the first half of the second year of life. In order to set up children to listen to music, the teacher first shows the instrument, and then says: “Music”. In the future, it is enough to pronounce this word so that the children tune in to the hearing.
A feature of this age has already been noted – high motor activity, restlessness. Therefore, the hearing is conducted in the form of a game. The teacher shows the children an instrument, says: “Music”, – then performs a melody (sounding time – 15-20 seconds). After that, he lowers the instrument on the iol, closes it with a handkerchief and says: “There is no music, where is the music?”. The word “no” reinforces the appropriate gesture (shrugs). Children run or crawl towards the hidden tool. Someone takes off the scarf, and the teacher quickly raises the instrument and says: “Here is the music!” and repeat the hearing. Usually, after such a game moment, children listen with great interest.
Musical and movement demonstrations are widely used, as children already move a lot and begin to orient themselves in the environment. Plot toys or “bee-ba-bo” dolls are used. The movements of toys are accompanied by singing songs, exclamations, onomatopoeia. This enriches children with new musical impressions, encourages them to reproduce individual intonations of melodies, simple words, and also some movements. For example, when showing a bird that sits on the palm (window, head), the teacher ends the singing with the exclamation “oh” and spreads his arms. Children reproduce them. They pronounce the sound “a” when an elegant doll appears, calm down when the teacher cradles the doll, dance when the doll dances. If a toy is offered for display for the first time, then before playing with children, it must be considered in detail. In plotless shows (tambourine, flag), the teacher pauses, stopping movement and singing at the same time, reinforcing the impression of stopping by spreading his hands.
Games, dancing. The child has favorite dance movements, with which he immediately responds to the dance melody. So, in the dance, children spring in place, stomp with one foot, move with an added step (lateral), holding on to both hands of an adult, in the same way they circle in place, can sway and step in place with the support of an adult by both hands, independently turn their hands , divorced to the sides and bent at the elbows. Children enjoy dancing together with an adult. Other children enjoy watching such a dance. It is good if several adults take part in the dance, changing children in turn.
Over time, children begin to understand that with the cessation of the sound of the melody, it is necessary to stop. An adult helps them in this, emphatically spreading his arms to the sides when the melody stops sounding. At first, the reaction in children occurs with some delay. They stop and very interestedly wait for the return to the dance, the resumption of the music.
In games, the child begins to move from one to another action in accordance with the change in the nature of the music. For example, dolls are dancing, dolls are sleeping, children go to the bear and run away from him. The play movements of children are enriched and become more independent if an adult constantly changes the methodological methods of work – either directly participates in the game, then shows its movements, then gives a delayed display and a hint, then regulates the movements with the words of the song.
The second half of the second year of life. Listening to music is carried out using various instruments, and an adult tells the children their names: this is a pipe, this is a harmonica, etc. To listen to music, children are seated in a semicircle on chairs. The teacher names and shows the instrument, says that he will play music about rain, a horse or another image, and performs a melody for 10-15 seconds. Pauses and asks: “Still play?” And so 2-3 times. Usually children listen with interest, expressing their feelings with facial expressions and gestures. In order to create in children ideas about the figurative content of instrumental music, you can sing to them the melody of a familiar song without words, having previously warned: “I will play music about a bird” (about a car, doll, drum, etc.).
In musical and movement demonstrations, the teacher gradually transfers children from the perception of the shown movement to the perception of its verbal description. The musical-movement display becomes, as it were, a methodical method of teaching. It encourages children to play actions, dance, illustrates the lyrics, helps to quickly get used to the movements. When showing non-plot aids (tambourine, flag, rattles), the actions of them are determined by the words of the song. In games, a preview of an adult explains the meaning of the actions of the toy that he controls, the relationship between the characters in the games, helps to understand the sound impressions (a bear growls, a dog barks, large and small birds chirp, etc.). In the future, children perform movements on their own, according to the words of the song.
Games, dances are performed by children in accordance with the nature and form of the musical work. At this age, plot games are played with children, in which a figurative role is played by a toy, first controlled by an adult, later by a child. (In games, children usually portray themselves, running away from a dog, a mouse, looking for a bird that has flown away.) Children’s actions are regulated by speech and music. For example, children walk, then squat on the words “the children sat down to rest”, dance on the words “the children began to dance.” At first, children run away from the dog when it appears, then only when it barks. They “sleep” when an adult sings a lullaby and dances to a dance tune. In dancing, they have a desire to perform movements not only with adults, but also with comrades. They dance in pairs, threes, in small circles, invite each other, but on a voluntary basis (the child may refuse). At this age, children in games and dances begin to sing along with repeating words that are simple in sound composition: “Hare-Bunny”, “Mishenka-Bear”, as well as songs in which there are whole couplets of syllabic singing: bye-bye, la-la-la .
Let us list the indicators of the level of musical development of children in the second year of life, developed by T.S. Babajan.
1. Having heard the word “Music”, the children approach an adult, calm down, listen carefully. 10-15 seconds playing the instrument. Then they carefully listen to music while sitting on chairs for 40-45 seconds.
2. They watch with interest musical and motor shows of plot toys, sing along with the simplest words of songs, listen to familiar melodies.
3. As shown by the teacher, they perform movements regulated by the words of the song. Partially reproduce these movements without showing.
4. Seeing the music director, they begin to sing without words, recall the scenes of games and musical and motor shows, reproduce them on their own initiative.
5. Remember and perform two alternating movements associated with the words of the song. They sing along in various episodes of musical games.
6. At the sound of dance music, they begin to dance on their own. They invite an adult to dance, each other. According to the show of an adult, a variety of dance movements are performed.
7. According to the verbal instructions of the teacher, during the sound of music, they reproduce the actions seen earlier in the musical and motor shows. They are transferred to an independent game, accompanied by onomatopoeia and words.
The third year of life is notable for the fact that music lessons are held with the entire composition of the children of the group in a single form throughout the year. However, if the group is newly organized or there are many newly arrived children in it, then at first the content of the classes and the methodological methods of work aimed at the musical development of the child are similar to those that take place in the second half of the second year of life. Naturally, children of the third year of life will complete the program of the second year of study much faster, and by the end of the second month of their stay in the group, they can proceed to the implementation of the tasks of musical work with children of the third year of life. These tasks are as follows: to cultivate an emotional response to music of a different nature, the ability to listen to it, to understand its content in relation to the environment; to develop singing intonations and the ability to coordinate movements with the character, form, means of expression of repertoire musical works.
At this age, the lesson lasts 15 minutes and consists of exercises, listening to music, singing and singing, playing, dancing (the latter is very often included in the content of the game). Musical and motor demonstration, figurative story, brief explanations help to perceive the characteristic features of musical works, to correctly perform movements. With an increase in the level of development of children, the role of musical and motor demonstration decreases. It is used only when it is necessary to concretize the children’s ideas about the reproduced image.
Performing exercises, children learn to walk in different directions, run, orient themselves in space on a signal (“Where does it ring?” “Find the flag”), dance and imitative-figurative movements determined by the education program.
Listening to music helps to teach children to distinguish its character, program content, develops interest in various works. During the hearing, the teacher names the work, its authors. To draw the attention of children to the accompaniment of the song, the teacher performs it on various musical instruments after the song has been sung by him. The teacher draws the attention of the children to the introduction, acting out, conclusion of the piece of music, if any. After listening to music, a conversation is held with the children on its content, and the teacher himself answers the questions posed if the children find it difficult to answer or answer incorrectly. You can also talk with children about the images of the work before listening to music. Often, when listening again, children recognize the work from the first measures and name it. At first, this should be encouraged, but gradually accustom children to listen to the piece to the end.
Singing and singing is carried out using songs that are understandable in the text in one or two verses, easy in terms of pronunciation of words. First, the song is sung at a given pace by an adult. When repeating, he invites children to sing along with him, trying to facilitate the performance with emphatically clear articulation, diction, and slow tempo. If some children are silent or only move their lips, they should be praised along with everyone else. Gradually, these children are included in the singing. At the lesson, children sing two songs and, as a rule, are very awkward: they are late with the beginning of singing, they turn on only from the third or fourth measure, and delay the end. Their singing should not be interrupted. At this stage of development, children are absorbed in their singing, they do not know how to listen to their comrades, to pure intonation, and there is no need to interfere with them. The main thing is to arouse the desire to sing.
Games and dances are mainly aimed at the formation of expressiveness of movements, their consistency with the form and nature of musical works. Very often, playing and dancing actions are regulated by the text of the songs or the words of the teacher. For example, “Flowers bloomed in our garden-garden”, “Kids went out for a walk and watered flowers”, etc. In simple games (“Sparrows and a car”, “Cat and kittens”, “Train”, “Catch up with the ball ”, “On the path to visit”, etc.) children learn to move in accordance with the pronounced nature of the music, to respond by changing movements to a two-part form, to a change in the strength of the sound. In dancing, they also learn in pairs and, holding hands, walk and run in a circle, perform the simplest dance movements: clap their hands and simultaneously stomp their feet, half-squat, sway and shift from foot to foot, show “flashlights”, etc. the teacher takes part in the dancing. During the lesson with children, conduct musical and didactic exercises to distinguish between the height, timbre and dynamics of musical sounds. The material learned by children in the classroom is used in the process of holding evenings of entertainment and holidays.
Here are the developed by T.S. Babajan indicators of musical development of children of the third year of life.
1. Before the start of the lesson, the children name their favorite songs and plays, ask them to play them, tune in to the hearing.
2. They ask to repeat the songs they like, exchange impressions with each other.
3. Recognize familiar works and distinguish them by their characteristic introduction.
4. They listen with interest to figurative stories accompanied by musical illustrations.
5. Laugh out loud at the “unlucky” actions of the characters of comic scenes, give them advice. Willingly participate in the games “blind-seek”, “hide-and-seek” with adults.
6. Help an adult sing unfamiliar songs (move their lips, imitate intonations, sing whole phrases).
7. Remember the words of songs, more or less correctly and clearly pronounce the text. Together they correctly convey the rhythm and reproduce individual intonations of the melody.
8. They quickly memorize and reproduce the movements shown by adults to the music. They move independently from one movement to another in accordance with the change of contrasting parts of the work.
9. In story games, the nature of the movements and actions of the characters is conveyed in connection with their musical characteristics.
10. They try to independently extract sounds from instruments that an adult previously played, “accompany” themselves on an imaginary musical instrument. They reproduce the movements learned in music lessons, often singing at the same time.
The methodology for conducting music classes in the senior and preparatory groups of the kindergarten:
(Stages of learning)
Lesson 1: initial listening. Determining the nature of music, the genre of a musical work (dance, march, lullaby). If this is a song, then the definition of its parts
(intro, chorus, chorus).
Lesson 2 : fixing the name and surname of the composer.
Distinguish and celebrate the nature of music. Fix parts of the song.
Lesson 3: recognize and name the work. If this is a song, then by a melody played without words. Listen carefully to the piece.
Lesson 4: speak independently about the work, develop musical memory, name the work and the composer.
Lesson 5: create a store of musical impressions in children. Individual survey on the topic of the work.
Lesson 1: musically-illustrated display. Acquaintance with the content, conversation on the nature of the musical accompaniment.
Lesson 2: re-listening, while recognizing the song Fix the name. Revisiting the content.
Analysis of the song in parts.
Lesson 3: work on diction, clearly pronounce all the words and their endings.
Lesson 4: start and end singing at the same time, sing without tension, take a breath in a timely manner.
Recognize a song by its melody.
Lesson 5: independently, at the same time start singing, finish it clearly. Correctly transmit the melody.
Recognize the song by the intro and name it.
Lesson 6: learn to sing expressively (change the tempo, the dynamics of the sound depending on the content).
Sing independently accompanied by an instrument.
Lesson 7: singing in subgroups. Correct mistakes in singing, monitor posture. Singing without musical accompaniment. Slap a rhythmic pattern on your own. Individual survey.