Meat productivity of poultry and factors that determine it

Poultry production

Meat productivity of poultry and factors that determine it

Meat qualities of poultry

Features of food egg production technology in the Republic of Belarus

Poultry production

The main way to increase the production of poultry meat is the reconstruction and modernization of poultry farms for growing broilers, ducks, turkeys, geese and the restoration of factories and farms in collective farms and state farms of the republic. In addition, it is necessary to significantly increase the sale of young beef animals of various types to the population.

In the coming years, it is necessary to create and introduce into production:

1) highly productive crosses of meat chickens with a live weight of broilers at 6 weeks (42 days) of age not less than 2.0 – 2.3 kg;

2) progressive technologies for growing meat poultry with more advanced mechanization and automation of production processes;

3) improve poultry feeding, which will reduce the cost of feed for the production of one centner of growth;

4) use energy- and resource-saving technologies to reduce the cost of production and increase the efficiency of meat poultry farming.

In the world, the share of poultry meat is significant and amounts to about 30%, and in some countries even more. Such a significant proportion of poultry meat in its total production in many countries of the world is explained by the fact that poultry has an exceptionally high feed conversion. It is known that meat and meat products are the main source of valuable food protein of animal origin, the shortage of which is sharply felt in many countries of the world. Due to the fact that poultry meat contains a high amount of protein, the production of edible animal protein from poultry meat is significant and accounts for more than 30% of the total amount of proteins obtained from meat of farm animals.

Poultry meat ranks second as a source of protein. According to forecasts, by 2015 the production of poultry meat is 89 – 90 million tons, or 35-37% of the total meat production. At the same time, per capita production is 13.7 kg. By 2025, poultry will be in first place, followed by beef and only third by pork.

The industrial production of poultry meat is based on its biological characteristics: the intensity of growth of young animals (especially muscle tissue), efficient assimilation of feed and its minimum cost per unit of growth (high feed conversion, transformation, transformation). These biological characteristics of young poultry are combined with such factors as industrial poultry farming: year-round poultry rearing, dry feeding with complete balanced feeds, mechanization and automation of labor-intensive processes, automatic regulation of the optimal microclimate regime. The modern industrial production of poultry meat is characterized by a rhythmic year-round production cycle based on the principle of flow, conveyor and high labor productivity.

The industrial production of poultry meat is organized at specialized poultry farms, collective farms and state farms. Most of the large meat poultry farms have a complete (closed) production cycle, which is characterized by the presence of separate workshops: a herd of parental forms, incubation, rearing of meat and rearing young animals, slaughter and processing of poultry, disposal of poultry slaughter waste and incubation, a feed mill.

The main and most profitable source of meat production is the specialized rearing of young chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for meat. For the production of meat, culled adult chickens, replacement young stock are also used.

In meat poultry farming, meat breeds, lines and crosses of highly specialized combined lines are of decisive importance for obtaining hybrids with a high growth rate, outstanding meat qualities and feed payment. The meat bird is characterized by a certain body type. Meat-type chickens are large birds of large mass and size, have a wide and deep body, loose plumage, a wide back and chest, a straight and long keel of the sternum, thick legs, and well-developed muscles.

Meat productivity of poultry and factors that determine it

Meat productivity is one of the most important economically useful qualities of poultry. And for such species as ducks, geese, turkeys, pigeons, ostriches, meat productivity is the main one, because. their eggs are mainly used only for breeding young animals raised for meat.

The meat productivity of poultry is characterized by the following indicators:

1) Live weight of poultry

2) The growth rate of young beef

3) Feed consumption per unit of growth (feed payment)

4) Speed of feathering

5) Fertility – the output of young animals in live weight per 1 head of the parent herd

6) Preservation of young and adult birds

7) Meat forms and carcass appearance

8) Slaughter weight, slaughter yield, edible parts yield

9) The chemical composition and biological value of meat

10) The taste of meat

Live weight of a bird is related to species, breed, age, sex, genetic characteristics, selection level and individual differences. In this case, the conditions of feeding and keeping birds are of decisive importance. Of all types of poultry, turkeys and geese have the largest live weight. The live weight of adult turkeys reaches 15-30 kg or more, ganders – 8-10 kg. Ducks of meat breeds weigh 3-5 kg, meat chickens – 3.5-5.6 kg, guinea fowl – 1.7-2.2 kg, pigeons – 0.5-1.2 kg.

Growth rate is the most important qualitative indicator of meat precocity. The time of growing young animals to slaughter conditions depends on the rapid growth. The higher the growth rate, the less time you need to spend on growing young animals. The young growth of an agricultural bird grows very quickly. The growth rate of young animals is well inherited and is associated with metabolic characteristics. To characterize the growth rate of young animals, such indicators as the absolute and relative growth of young animals are used.

The speed of feathering of a bird. This is the most important qualitative indicator of the meat productivity of poultry, which is associated with the growth rate, meat precocity, carcass quality, feed payment. It has been established that the growth rate of meat poultry is directly dependent on the growth of the feather, and there is a direct relationship between these features. Full feathering of the back, especially in meat chickens, preferably by 39-45 days of age. The efficiency of selection of fast-feathering birds and with high growth intensity makes it possible to improve the quality of meat. It has more dry matter, protein, fat, higher yield of edible parts.

Payment for feed gain or feed costs per 1 kg of gain. This is one of the most important practical and economic indicators, since the task is to get more products at lower costs, especially feed, which in the structure of the cost of poultry meat is 70% or more. The payment for feed is closely related to the growth of the bird. The dependence here is direct: the more intensive the growth of the bird, the higher the payment for feed by growth.

The fertility of poultry depends on the number of eggs laid, their fertility, hatchability, safety, live weight at slaughter. The most prolific is that female that has a high egg production, fertility and hatchability of eggs. The number of young animals obtained for meat depends on the fertility of the parent herd. In advanced farms, on average, 240-280 kg of meat in live weight are obtained from meat chicken, ducks – 370-400 kg, turkeys – 500-600 kg, geese – 150-200 kg of meat. The fecundity of a bird is due to age. The highest fertility in chickens, ducks, turkeys is observed at the age of 1-2 years, and in geese up to 3-4 years.

The safety of young animals determines the number of young animals grown and, together with other factors, determines the efficiency of meat production. Safety depends mainly on environmental factors (adequacy of feeding, conditions of detention, etc.). Under good conditions, safety is 95-97%, and for adult birds up to 95%.

Meat qualities of poultry

The meat qualities of a bird are determined by the slaughter weight, slaughter yield, the ratio of edible and inedible parts, muscle yield. Slaughter weight – the mass of a non-gutted carcass without blood, feathers and fluff; it is 90-91% of the live weight of the bird.

An objective indicator that characterizes the meat qualities of poultry is the slaughter yield – this is the ratio of slaughter weight to weight before slaughter, expressed as a percentage. Here it is necessary to distinguish between the following concepts:

1) the slaughter yield of a non-gutted carcass is 90-91%;

2) the yield of a half-gutted carcass – a carcass without intestines, goiter, oviduct (in females) is 80-81%;

3) the yield of a gutted carcass – a carcass without all internal organs, head, neck (without skin), legs along the tarsal joint to pre-slaughter live weight is 62-65%.

Meat qualities depend on the fatness of the bird. Fatness is due to genetic characteristics and environmental factors. After slaughter, the bird is divided into the first and second categories, guided by state standards.

The chemical composition of meat is one of the objective indicators characterizing its quality. The high biological value of poultry meat proteins is determined by the content of essential amino acids, optimal for the human body, their ratio and digestibility. The ratio of amino acids in poultry meat is approximately the same as in chicken egg proteins, in which protein is the standard of biological usefulness.

In poultry meat, there are significantly fewer incomplete proteins (elastin, collagen) than in the meat of cattle and pigs. In this regard, poultry meat proteins are absorbed by the human body more easily than other farm animals.

The usefulness of poultry meat is not limited to the usefulness of proteins, it is due to the content of fat and other biologically active substances. The fat content in meat depends on the type, age and fatness of the bird.

Poultry meat has high taste qualities, which are associated with the morphological qualities of muscle tissue and its physiological properties – tenderness and juiciness.

The juiciness of meat is its ability to retain bound water. More juicy will be the red meat of waterfowl and the meat of the leg muscles of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, quails.

The tenderness of meat as an important quality and taste indicator is associated with the structure of muscle fibers and the content of connective tissue. The most tender meat is the white meat of chickens, turkeys, quail compared to red meat.

The final step in determining the quality of meat is its taste. The taste of meat depends on the content of nitrogen-free extractive substances (glycogen, glucose, lactic acid, etc.). These substances, free glutamic acid and free purines, play an important role in the maturation of meat and its specific aroma.

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