1. The concept of the unity of the cash desk .. 4
2. The concept of a single account. 6
3. Management of operations with funds on a single account of the federal budget 9
4. Organizational and legal features of the implementation of the principle of unity of cash and a single account in the execution of budgets. eleven
List of used literature.. 18
The principle of the unity of the cash desk is the principle of budget execution. At the same time, the unity of the cash desk is closely connected with the principle of the unity of the budgetary system. Failure to comply with the principle of the unity of the cash desk, as shown in the article on the example of Russia, inevitably leads to the fact that the budget process is out of control of the government.
The principle of cash unity is a special principle for the budget execution stage of the budget process. At the same time, the unity of the cash desk is closely connected with such a principle of building the budget system as the principle of the unity of the budget system. It can be said that through the unity of the cash desk, among other things, the unity of the budget system is realized.
The purpose of this work is to study the principles of the unity of cash and a single account in the execution of the budget.
To achieve this goal, the following tasks were formulated:
1. Define the concept of cash desk unity.
2. define the concept of a single account.
3. Consider the management of operations with funds on a single account of the federal budget.
4. Consider the organizational and legal features of the implementation of the principle of the unity of the cash desk and a single account in the execution of budgets.
The concept of the unity of cash
In the science of financial law, a centralized and decentralized cash register is known.
I. Kh. Ozerov understood the movement from a decentralized method of budget execution to a centralized one as ascending, having three stages. At the first stage, cash desks are created to collect income and make expenses for individual departments, at the second stage, all cash desks are centralized in the hands of one department – the Ministry of Finance, and at the third, most advanced stage, a banking system of state cash desks is created.
V.A. Lebedev noted that the most important theoretical issue regarding cash desks is the question of the system of their centralization or the unity of the cash desk. The unity of the cash desk lies in the fact that all state funds flow into the cash desks subordinate to the Ministry of Finance, which makes it possible to quickly find out how much money is available in the state treasury, and this “contributes a lot to the non-stop satisfaction of expenses.” The slowdown in payments associated with the centralization of cash desks “is unimportant in comparison with the clarity and correctness of the entire cash flow, provided by the unity of the cash desk.” More than a century has passed, but little can be added to this formulation. At the same time, in the current conditions of the dominance of non-cash money circulation and advanced information technologies, the slowdown in payments associated with the introduction of the unity of the cash register is insignificant.
According to the principle of the unity of the cash desk, the cash execution of the budget should be concentrated in one central body. At the same time, institutions are not entitled to retain budgetary funds and make any expenses from them. They are obliged to transfer them to the cash department that executes this budget [1, c.98].
The definition of the principle of the unity of the cash desk in Russian legislation was established in 2000 by art. 216 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as the RF BC), in accordance with which the principle of the unity of the cash desk provides for the crediting of all incoming budget revenues, the attraction and repayment of sources of financing the budget deficit and the implementation of all expenses from a single budget account.
At the same time, in accordance with Art. 243 of the RF BC, it is prohibited to carry out transactions with federal budget funds, bypassing the system of balance accounts of the Federal Treasury, which, according to Art. 244 of the RF BC can only be opened with the Bank of Russia. Article 155 of the RF BC also establishes that the budget accounts are serviced by the Bank of Russia.
Cash service for the execution of budgets at all levels of the budget system of the Russian Federation is carried out by the Federal Treasury (Article 215.1 of the RF BC), which is also part of the implementation of the principle of unity of the budget system.
World practice and historical experience confirm the advantage of a centralized type of budget execution (based on the principle of cash unity) over a decentralized one. Such advantages include:
– The availability of up-to-date (daily) information from the government on the balance in the cash desk (accounts) of the state;
– daily information on the movement of funds in the budget accounts, reliable knowledge of the amount of budget revenues received in any period, and, for a federal state, of the amount of revenues received in lower budgets;
– the ability of the government to eliminate cash gaps in the execution of the budget;
– full transparency in relation to financial flows arising from the execution of the budget;
– the possibility of reducing the risks of placing funds in bank accounts and making a profit as a result of investing in the financial markets a significant amount of money, which is a permanent balance in a single account.
The concept of a single account
Unified budget account – an account (a set of accounts for the federal budget, budgets of state extra-budgetary funds of the Russian Federation), opened (open) to the Federal Treasury in an institution of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation separately for each budget of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation for accounting for budget funds and carrying out operations on cash receipts to the budget and cash payments from the budget [4, c.68].
It is an implementation of the principle of the unity of the cash desk, it can be understood as a system (set) of bank accounts, one of which is the main one, and the rest are technical (transit).
In accordance with the budgetary legislation, a budgetary institution cannot open current accounts in credit institutions. It carries out operations with budgetary funds through personal accounts opened for it with the Federal Treasury or the financial authority of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation (municipal formation).
Unified budget accounts are serviced by institutions of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. Credit institutions may be involved in the performance of the functions of servicing the unified accounts of budgets in the absence of institutions of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation in the relevant territory or the impossibility for them to perform these functions.
Operations on single accounts of budgets are carried out by bodies of the Federal Treasury or an executive body of state power of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, in the event that the powers of the Federal Treasury for cash services for the execution of the budget of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, the budgets of territorial state non-budgetary funds of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation and the budgets of municipalities that are part of subject of the Russian Federation.
Until 2014, the governing bodies of state off-budget funds independently opened accounts with the institutions of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.
Unified budget accounts are opened for the Federal Treasury, departments of the Federal Treasury for the subject of the Russian Federation (UFK) in the institutions of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation on balance accounts:
No. 40105 “Funds of the federal budget”
No. 40201 “Funds of the budgets of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation”
No. 40204 “Funds of local budgets”
Today, the principle of the unity of the cash desk has been transformed into the principle of a single account. It can be argued that the principle of a single account is a more perfect and developed principle of the unity of cash. In this regard, we should mention the remark of M.I. Bogolepov that “central issuing banks appeared when the treasury system and related accounting and control organizations were already completely developed and strengthened, for example, the treasury system in France, which has more than 400 years of history, and The Banque de France was organized only at the beginning of the 19th century.
It does not matter how many bank accounts are open for budget execution. In fact, the budget may have several accounts, one of which will be the main one, and the rest – technical (transit), not having a carry-over balance. A single account can be understood as a system (set) of bank accounts.
In this regard, consider the cash register of various countries.
An example of the consistent implementation of the principle of the unity of the cash desk can be called France, where all payments are made from the current (active-passive) account of the State Treasury. The budget accounting system in France is built in such a way that daily account balances of the French State Treasury units are transferred to a single account, which allows the Minister of Finance to have an operational (daily, weekly, monthly) report on the state of the state cash desk. This state of affairs remained unchanged after the adoption of the Organic Law of August 1, 2001 No. 2001-692 “On Financial Laws”. A central treasury account is opened at the Banque de France. The territorial divisions of the Bank of France serve more than 10 thousand operational (transit) accounts with the obligatory mode of daily transfer of the balance to the central treasury account (balancing) [3, c.120].
In Sweden, each government agency has a set number of bank accounts in the government single treasury account system, and the agency has direct access to them. However, liquid funds are never kept in such accounts, payments are made and registered through the accounts of institutions, but are withdrawn from the main account of the budget.
In the same way, in the execution of the federal budget of the Federal Republic of Germany, all income and expenses of the federation are in principle conducted through the central account of the federation, which is maintained by the Main Federal Treasury, established under the federal Ministry of Finance. The main federal cash desk heads the system of federal cash desks. Cash departments and points for issuing advances in hand can be created by other, in addition to the Federal Ministry of Finance, the highest federal bodies with its permission (paragraph 4 of paragraph 79 of the Regulations on the Federal Budget of the Federal Republic of Germany). There are such cash desks (about 1200 cash departments, 250 of them outside Germany), which allows us to talk about a departure from the principle of unity of the cash desk. This deviation has developed historically and is furnished with a number of conditions that limit the competence of such cash desks and establish their periodic reporting. Here we can talk about an exception that confirms the general rule.
The Japanese lawyer E. Oda calls the principle of the unity of the treasury (cash), which implies the concentration of all financial resources in a single treasury, one of the most important guarantees of the unity of the budget. At the same time, in Japan, such functions as: receiving budgetary funds, their storage and issuance in strict accordance with the budget schedule, maintaining relevant accounting and reporting are assigned to the Bank of Japan, the status, tasks and functions of which are regulated by the Bank of Japan Law of 1949. Thus , Japan is one of the obvious examples of the implementation of the principle of the unity of the cash desk in conditions when the functions of budget execution are performed by the bank, and not by a special executive body.
The current state of execution of the Commonwealth budget is organized in such a way that each agency (executive authority subordinate to the federal government) has maximum freedom of action in conditions of unity of the cash desk. In particular, the agencies are empowered to independently open bank accounts both for intradepartmental expenses (departmental accounts) and for the performance of statutory tasks (managed accounts). In addition, agency accounts are subdivided into revenue and expense accounts. At the same time, funding for interdepartmental expenses is brought to the agencies in the form of a single amount that can be redistributed in any way. However, all agency bank balances are transferred at the end of each business day to an official government account held by the Australian Department of the Treasury at the Reserve Bank of Australia. Thus, the principle of the unity of the box office is also implemented in the Australian budget process.
Management of operations with funds on a single account of the federal budget
The system of collecting federal budget funds and bringing them to the recipients of budgetary funds that had developed by the end of the 90s had significant drawbacks, including:
4 accounts were used to record and distribute the income received. Federal budget funds became available for use 5-6 days after their receipt.
Accounts for the accounting of income and expenses of the federal budget were opened for each body of the federal treasury. A large number of accounts at the levels of federal treasury bodies slowed down the flow of funds from the taxpayer to the recipient of budgetary funds, suppliers of goods, works, services to these recipients. As a result, the Government of the Russian Federation was forced to borrow funds to finance the federal budget deficit in the presence of significant balances of federal budget funds.
There was no possibility of operational management of the balances of federal budget funds that were on numerous accounts of federal treasury bodies.
There was an increased risk of possible losses of federal budget funds in the accounts of federal treasury departments opened with credit institutions.
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 107-r dated January 23, 2000 approved the Concept for the Functioning of the Single Account of the Federal Treasury of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation for Accounting Revenues and Funds of the Federal Budget. The main goal of its implementation was the centralization of revenues and funds of the federal budget on a single treasury account (TSA) of the Main Directorate of the Federal Treasury of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation. It should be noted that the concept of “single treasury account” is absent in the budget legislation, sometimes it is used instead of the concept of “single budget account”.
At present, to carry out operations with federal budget funds, the Federal Treasury has opened account No. 40105810800000012900, each UFK has opened an account on balance account No. 40105.
On a daily basis, the UFK transfers funds to be credited to the federal budget from accounts No. 40101 “Incomes distributed by the Federal Treasury between the levels of the budget system of the Russian Federation” to account No. 40105 of the Federal Treasury.
On the basis of payment documents submitted by the recipients of federal budget funds and administrators of federal budget funding sources, the Federal Finance Committee forms Consolidated Applications and sends them to the Federal Treasury.
The Federal Treasury reinforces accounts No. 40105 UFK, ensuring that funds are credited to accounts No. 40105 UFK by the beginning of the next business day.
UFK, after the end of the trading day, transfer the balances from accounts No. 40105 UFK to account No. 40105 of the Federal Treasury [6, c.3].