Assignment in psychology for the 4th course for pedagogical practice
To study the student’s personality, use the following methods: “Conversation”, “Study of temperament by observation”, “Study of self-esteem according to the Dembo-Rubinstein method” modified by A. M. Prikhozhan. The methods are given below.
Based on the research, make a psychological portrait of a particular student. Try not to have contradictions in your psychological portrait. If you find contradictions in your subject’s answers, try to figure out what caused them.
METHODOLOGY 1. Conversation
Methodological instructions for completing the task
I. The implementation of the task must begin with the collection of general data about the students whose educational and cognitive interests will be studied. To this end, conversations should be held about the characteristics of the students being studied with the class teacher, school teachers, as well as with the students themselves.
In the course of the conversation, it is necessary to identify the circle of reading of the studied schoolchildren, their participation (without coercion) in various types and forms of extracurricular work, attitude to academic subjects, academic performance,
The data obtained using the conversation method are supplemented and refined in the process of studying various documentation: library forms, class journals, diaries, etc.
1. Do you like school? What exactly? (if the answer is not related to studies, you can ask the question – Do you like to study? )
2. What subject do you find most interesting? Why?
3. What subject do you find the most difficult? What exactly is the difficulty?
4. Would you like to study only for “4” and “5”. Why? (if not) For what? (If yes)
5. What subjects, in your opinion, could not be studied and why?
6. What other subjects, in your opinion, could be included in the training and why?
7. What do you usually like to do after class and why?
Analysis of the content of the answers allows you to establish the student’s attitude to learning, what caused such an attitude, the nature of the student’s educational and cognitive motives and the presence of certain interests in him.
If a student likes to study, likes to learn new things, he wants to study for “4” and “5”, reads additional literature in his spare time, attends additional classes and circles, then we can state cognitive motivation and a deep, steady interest in learning. The sixth question reveals the area of student interests, that is, what the student specifically calls.
If the student in his answers notes only the external side of the teaching (communication with friends, games, recreation), cannot name his preferences in the choice of subjects, in his free time take only rest and entertainment, then we can state the lack of cognitive motivation and learning interests.
Next, you need to compare the data of the conversation with the student’s performance and draw conclusions about whether his answers correspond to his success in educational activities. For example: in a conversation, a student reports that he is interested in biology, reads additional literature on this subject, wants to study for 4 and 5. Real progress in biology is mediocre, the teacher’s diary contains notes about failure to complete homework in biology.
METHOD 2. Observation
The study of the temperament of a schoolchild by observation ( the method was proposed by B. S. Volkov and N. V. Volkova in the collection “Tasks and exercises in child psychology”).
Observe the student’s behavior in classroom and non-curricular situations, and summarize your observations by answering the questions below. Record your answers in table 1.
1. How it behaves in a situation where it is necessary to act quickly:
a) easy to get started;
b) acts with passion;
c) acts calmly, without unnecessary words;
d) acts timidly, uncertainly.
2. How does he react to the teacher’s remarks:
a) says that he will not do this again, but after a while he does the same thing again;
b) is indignant at being reprimanded;
c) listens and reacts calmly;
d) is silent, but offended.
3. As he speaks with comrades when discussing issues that concern him very much:
a) quickly, with fervor, but listens to the statements of others;
b) quickly, with passion, but does not listen to others;
c) slowly, calmly, but surely;
d) with great excitement and doubt.
4. How it behaves in a situation when it is necessary to hand over a test, but it is not finished, or the control is handed over, but it turns out that a mistake was made in it:
a) easily reacts to the created situation;
b) in a hurry to finish the work, indignant about mistakes;
c) decides calmly until the teacher takes his work, says little about mistakes;
d) submits the work without talking, but expresses uncertainty, doubts about the correctness of the decision.
5. How does one behave when solving a difficult problem if it does not work right away:
a) quits, then continues to work again;
b) decides stubbornly and persistently, but from time to time sharply expresses indignation;
d) shows uncertainty, confusion.
6. How does he behave in a situation when he is in a hurry to go home, and the teacher or class asset suggests that he stay at school to complete some task:
a) quickly agrees;
b) is indignant;
c) stays, does not say a word;
d) is insecure.
7. How he behaves in an unfamiliar environment:
a) shows maximum activity, easily and quickly receives the necessary information for orientation, quickly makes decisions;
b) is active in one direction, because of this he does not receive sufficient information, but makes decisions quickly;
c) calmly looks at what is happening around, is not in a hurry with decisions;
d) timidly gets acquainted with the situation, makes decisions uncertainly.
Full name Class
|Reaction option||Question numbers|
Data processing. The number of “+” signs in the lines corresponding to the items is counted. The largest number of “+” signs in one of the items will indicate the approximate temperament of the subject. If “a” answers predominate, you are dealing with a sanguine type; if “b” – with choleric; if “in” – with phlegmatic; if “g” – with a melancholic type of temperament.
Since “pure” temperaments do not exist, according to this scheme, it is possible to establish those features of other temperaments that are to a certain extent inherent in the subjects.
METHODOLOGY 3. Study of self-assessment according to the Dembo-Rubinshtein method modified by AM Prikhozhan.
This technique is based on the direct assessment (scaling) of a number of personal qualities by schoolchildren, such as health, abilities, character, etc. The subjects are asked to mark on the vertical lines with certain signs the level of development of these qualities in them (self-esteem indicator) and the level of claims, i.e. e. the level of development of these same qualities that would satisfy them. Each subject is offered a methodology form containing instructions and a task.
Instruction. “Any person evaluates his abilities, capabilities, character, etc. The level of development of each quality, the sides of the human personality can be conventionally depicted by a vertical line, the lower point of which will symbolize the lowest development, and the upper one, the highest. You are offered seven such lines. They stand for:
the ability to do a lot with your own hands, skillful hands;
On each line with a line (-), mark how you evaluate the development of this quality in yourself, the side of your personality at a given moment in time. After that, mark with a cross (x) at what level of development of these qualities, sides, you would be satisfied with yourself or feel proud of yourself.
The subject is given a form on which seven lines are depicted, each 100 mm high, indicating the upper, lower points and the middle of the scale. At the same time, the upper and lower points are marked with noticeable features, the middle – with a barely noticeable dot.
The technique can be carried out both frontally – with a whole class (or group), and individually. During frontal work, it is necessary to check how each student completed the first scale. You need to make sure that the proposed icons are applied correctly, answer the questions. After that, the subject works independently. The time allotted for filling the scale along with reading the instructions is 10-12 minutes.
Processing and interpretation of results
Processing is carried out on six scales (the first, training – “health” – is not taken into account). Each answer is expressed in points. As noted earlier, the length of each scale is 100 mm, in accordance with this, the answers of schoolchildren receive a quantitative characteristic (for example, 54 mm = 54 points).
For each of the six scales determine:
the level of claims is the distance in mm from the bottom point of the scale (“0”) to the sign “x”;
the height of self-esteem – from “o” to the sign “-“;
the value of the discrepancy between the level of claims and self-esteem is the distance from the “x” sign to the “-” sign, if the level of claims is below self-esteem, it is expressed as a negative number.
Calculate the average value of each indicator of the level of claims and self-esteem on all six scales.
The norm, the realistic level of claims, characterizes the result from 60 to 89 points. Optimal – a relatively high level – from 75 to 89 points, confirming the optimal idea of one’s capabilities, which is an important factor in personal development. The result from 90 to 100 points usually certifies the unrealistic, uncritical attitude of children to their own abilities. A result of less than 60 points indicates an underestimated level of claims, it is an indicator of unfavorable personality development.
Height of self-esteem
The number of points from 45 to 74 (“average” and “high” self-esteem) certifies a realistic (adequate) self-esteem.
The number of points from 75 to 100 and above indicates an overestimated self-esteem and indicates certain deviations in the formation of personality. Inflated self-esteem can confirm personal immaturity, inability to correctly evaluate the results of one’s activities, compare oneself with others; such self-esteem may indicate significant distortions in the formation of personality – “closedness to experience”, insensitivity to one’s mistakes, failures, comments and assessments of others. A score below 45 indicates low self-esteem (underestimation of oneself) and indicates extreme trouble in personality development. These students constitute the “risk group”, as a rule, they are few in number. Two completely different psychological phenomena can be hidden behind low self-esteem: genuine self-doubt and “protective”, when declaring (to oneself) one’s own inability, lack of ability, and the like, allows one not to make any efforts.
In table. given quantitative characteristics of the level of claims and self-esteem obtained for students in grades 7-10 of city schools (about 900 people).
Table. Quantitative characteristics of the level of claims and self-esteem of students in grades 7-10 in urban schools.
|Parameter||Quantitative characteristic (score)|
|Claim level||Less than 60||60-74||75-89||90-100|
|Self-esteem level||Less than 45||45-59||60-74||75-100|
Form for the methodology.
|health||mind||character||authority in the team||Skillful hands||appearance||Self-confidence|