Drawing up diagrams, graphs, charts, tables is a type of graphical way of displaying information. The purpose of this type of independent work is to develop the ability to identify the main elements, establish a relationship between them, track the course of development, changes in a process, phenomenon, the ratio of any quantities, etc.

Schemes, graphs, diagrams or tables are used to display actual and digital material, which makes it more visual.

*The scheme* is an illustrative graphical means of presenting the content of the study. Schemes are planar figures (polygons, rectangles, circles) with inscriptions and communication lines. Schemes represent the ratio of parts in a certain whole object. This is an approximate visual image of a device or a structural characteristic of some object, process or phenomenon.

Types of schemes:

Ÿ control schemes, when the control structure of some object is drawn;

Ÿ functional diagrams, revealing the lines and directions of the dependence of the constituent parts;

Ÿ tabular schemes indicating exact data about the object of schematization;

Ÿ construction schemes that reveal the structure of something.

Diagrams are placed, as a rule, under the text explaining the diagram and interpreting it.

*Graphs* are a visual representation of verbal material through arithmetic and geometric means and artistic images: numbers, planes, lines, points, etc. With the help of graphics, the ratio of certain quantities, their functional interdependence, is established.

The graph is a line that depicts the relationship between variables. To build any graph, a coordinate system is developed as a spatial reference system. On the axis of the graph, scales are applied that characterize the numerical value of the measured factors.

The graph is placed immediately after the text about its construction and a link to it. The graph is verbally described in the text of the work, the dynamics of indicators and their interdependence are explained, and the identified trends are revealed.

*Diagrams* are mainly used to show the relationship between quantities. This is a way of graphical representation of quantities using figures (sectors, columns, etc.), the areas of which are proportional to the quantities.

Main types of charts:

Ÿ bar (ribbon) charts – depict the dependence of quantities in the form of rectangles of the same width, stretched upwards. The height of the bar corresponds to the displayed value. As a rule, such charts are used for multiple measurements of the same indicators, but distributed in time or space;

Ÿ pie charts – charts in which numbers (usually percentages) are shown as circular sectors. A pie chart is a circle divided into sectors according to the value they represent. Such charts are made with drawings on each sector depicting the measured value. Pie charts are used when distributing something whole between someone or something else.

Ÿ Venn diagram is a geometric representation of the relationship of the volumes of concepts or other quantities to each other by means of contours that intersect or enter into each other. Using the Venn diagram, it is convenient to show the relationship between concepts, the formation zones of the analyzed situations, qualities, states.

*A table* is a graphical form of presenting quantitative and qualitative data in an extremely concise form. It is built on the basis of functional dependencies of any data.

Tables consist of text and numeric parts. The text part is the headings of sections (graphs). The digital part – numbers and their ratio. In this case, the numbers must be expressed in a single numerical system (round numbers, decimal fractions up to tenths or hundredths). On the crossing of vertical graphs and horizontal lines, a semantic connection between concepts is established.

In the structure of the table, a head is distinguished – verbal information in the headings of the columns. These are the phenomena and objects that will be characterized quantitatively. Typically, this is done in the side header. The table also includes vertical columns – columns for placing numbers. The headings of the columns are included in the head of the table.

The first column, as a rule, indicates the serial number of the measured position. The second column is a side heading indicating what is being measured. The third and subsequent columns – contain information about what is measured and what is indicated in the side header. The table may have a last vertical column called “Total”. It can also be horizontal, put down at the end of the table. There is also a “Total” column. In this case, “total” denotes subtotals, and “total” denotes the sum of partial totals.

Table types:

Ÿ a simple table containing a list of data on a single event;

Ÿ group table, where data is divided according to a specific attribute;

Ÿ combined table, where the division of data is carried out at once according to several criteria.

When compiling a table, it is important to choose the essential characteristics of the subject of study, accurately group the material, take into account the comparability of data, their homogeneity. Tables should contain only accurate data.

__Algorithm for independent work on drawing up diagrams, graphs, charts, tables:__

1) Carefully read the training material on the topic under study.

2) Choose the most effective graphical way to display educational material.

3) Familiarize yourself with the design patterns of diagrams, graphs, diagrams or tables proposed by the teacher.

4) Consider the design of a diagram, graph, chart or table: the location of serial numbers, terms, examples, explanations, numerical values, etc.

5) Draw a diagram, graph, diagram, table and fill in the necessary content.

6) Check the structure of the material, the presence of a logical connection of the information presented.

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