The creation of a new structure of the preventive service and an increase in its funding is necessary due to the following circumstances.
First, among preventive interventions, priority should be given to universal preventive effects, focused on separate large homogeneous groups of the population that do not have a previous risk of developing addictive behavior and have a positive focus. Positive preventive influences should motivate young people to take personal responsibility for their health and its preservation, strengthen spiritual and moral guidelines, the ability of children and adolescents to achieve their development goals, positive self-esteem, social self-efficacy and the ability to cope with negative influences. Health promotion programs provide an opportunity to help children and adolescents to develop comprehensively spiritually, socially, emotionally, intellectually, physically, to strengthen the sense of community, personal qualities / individuality / self-awareness and continuous development. Conducting positive prevention, focused on health promotion, will significantly reduce the likelihood of the possible development of addictive behavior.
Secondly, this is necessary in connection with the emergence of new types of addictive behavior – pathological gambling, Internet addiction, their combined forms, mobile phone addiction, food addictions (starvation and overeating), the prevention of which the existing system is not able to provide. preventive service.
Thirdly, the prevention of addictive behavior is part of the prevention of specific mental, emotional and behavioral disorders among children and young people. The high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic and eating disorders among children and adolescents, which are a high risk factor for the development of addictive behavior, requires preventive interventions among these groups and increases the volume of services that prevent addictive behavior. Prevention of addictive behavior cannot be narrowly specialized. For example, it should also include activities aimed at reducing the risk of sexual behavior and preventing HIV infection. Approximately 50% of HIV infections are acquired by injection among people who use drugs.
Fourthly, for the successful implementation of universal, selective and preventive measures, preventive interventions according to individual indications in the family, school, and place of residence, a system of professional training of personnel capable of carrying out all areas of preventive activity is needed.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the consistently high prevalence of alcoholism, drug addiction, combined with HIV infection; growth of behavioral addictions (addiction to gambling, Internet addiction, etc.); the low effectiveness of the treatment, the low level of the rehabilitation system are the grounds for creating a new system for the prevention of addictive behavior, carrying out differentiated activities at school, family, at the place of residence, among high-risk groups for developing addictions, groups at risk of disease and among large homogeneous groups of the population, not who are at risk of developing addiction through health-promoting activities. The effectiveness of these preventive measures can be quite high if the state implements environmentally oriented preventive measures, influencing the availability of tobacco, alcohol and drugs, using taxation mechanisms and pricing policies, advertising, etc.
Portal of psychological publications PsyJournals.ru – http://psyjournals.ru/addictive_behavior/issue/45945_full.shtml [Prevention of addictive behavior: a problem requiring discussion and solution – Addictive behavior: prevention and rehabilitation]
Methodology Lozova G.V. also allows diagnosing a general addiction propensity.
The addiction test (addictus from Latin “debt-bound”) determines a person’s propensity for 13 types of addictions.
· Alcohol addiction.
Internet and computer addiction.
· Drug addiction.
· Game addiction.
· Dependence on intersexual relations.
· Religious addiction.
· Addiction to a healthy lifestyle.
· General tendency to dependencies.
Based on the test results, it is impossible to make a diagnosis, the technique is indicative and shows a general tendency to one or another addiction.
Instruction. You are offered a test material consisting of 70 questions (judgments). Read the statement carefully and, without thinking for a very long time, choose one of the answer options. No -1 point; Rather not – 2 points; Neither yes nor no -3 points; Rather yes – 4 points; Yes – 5 points.
1. From time to time I really want to drink to relax.
2. In my free time, I mostly watch TV.
3. I think that loneliness is the worst thing in life.
4. I am a gambler and love gambling.
5. Sexual relations are the greatest pleasure in life.
6. I eat quite often not from hunger, but for pleasure.
7. I observe religious rituals.
8. I think about work all the time, how to make it better.
9. I take medication quite often.
10. I spend a lot of time on the computer.
11. I can’t imagine my life without cigarettes
12. I am actively interested in health issues.
13. I tried drugs
14. I have a hard time fighting my habits.
15. Sometimes I don’t remember what happened when I was drunk.
16. I can click the remote control for a long time in search of something interesting on TV
17. The main thing is that a loved one is always there
18. From time to time I visit slot machines.
19. I don’t think about sex only when I’m sleeping.
20. I constantly think about food, imagine different goodies.
21. I am a fairly active member of the religious community.
22. I don’t know how to relax, I feel bad during the weekend
23. Medicines are the easiest way to improve your well-being
24. The computer is a real opportunity to live life to the fullest
25. Cigarettes are always with me
26. I spare no effort, no money, no time to maintain health
27. Trying a drug is an interesting life lesson.
28. I believe that every person is dependent on something.
29. It happens that I touch a little when I drink
30. The TV is on for most of my stay at home.
31. When I am not with a loved one, I constantly think about him
32. The game gives the most thrill in life
33. I am ready to go for “casual relationships”, because abstinence is extremely difficult for me.
34. If the food is very tasty, then I will not resist adding
35. I think that religion is the only thing that can save the world.
36. Relatives often complain that I work all the time.
37. There are a lot of medical and similar drugs in my house.
38. Sometimes, sitting at the computer, I forget to eat or about some business
39. A cigarette is the easiest way to relax.
40. I read medical magazines and newspapers and watch health programs.
41. The drug gives the strongest sensations of all possible
42. Habit is second nature and getting rid of it is stupid
43. Alcohol in our lives is the main means of relaxation and mood enhancement
44. If the TV is broken, then I will not know how to entertain myself in the evening
45. Being abandoned by a loved one is the biggest misfortune that can happen.
46. I understand gamblers who can win a fortune one night and lose two fortunes the next.
47. The worst thing is to get physically injured, which will make it impossible to satisfy a partner in bed.
48. When I go to the store, I can’t resist buying something tasty
49. The most important thing in life is to live a fulfilling religious life.
50. The measure of a person’s value is how much he gives himself to work
51. I take medication quite often.
52. “Virtual reality” is more interesting than ordinary life
53. I smoke daily
54. I try to follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle relentlessly.
55. Sometimes I use drugs that are considered narcotic
56. Man is a weak creature, you need to be tolerant of his bad habits
57. I like to drink and have fun in a cheerful company.
58. Nowadays, almost everything can be learned from TV.
59. To love and be loved is the main thing in life
60. The game is a real chance to hit the jackpot, win a lot of money
61. Sexual relations are the best pastime
62. I love to cook and do it as often as I can.
63. I often visit religious institutions.
64. I believe that a person should work conscientiously, because money is not the main thing
65. When I’m nervous, I prefer to take a sedative.
66. If I could, I would work on a computer all the time
67. I am an experienced smoker
68. I worry about the health of my loved ones, I try to involve them in a healthy lifestyle
69. In terms of intensity of sensations, the drug cannot be compared with anything
70. It is foolish to try to show your willpower and give up the various joys of life.
Key to the test.
Processing test results. Sum the scores for the individual types of addiction tendencies:
1. Dependence on alcohol: 1, 15, 29, 43, 57.
2. Television addiction: 2, 16, 30, 44, 58.
3. Love addiction: 3, 17, 31, 45, 59.
4. Gaming addiction: 4, 18, 32, 46, 60.
5. Dependence on intersexual relations:
5, 19, 33, 47, 61.
6. Food addiction: 6, 20, 34, 48, 62.
7. Religious addiction: 7, 21, 35, 49, 63.
8. Labor dependence: 8, 22, 36, 50, 64.
9. Drug addiction: 9,23,37,51,65.
10. Dependence on the computer (Internet, social networks): 10.24.38.52.66.
11. Smoking addiction: 11, 25, 39, 53, 67.
12. Dependence on a healthy lifestyle: 12, 26, 40, 54, 68.
13. Drug addiction: 13, 27, 41, 55, 69.
14. General addiction propensity: 14, 28, 42, 56, 70.
Interpretation (decoding – conditional norms): 5-11 points – low; 12-18 medium; 19-25 – a high degree of addiction.