I am ! Maya screamed. In the sun , blue sky .
3. Incentive-desirable proposals express wishes, expressions of will: End ! Rise ! she screamed. Good way !
4. Emotional-evaluative sentences express the speaker’s emotions, his subjective assessment and differ in exclamatory intonation: What a neck ! Well, a day ! What a cursed life !
Genitive sentences are similar to existential sentences in terms of the basic meanings of beingness and present tense, but they have an additional meaning of excess, which is expressed by the genitive case of a noun with a quantitative meaning, and an expressive-emotional assessment: Houses , houses , and-and Lord! Like mushrooms. To emphasize the excess, repetitions are used, the particle is something : Food , food ! In the modern language, genitive sentences are a productive model by which sentences with words of different lexical meanings can be built: Laughter , laughter ! Milk, milk !
Exercise number 17. Select one-part sentences. Determine their types and ways of expressing the main members.
1. Quiet around. Late fall. Night autumn time. 2. This call is impossible to resist. 3. Whom to love? Whom to believe? 4. What’s new in the newspapers? 5. – What is making noise? – Water. 6. Here it is, the Yenisei! 7. The old woman wandered down the street again. Stopped at the gate. 8. Bells do not cure diseases. 9. O first lily of the valley! From under the snow you ask for the sun’s rays. 10. How many jackdaws! Wedding … 11. Emerald [horse’s name] could not stand, he wanted strong movements. 12. – What do they sell? – Coat. 13. Play, beloved button accordion, ring, my comrade! 14. Working with the younger generation is the noble duty of a teacher. 15. We are now under repair. 16. Do not forget to inform the headquarters about the events of yesterday. 17. A light was turned on on the balcony of the neighboring dacha. 18. At that hour it was very quiet – no steps, no sound of hooves. 19. Protect the feeling of youth at any age. 20. From hatred, shame and disgust, his mouth was dry. 21. On the mirror-shining road past the porch that is why I am going. 22. What is written with a pen cannot be cut down with an ax. 23. Serpents are kept in nurseries and poison is taken from time to time. 24. It was decided to gather everyone at the campsite and wait until midnight. 25. You won’t get out into the people with the wealth of your wife. 26. Tall buildings, colonnades. The bridges are filled with a lovely crowd of Australians. What faces! What a life! 27. Forget me and the days when we were together … 28. Last night in an alder hut. In the spring flood will wash it away without a trace. But in the summer I will build a new hut. 29. The boy was cold and scared. 30. By autumn, a dam for a small hydroelectric station began to be built in the forestry. 31. The rain could not disperse. It rustled in the bushes, then calmed down. 32. There is no longer a diamond string and there is no ringing in the air. 33. He was thrown aside by the explosion. 34. Surely not all poets and thinkers should be? 35. I’ll be back in two days. 36. No one can do without grammar. 37. It is also painful to serve at dinner, wash, sew. 38. Where I swam for fish, / Hay is rowed into the hayloft. 39. And in the world there are no such peaks, / What can not be taken.
Exercise number 18. Determine the type of each sentence. Find a letter match for each sentence.
A. Definitely personal
B. Indefinitely personal
D. Two-part full
E. Two-part incomplete
1) Clear winter afternoon.
2) The frost is strong.
3) Near us is a small sledge upholstered in bright red cloth.
4) Order a Russian-style sturgeon hodgepodge.
5) From the pressure there is no strength to breathe.
6) Nadenka was married.
7) Without happiness, do not go to the forest for mushrooms.
1) Do not make yourself an idol.
2) The pike was thrown into the river.
3) It smells of willow and resin.
4) There are two misfortunes in Russia: below the power of darkness, and above the darkness of power.
5) Rain, rain, fields our rye!
6) Everything should be beautiful in a person: face, clothes, soul, and thoughts.
7) Here are two birch trees.