Modern information technologies in management: social aspects of creation and implementation.

Organizations of various types and fields of activity can be represented as a business system in which economic resources are transformed into goods and services through various organizational, technical and social processes.

During the operation of any business system, it was influenced by environmental factors (competitors, customers, suppliers, government agencies, partners, owners, banks, stock exchanges, etc.) and internal factors, which are mainly the result of the adoption of one or another managerial solutions.

The process of making managerial decisions is considered as the main type of managerial activity, i.e. as a set of interrelated, purposeful and consistent managerial actions that ensure the implementation of managerial tasks.

The purpose and nature of the organization’s activities determine its information system and automation of information technology, as well as the type of processed and produced information product, on the basis of which the optimal management decision is made.

The effectiveness of managerial decision-making in the conditions of functioning of information technologies in organizations of various types is due to the use of various tools for analyzing the financial and economic activities of enterprises. It is possible to single out four circles of tasks solved by the firm.

1. The first circle of tasks is focused on providing economic information to users external to the company – investors, tax authorities, etc. In this case, the analysis uses indicators obtained from data from standard accounting and statistical reporting, as well as other sources of information.

2. The second circle is connected with the tasks of analysis designed to develop strategic management decisions for business development. In this case, the information base should be wider, but within the framework of fairly highly aggregated indicators that characterize the main trends in the development of an individual firm or corporation.

3. The third circle of analysis tasks is focused on the development of tactical solutions. Its information base is extremely wide and requires the coverage of a large number of private highly detailed indicators characterizing various aspects of the functioning of the control object.

4. The fourth circle of tasks is connected with the tasks of operational management of an economic object in accordance with the functional subsystems of an economic object. To solve these problems, current operational information about the state of the economic object and the external environment is used.

The main functions of the administrative apparatus of various organizations are the analysis of situations in the company and the external environment and decision-making on the strategic and short-term planning of its activities.

The implementation of planned decision-making tasks is carried out at the strategic, tactical and operational (operational) levels.

Each of these levels requires certain information support, which is implemented on the basis of information technology. In accordance with the levels of decision-making in the functioning of information technology, three contours can be distinguished: long-term strategic planning, medium-term tactical planning and operational regulation of the organization’s activities.

1. The strategic level is focused on senior managers. Due to the organization of information technology, access to information is provided that reflects the current state of affairs in the company, the external environment, their relationship and is necessary for making strategic decisions. The main objectives of the strategic management level are:

determination of the system of priorities for the development of the organization;

evaluation of promising directions of development of the organization;

selection and evaluation of the necessary resources to achieve the set goals.

In accordance with these areas, information technology provides top management with prompt, convenient access and sorting of information by key factors that allow assessing the degree of achievement of the company’s strategic goals.

and predict its activities in the long term. The features of the information technology of the contour of long-term planning and analysis of the predicted functioning are the construction of aggregated models of the development of the organization, taking into account the activities of related production and economic complexes.

Models of this information technology functioning loop should take into account:

features of the development of market relations in the country;

possible promising types of products (goods and services) related to the profile of the organization or enterprise;

potential types of production resources that can be used to create new types of products (goods, services);

promising technological processes for manufacturing new types of products (goods and services).

Accounting for these factors in the model of functioning of information technology is based mainly on the use of information external to the activities of the organization. Thus, IT must have a developed communication environment (including the Internet) for receiving, accumulating and processing external information.

A distinctive feature of the functioning of IT in the context of long-term strategic planning, based on the use of aggregated models, should be considered the decisive role of the management personnel themselves in the decision-making process. A high level of uncertainty and incompleteness of information increases the importance of the subjective factor as the basis for decision making. At the same time, automated information technology acts as an auxiliary tool that provides the main prerequisite for organizing the activities of the administrative apparatus.

Thus, information technologies to support the strategic level of decision-making help the top management of the organization to solve unstructured tasks, the main of which is to compare the changes taking place in the external environment with the existing potential of the company.

The main tools for supporting the work of top management are the developed strategic information systems for the implementation of strategic long-term goals for the development of the organization.

At present, a general concept for the implementation of strategic information systems has not yet been developed due to their target and functional diversity. There are three trends in their use:

The first one is based on the position that goals and strategies for achieving them are first formulated, and only then the automated information technology adapts to the strategy worked out in advance;

The second trend is based on the fact that the organization uses a strategic information system in the formulation of goals and strategic planning;

The third trend is based on the methodology of synthesizing the two previous trends – embedding a strategic information system into an existing information technology with a combination of developing a concept for the development of an organization in the management of a company.

Information technologies are designed to create a common environment for computer and telecommunications support for strategic decisions in unexpected situations.

2. The tactical level of decision-making is based on automated data processing and the implementation of models that help solve individual, mostly poorly structured tasks (for example, making decisions about investments, markets, etc.). The main goals of the tactical level of leadership include:

ensuring the sustainable functioning of the organization as a whole;

capacity building for organizational development;

creation and adjustment of basic work plans and schedules for the implementation of orders based on the potential accumulated in the process of development of the organization.

To make tactical decisions, information technology must provide middle managers with the information necessary to make individual or group tactical decisions. Usually such decisions are important at a certain time interval (month, quarter, year).

The tactical level of decision-making by the middle management is used for monitoring (constant monitoring), control, decisions and administration. The main functions that are performed on the basis of automated information technology are: comparing current indicators with past ones, compiling periodic reports for a certain period, providing access to archived information, making tactical management decisions, etc.

The functioning of information technology in the context of medium-term tactical planning is based on the use of models that reflect the real factors and conditions for the possible development of the activities of organizations and enterprises, and external requirements of suppliers and consumers are largely taken into account. However, in this circuit, external information exactly corresponds to the possible and practically implemented directions for the development of organizations and enterprises, which increases the level of certainty of the data and the management system model.

To support tactical decision making in the information technology of the company, tools such as databases, knowledge processing systems, decision support systems, etc. are used.

One of the tools for tactical decision making today are decision support systems that serve partially structured tasks, the results of which are difficult to predict in advance. Decision support systems have a fairly powerful analytical apparatus with several models. The main characteristics of such systems are:

the possibility of solving problems, the development of which is difficult to predict;

availability of modeling and analysis tools;

the ability to easily change the formulation of the tasks to be solved and the input data;

flexibility and adaptability to changing conditions;

technology, the most user-oriented.

3. The operational (operational) level of decision-making is the basis of all automated information technologies. At this level, a huge number of current routine operations are performed to solve various functional tasks of an economic object. Operational management is focused on achieving the goals formulated at the strategic level through the use of the potential identified at the tactical level. At the same time, the most important priorities for operational management include:

making a profit through the implementation of pre-planned activities using the accumulated potential;

registration, accumulation and analysis of deviations in the course of production from the planned;

development and implementation of solutions to eliminate or minimize undesirable deviations.

The functioning of information technology in the circuit of current planning and operational regulation occurs in conditions of certainty, completeness of information and often in real time information processing.

Information technologies provide specialists at the operational level with information products necessary for making daily operational management decisions. The purpose of information technology tools at this level is to respond to inquiries about the current state of the firm and to control the organization’s information flows, which is consistent with operational management.

Tasks, goals and sources of information at the operational level are predetermined and structured. The software processing of information is carried out according to previously developed algorithms.

Information technology, which supports management at the operational level, is the link between the organization and the external environment. Through the operational level, data is also supplied to the other levels of management. Tools at the operational level of management have little analytical capabilities. They serve the organization’s specialists who need daily, weekly information about the state of affairs both within the company and in the external environment. Their main purpose is to track daily operations in the organization and periodically generate highly structured summary standard reports.

Basic information needs at the operational level can be satisfied with the help of typical functional and problem-oriented hardware and software tools for textual, tabular, graphical and statistical data processing, electronic communications, etc.

The term “social aspects” in relation to most of the sciences, especially the fundamental ones, sounds strange. It is unlikely that the phrase “Social Aspects of Mathematics” makes sense. However, computer science is not only a science. Recall the definition quoted above: “… a complex of industrial, commercial, administrative and social influences.”

Indeed, there are few factors that influence the social sphere of societies (of course, those in a state of relatively calm development, without wars and cataclysms) as much as informatization. Informatization of society is the process of penetration of information technologies into all spheres of life and activity of society. Many sociologists and political scientists believe that the world is on the threshold of the information society. V.A. Izvozchikov offers the following definition: “We will understand the term “information” (“computerized”) society as that in all spheres of life and activity of whose members computers, telematics, and other informatics tools are included as tools of intellectual labor, allowing calculations to be carried out with great speed and process any information, simulate real and predictable events, processes, phenomena, manage production, automate training, etc.” Telematics in the above quotation refers to information processing services at a distance (except for the traditional telephone and telegraph).

For the last half century, informatization has been one of the reasons for the flow of people from the sphere of direct material production to the so-called information sphere. Industrial workers and peasants, who in the middle of the 20th century made up more than 2/3 of the population, today account for less than 1/3 in developed countries. More and more of those who are called “white collars” are people who do not directly create material values, but are engaged in information processing (in the broadest sense): these are teachers, and bank employees, and programmers, and many other categories of workers. New frontier specialties also appeared. Can a programmer who develops programs for machine tools with numerical control be called a worker? According to a number of parameters, it is possible, but his work is not physical, but intellectual. Informatization has a strong influence on the structure of the economies of the countries that are leading economically. Among the leading industries, the traditional extractive and manufacturing industries have been pushed aside by the most knowledge-intensive production of electronics, communications and computer technology (the so-called high-tech sector). In these countries, investment in scientific research, including basic sciences, is constantly growing. The pace of development of the high-tech sector and the level of profits in it exceed the pace of development of traditional industries by 5-10 times. Such a policy also has social consequences – an increase in the need for highly educated specialists and the related progress in the higher education system. Informatization is also changing the face of traditional industries and agriculture. Computer-controlled industrial robots, CNC machines have become common equipment. The latest technologies in agricultural production not only increase labor productivity, but also facilitate it, involve more educated people. It would seem that computerization and information technology bring only grace to the world, but the social sphere is so complex that the consequences of any, even much less global process are rarely unambiguous. Consider, for example, such social consequences of informatization as the growth of labor productivity, the intensification of labor, and changes in working conditions. All this, on the one hand, improves the living conditions of many people, increases the degree of material and intellectual comfort, stimulates the growth of the number of highly educated people, and on the other hand, is a source of increased social tension. For example, the emergence of industrial robots in production leads to a complete change in technology, which ceases to be human-oriented. Thus, the nomenclature of professions is changing. A significant part of people is forced to change either their specialty or place of work – the growth of population migration is typical for most developed countries. The state and private firms support a system of advanced training and retraining, but not all people cope with the accompanying stress. The progress of computer science has also generated another process that is quite dangerous for a democratic society – an increasing amount of data about each citizen is concentrated in different (state and non-state) data banks. These are data on professional career (databases of personnel departments), health (databases of healthcare institutions), property opportunities (databases of insurance companies), movement around the world, etc. (not to mention those who accumulate special services). In each specific case, the creation of a bank may be justified, but as a result, a system of transparency of the individual, unprecedented in any totalitarian society, is fraught with possible interference by the state or malefactors in private life. In a word, life in the “information society” does not seem to be getting any easier, but the fact that it is changing significantly is undoubted.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.