Modern cartography.

SEI HPE “Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University”

Department of Economic Geography

Modern cartography.

geoinformation

systems.

Completed: 2nd year student 424gr.

Shkurova Irina Vadimovna

Checked:

Nizhny Novgorod, 2011

Content

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..3

1. Modern cartography.

2. Geoinformation systems: what is it?………..………………………..6

2.1. Traditional cartography and geoinformation system…………7

2.2. Pluses of a vector image……………………………………..10

2.3. Characteristics of the data entry method in GIS………………………12

2.4. Layout……………………………………………………………18

2.5. The main ways to indicate the scale on the map. Relative advantages of each type of scale representation when used in GI……………………………………………………20

2.6. The main stages of creating a GIS………………………………….……22

2.7. GIS as a tool for city management…………………….….…25

Conclusion…………………………….……………………………………..…..27

References………………………………………………….……………29

Introduction

The rapid growth in the performance of personal computers, as well as the widespread use of the global Internet and large corporate computer networks – the Internet led to the formation of a developed information network and the use of new information technologies in the main sectors of the national economy.

Modern information technologies should make it possible to enter, process, correct, supplement any type of information with visual images; obtain spatial and temporal characteristics of the required resources; adequately assess the situation for effective control, forecasting and management, as well as to facilitate decision-making of various economic, social, scientific and production problems. All these requirements are met by information technologies called geographic information systems.

At present, the use of information systems goes beyond the narrow circle of specially trained operators and programmers, the need for constant work with information systems arises for a larger number of users. With the help of integrated information systems, the tasks of management, business, monitoring are successfully solved not only by specialists, but also by managers of all levels.

The main requirement in the modern world, not only for programmers, but also for managers of all levels, is the ability to cope with large flows of information, process them and apply new technologies in order to solve the problems of managing, monitoring or running their own business.

Modern cartography.

Maps are an image and a means for understanding the surrounding world in its changes and spatial states.

The current stage of development of cartography is characterized by great demand and, accordingly, a large amount of work on the creation of electronic (digital) maps. One of the important stages in the creation of digital maps is the digitization of cartographic information. Digitization software should provide high digitization accuracy, identification of re-digitized objects, self-intersections, breaks, as well as coordination of objects located in different thematic layers (i.e., the river must flow into the lake, and settlements should not be in the riverbed). When digitizing, various software tools can be used, such as: Macrostation, AutoCAD, MapInfo, Geographic Information System (GIS) ARC / INFO, GIS ObjectLand and others. Geographic information systems began to be developed more than 40 years ago, and the first really working GIS of Canada (CGIS) appeared in the early 60s. In the former USSR, similar studies began almost two decades later, and until now, work is often associated with the adaptation of foreign mushrooms. Historically, GIS in their modern sense developed on the basis of information retrieval and later cartographic data banks. Information systems were considered as the first stage of automated creation of maps, later in the GIS functions they began to include blocks of mathematical-cartographic modeling and automated reproduction of maps.

Modern GIS have a wide range of capabilities that allow you to perform a wide range of operations with graphic objects. When creating digital maps, there are always some difficulties. The most common problems are related to the quality of the submitted materials. Maps and plans-schemes are often in scales different from the topographic base, in other cartographic projections, sometimes you have to use photocopies of maps. Currently, the creation of digital maps is dictated by the need to create and maintain the State Land Cadastre and the introduction of the Automated System of the State Land Cadastre throughout the Russian Federation.

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