Moral principles: collectivism, humanism, the principle of justice and legality.

Moral principles are one of the forms of expressing moral requirements, in the most general form revealing the content of morality that exists in a particular society. If the moral norm prescribes what specific actions a person should perform, how to behave in typical situations, then the moral principle gives a person a general direction of activity.

Moral principles include such general principles of morality as humanism, altruism, collectivism, the principle of justice, and others.

The principle of collectivism is a conscious subordination of personal interests to public ones, an orientation towards the interests of society, a struggle against those manifestations of individualism that interfere with the public good. The team is a community of people united by socially significant goals, which indicates a high level of their cohesion. The degree of its positive influence on the personality is determined by the benevolence and care in relation to the collective to the inner world of the individual.

In some cases, collectivism proves to be fatal. It is possible to single out such forms of false collectivism as nationalism, chauvinism, racism, banditry, etc. Ultimately, such forms of collectivism are rooted in the opposite principle of individualism, which permeates modern post-industrial society. This is a centrifugal force that leads people to misunderstanding, separation, strife and, finally, to wars.

Humanism is a worldview and moral principle, meaning the recognition of a person as the highest value, faith in a person, his ability to improve, the demand for freedom and protection of the dignity of the individual, the idea of a person’s right to happiness, that satisfaction of the needs and interests of the individual should be the ultimate goal of society .

Supporters of humanism proclaim man the center of the universe, the crown of nature. His striving for happiness and enjoyment has been declared the basis of morality since ancient times.

The principles of justice and legality, as one of the important regulators of human behavior, serve as a measure of the rights, benefits of an individual or social group, the basis of requirements and assessments from the point of view of a certain class or society. The most important universal human requirements were also fixed in their content.

To establish the right balance between justice and

legitimacy should, first of all, take into account their significance as social

regulators of a harmonious relationship between the individual and society. Exactly like this

the nature of understanding, both justice and legality, has been established in classical jurisprudence since the time of Plato and his dialogue “The State”. No one will doubt the fact that the activities of people, the relations that arise between them, the behavior of each member of society and

the actions of individual social groups require regulatory action,

establishing general rules. The whole set of norms that regulate behavior and activities constitutes a system of normative regulation of social relations.

3.4. The specificity and role of morality in the conditions of the formation and development of a legal democratic society: the principle of social justice, the narrowing of the scope of legal regulation of social processes, the principle of replacing legal responsibility with the moral responsibility of the individual. Spiritual barriers that prevent the unlawful behavior of the individual.

Moral norms have always contributed to the democratization and humanization of law. The effectiveness of the functioning of morality depends on the system of legal institutions that promote or hinder the establishment of universal norms, and the effectiveness of the functioning of legal norms depends on the level of their compliance with the requirements of morality.

Positive shifts in the sphere of morality, as a rule, contribute to the formation of legal consciousness and legal culture of citizens. The harmonious functioning of the norms of law and morality ensures the integrity and viability of the social communities they serve.

The idea of justice, the demand for justice permeate the legislation of a modern democratic society. The legal expression of the requirement of justice is contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including in relation to the activities of the court. In particular Art. 10 of the declaration reads: “Everyone, in order to determine his rights and obligations and to establish the validity of the criminal charge against him, has the right, on the basis of full equality, to have his case heard publicly and with all the requirements of fairness by an independent and impartial court. “. Art. 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, formulating the general requirement of fairness to the courts in criminal and civil proceedings, specifies it in the form of a minimum of procedural guarantees for each accused of a criminal offense.
The demand for justice in the state and society is embodied in the basic principles and specific norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Law, existing in the form of state laws, decrees, in contrast to moral norms, imperatively regulates people’s behavior. If the violation of moral rules causes public censure or the court of conscience, then the violation or failure to comply with the rules of law provides for the application of punishments and coercive measures. Moral norms regulate almost all manifestations of human life, and legal norms are only the most significant. Therefore, the boundary of the legal sphere does not coincide with the boundaries of known groups of social relations.

In its essence, according to its social purpose, law represents a certain order in society. The scope of legal regulation consists of three groups of social relations – property, management and ensuring the protection of public order. Other public relations are subject to legal regulation when and insofar as they are of a property, managerial or protective nature. That is why in this or that group of social relations some of them are regulated by law, while the other part is not regulated.

Sometimes there is a narrowing of the scope of legal regulation due to the refusal to use the law in certain areas of social relations. For example, in some Muslim states, the Qur’an often takes the place of laws in family and some other relations. Scientific and technological processes often lead to both expansion and contraction of the scope of legal regulation. At present, there is a tendency in our society to clearly limit and in some cases narrow the scope of legal norms and increase the role and importance of other social norms. The task of law is to apply such means and methods that would complement and strengthen other forms of social regulation. Therefore, the problem of the external boundaries of the sphere of legal regulation is closely related to the problem of the method of legal regulation, which, in turn, is determined by the nature of the objects included in this sphere.

Illegal behavior is the interaction of external factors and internal, personal qualities of a person. The external factors that cause the commission of a crime include unfavorable conditions for the moral formation of a person’s personality, as well as those features of the situation that contribute to the emergence of criminal intent, containing objective opportunities for committing a crime. Internal factors include antisocial views, orientations, needs, manifested in the corresponding motives. The significance of the situation in the mechanism of criminal behavior also depends on whether the crime is a continuous behavior or a separate behavioral act. The latter is usually more limited in time and may be uncharacteristic for a given individual. Long-term behavior, including criminal behavior, expresses the inner world of a person, his value orientations and needs more than a single act. Therefore, the personal qualities of a person, formed in a favorable environment, orienting him to the knowledge of legal norms and moral norms, and being the core of the internal structure of the personality, most likely, will be those spiritual barriers that will not allow the implementation of illegal behavior.

Topic 4. The main categories of ethics: good and evil, justice, honor and dignity, conscience.

1. Ethical categories “good”, “evil”

2. Ethical category “justice”

3. Ethical category “honor”

4. Ethical category “dignity”

5. Ethical category “conscience

Category is the basic concept used by a particular science in the study of its subject. Ethical categories are the basic concepts of the scientific apparatus of ethics, reflecting the most essential aspects and elements of morality. A feature of the categories of ethics is that many of them are words of ordinary language, for example, “good”, “happiness”, “freedom”, etc. This is because the subject of ethics is directly related to the life of people, with those meanings and guidelines which guide them in their daily lives.

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