Man. Nervous system.

1. Choose THREE consequences of irritation of the sympathetic department of the central nervous system

1) increased and increased heart contractions

2) slowing down and weakening of heart contractions

3) slowing down the formation of gastric juice

4) increased intensity of activity of the stomach glands

5) weakening of the wave-like contractions of the intestinal walls

6) strengthening of undulating contractions of the intestinal walls

Answer: 135

2. Man, unlike animals

1) has a cerebral cortex

2) forms various natural populations

3) has a second signal system

4) can create an artificial habitat

5) has the first signal system

6) can create and use tools

Answer: 346

3. What features are characteristic of humans and mammals?

1) warm-bloodedness

2) the presence of crow bones

3) left-sided aortic arch

4) three-chambered heart

5) the presence of a diaphragm

6) feeding babies with milk

Answer: 356

4. The peculiarity of unconditioned reflexes is that they

1) provide adaptation of the body to changing environmental conditions

2) are a feature characteristic of a single individual of the species

3) provide adaptation of the body to constant environmental conditions

4) characteristic of all individuals of the species

5) are congenital

6) are not inherited

Answer: 345

5. Smooth muscle tissue, unlike striated,

1) consists of multinuclear fibers

2) consists of elongated cells with an oval nucleus

3) has greater speed and energy of contraction

4) forms the basis of skeletal muscles

5) is located in the walls of internal organs

6) is reduced slowly, rhythmically, involuntarily

Answer: 256

6. Functions of the diencephalon – regulation

1) work of the heart

2) body temperature

3) metabolism

4) urination

5) the work of the endocrine glands

6) breathing

Answer: 235

7. Man, unlike animals,

1) affects the environment in the process of life

2) has an S-shaped spine

3) forms various populations

4) has the first signal system

5) has a second signal system

6) creates and uses tools

Answer: 256

8. What sign of mammals is NOT characteristic of humans?

1) the presence of a diaphragm

2) the presence of undercoat

3) the presence of seven cervical vertebrae

4) tail section of the body

5) movable auricle

6) alveolar lung

Answer: 245

9. To call from the lesson:

1) children of any age react the same way,

2) school-age children react similarly,

3) a reflex is acquired in the process of life,

4) the reflex is inherited,

5) the reflex is innate,

6) the reflex is not inherited.

Answer: 236

10. A baby’s reaction to a bottle of formula is an example of a reflex:

1) congenital,

2) acquired during life,

3) present in all infants,

4) present in children with artificial or mixed feeding,

5) inherited,

6) not inherited.

Answer: 246

11. Signs that characterize the specific higher nervous activity of a person.

1) unconditioned reflexes are realized,

2) the ability to think abstractly,

3) the ability to respond to a familiar word,

4) conscious speech,

5) communication by signs, symbols, concepts,

6) formed conditioned reflex behavior.

Answer: 245

12. The activity of what organs is regulated by the human autonomic nervous system?

1) muscles of the upper and lower limbs,

2) heart and blood vessels,

3) digestive organs,

4) facial muscles,

5) kidneys and bladder,

6) diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Answer: 235

13. The peripheral nervous system includes:

1) bridge,

2) cerebellum,

3) nerve nodes,

4) spinal cord,

5) sensory nerves,

6) motor nerves.

Answer: 356

14. In the cerebellum are the centers of regulation:

1) muscle tone,

2) vascular tone,

3) body posture and balance,

4) coordination of movements,

5) emotions,

6) inhalation and exhalation.

Answer: 134

15. Select the name of the analyzer departments.

Write your answer in numbers without spaces.

1. plug

2. peripheral

3. conductive

4. central

5. sensitive

6. motor

Answer: 234

16. Select examples of unconditioned human reflexes.

1) fright with a strong unexpected sound

2) salivation while eating

3) cycling

4) execution of the order of the chief

5) release of adrenaline during stress

6) compliance with the regime of the day

Answer: 125

17. Select the signs of the pituitary gland.

1) the gland is located on the neck, secretes thyroxine

2) the gland is located in the diencephalon

3) steam gland, hormone – adrenaline

4) secretes growth hormone – somatotropin

5) regulates the hormonal activity of other glands

6) releases insulin and glucagon

Answer: 245

18. The peculiarity of unconditioned reflexes is that they

1) arise as a result of repeated repetition

2) are a feature characteristic of a single individual of the species

3) are genetically programmed

4) characteristic of all individuals of the species

5) are congenital

6) are not inherited

Answer: 345

19. The following tissues have the properties of excitability and contractility:

1) cardiac muscle

2) glandular epithelial

3) smooth muscle

4) nervous

5) loose connective

6) striated muscle

Answer: 136

20. Interneurons in the human nervous system transmit nerve impulses

1) from a motor neuron to the brain

2) from the working body to the spinal cord

3) from the spinal cord to the brain

4) from sensitive neurons to working organs

5) from sensory neurons to motor neurons

6) from the brain to motor neurons

Answer: 356

21. Select the functions of the sympathetic nervous system.

1) enhances ventilation of the lungs

2) reduces heart rate

3) lowers blood pressure

4) inhibits the secretion of digestive juices

5) enhances intestinal motility

6) dilates pupils

Answer: 146

22. Which of the following underlies the higher nervous activity of a person?

1) abstract thinking

2) instincts

3) consciousness

4) speech

5) unconditioned reflexes

6) irritability

Answer: 134

23. Which of the following, according to I.P. Pavlov, refers to the second signal system?

1) speech

2) consciousness

3) abstract thinking

4) gun activity

5) conditioned reflex

6) insight

Answer: 123

24. The similarity of crustaceans, arachnids and insects is that they have

1) the body consists of departments

2) nervous system in the form of a tube

3) limbs are divided into segments

4) the cover consists of chitin

5) the same number of antennae

6) closed circulatory system

Answer: 134

25. Establish the sequence of transmission of a nerve impulse along the arc of a conditioned salivary reflex in a person to a bell.

1) the auditory center of the cerebral cortex,

2) sensitive neuron,

3) hearing receptors,

4) temporary connection,

5) salivation center,

6) salivary glands,

7) motor neuron.

Answer: 3214576

26. Establish the correct sequence for the passage of the links of the reflex arc of the conditioned reflex by the nerve impulse.

1) the center of salivation,

2) sensitive neuron,

3) temporary connection,

4) visual center,

5) salivary glands,

6) eye receptors,

7) motor neuron,

8) subcortical formations.

Answer: 62843175

27. Establish the correct sequence of the location of the parts of the brain stem, in the direction from the spinal cord.

1) diencephalon,

2) medulla oblongata,

3) midbrain,

4) bridge.

Answer: 2431

28. Set the correct sequence of nerve impulse conduction along the reflex arc.

1) intercalary neuron

2) sensitive neuron

3) receptor

4) motor neuron

5) working body

Answer: 32145

29. Establish the correct sequence of signal passage along the three-neuron nerve circuit.

1) intercalary neuron

2) receptor

3) sensitive neuron

4) muscle

5) motor neuron

Answer: 23154

30. Establish a correspondence between the function of a neuron and its type: sensitive (1), intercalary (2) or motor (3)

A) convert stimuli into nerve impulses

B) transmit nerve impulses from the sense organs and internal organs to the brain

C) carry out the transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another in the brain

D) transmit them to the muscles, glands and other executive organs

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

Answer: 1123

31. Establish a correspondence between the characteristic of the regulation of human life and its type – (1) nervous or (2) humoral

A) the effect of carbon dioxide on the respiratory center

B) the effect of insulin and adrenaline on blood sugar

C) the reaction of the body to the green light of a traffic light

D) the reaction of the body to a change in the position of the body in space

D) the interaction of inhibition and excitation

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 22111

32. Establish a correspondence between examples of human nervous activity and the functions of the spinal cord:

1 – reflex

2 – conductive

A) knee jerk

B) the transmission of nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the brain

B) extension of the limbs

D) pulling the hand away from a hot object

D) transmission of a nerve impulse from the brain to the muscles of the limbs

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 12112

33. Establish a correspondence between the sign of the reflex and its type.

TYPES OF REFLEXES SIGNS OF REFLEXES
1) conditional, 2) unconditional. A) are inherited, B) are not inherited, C) are acquired during life, D) are congenital, E) are characteristic of all individuals of the species, E) are individual for each individual.

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 211221

34. Establish a correspondence between the parts of the nervous system and their functions.

DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS PERFORMED
1) sympathetic, 2) parasympathetic. A) constricts blood vessels, B) slows down the rhythm of the heart, C) constricts the bronchi, D) dilates the pupil.

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

Answer: 1221

35. Establish a correspondence between the structure and functions of a neuron and its processes.

NEURON PROCESS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
1) axon, 2) dendrite. A) conducts a signal to the body of the neuron, B) is covered with a myelin sheath on the outside, C) is short and strongly branches, D) participates in the formation of nerve fibers, E) conducts a signal from the body of the neuron.

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 21211

36. Establish a correspondence between the properties of the nervous system and its types that have these properties.

TYPE OF NERVOUS SYSTEM PROPERTIES
1) somatic, 2) vegetative. A) innervates the skin and skeletal muscles, B) innervates all internal organs, C) helps maintain the body’s connection with the external environment, D) regulates metabolic processes, growth of the body, E) actions are controlled by consciousness (arbitrary), E) actions are not subject to consciousness (autonomous ).

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 121212

37. Establish a correspondence between examples of human nervous activity and the functions of the spinal cord.

FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD EXAMPLES OF NERVOUS ACTIVITY
1) reflex, 2) conductive. A) knee reflex, B) transmission of a nerve impulse from the spinal cord to the brain, C) extension of the limbs, D) withdrawal of the hand from a hot object, E) transmission of a nerve impulse from the brain to the muscles of the limbs.

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 12112

38. Establish a correspondence between the structural features and functions of the brain and its department.

STRUCTURE FUNCTION
1) medulla oblongata 2) forebrain. A) contains the respiratory center, B) the surface is divided into lobes, C) perceives and processes information from the sense organs D) regulates the activity of the cardiovascular system, E) contains the centers of the body’s defense reactions – coughing and sneezing.

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 12211

39. Establish a correspondence between the function of the human nervous system and the department that performs this function.

FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A) directs impulses to the skeletal muscles B) innervates the smooth muscles of the organs C) ensures the movement of the body in space D) regulates the work of the heart E) regulates the work of the digestive glands 1) somatic 2) vegetative

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 12122

40. Establish a correspondence between the function of the department of the human nervous system and the department that performs this function.

FUNCTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A) regulates the activity of the cardiovascular system B) is responsible for the development of conditioned reflexes C) contains the respiratory center D) analyzes visual and auditory stimuli E) triggers the reaction of coughing and sneezing E) controls subtle movements of the fingers 1) medulla oblongata 2) cerebral cortex

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 121212

41. Establish a correspondence between the functions and parts of the human brain.

FUNCTIONS DEPARTMENTS
A) coordination of movements B) regulation of breathing C) regulation of digestion D) primary processing of visual and auditory information E) maintaining body balance E) implementation of the orienting reflex 1) medulla oblongata 2) cerebellum 3) midbrain

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 211323

42. Establish a correspondence between the function of the department of the nervous system and the department.

DEPARTMENT FUNCTION THE DEPARTMENT
A) Innervates the skeletal muscles B) Consciously controlled C) Autonomous D) The centers are located in the diencephalon, medulla oblongata and spinal cord E) There are no second nodes (ganglia) outside the central nervous system 1) somatic nervous system 2) autonomic nervous system

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 11221

43. Establish a correspondence between the effect of exposure of the department of the autonomic nervous system and the department.

IMPACT EFFECT DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A) dilates the pupils B) constricts the pupils C) increases the amplitude of heart contractions D) lowers blood pressure E) decreases lung ventilation 1) sympathetic 2) parasympathetic

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 12122

44. Establish a correspondence between the function of a department of the human nervous system and the department that performs this function.

FUNCTION THE DEPARTMENT
A) dilates the pupils, reduces salivation B) increases the heart rate C) increases intestinal peristalsis D) reduces blood pressure E) stimulates the secretion of digestive juices E) causes contraction of the muscles that raise the hair 1) sympathetic 2) parasympathetic

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 112221

45. Establish a correspondence between the peculiarity of regulation and the department of the nervous system that implements it.

REGULATION DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A) regulates the work of skeletal muscles B) regulates metabolic processes C) provides voluntary movements D) is carried out autonomously, regardless of the desire of a person E) controls the activity of smooth muscles 1) vegetative 2) somatic

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 21211

46. Establish a correspondence between the feature of the structure, function

brain and the department for which they are characteristic.

ANIMAL GROUP
A) is a continuation of the spinal cord B) consists of paired hemispheres C) provides coordination of movements D) regulates the processes of respiration, digestion, blood circulation E) provides protective unconditioned reflexes: sneezing, coughing, vomiting 1) cerebellum 2) medulla oblongata

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D

Answer: 21122

47. Establish a correspondence between the function of a department of the human brain and the department for which this function is characteristic.

THE DEPARTMENT THE DEPARTMENT
A) regulation of involuntary breathing B) regulation and control of fine finger movements C) analysis of visual stimuli D) regulation of cardiovascular activity E) discrimination of sound signals E) regulation of digestion 1) cerebral cortex 2) medulla oblongata

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 211212

48. Establish a correspondence between the function and the department of the autonomic nervous system that performs it.

FUNCTION DEPARTMENT OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
A) increases the heart rate B) reduces the respiratory rate C) stimulates the secretion of digestive juices D) stimulates the release of adrenaline into the blood E) increases ventilation of the lungs 1) sympathetic 2) parasympathetic

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 12211

49. Establish a correspondence between the path of nerve impulse conduction and the function of the human spinal cord.

PATH OF THE NERVE IMPULSE FUNCTION OF THE SPINAL CORD
A) switching of a nerve impulse from a sensory neuron to a motor one B) transmission of a nerve impulse from the spinal cord to the brain C) perception of a nerve impulse by a sensitive neuron D) transmission of a nerve impulse from the brain to the spinal cord E) perception of a nerve impulse by a motor neuron 1) reflex 2) conductive

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

A B AT G D E

Answer: 12121

50. Establish a correspondence between the sign of the reflex and its type.

REFLEX SIGN TYPE OF REFLEX
A) has permanent reflex arcs B) is produced in the process of evolution C) is produced during life D) is not inherited E) reflex arcs are temporary E) group 1) conditioned reflex 2) unconditioned reflex

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

BUT B AT G D E

Answer: 221112

51. Establish a correspondence between the function of the nervous system and its type.

FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM TYPE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
A) dilates the pupils B) reduces the heart rate C) reduces ventilation of the lungs D) increases perspiration E) stimulates intestinal peristalsis E) causes contraction of the muscles that raise the hair 1) sympathetic 2) parasympathetic

Write down the numbers in response, arranging them in the order corresponding to the letters:

BUT B AT G D E

Answer: 122121

52. Select the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system.

1) enhances ventilation of the lungs

2) reduces heart rate

3) lowers blood pressure

4) inhibits the secretion of digestive juices

5) enhances intestinal motility

6) dilates pupils

Answer: 235

53. Select signs of unconditioned reflexes.

1) species-specific

2) are produced in the process of evolution

3) have temporary reflex arcs

4) have permanent reflex arcs

5) are not inherited

6) customized

Answer: 124

54. Select signs of conditioned reflexes.

1) species-specific

2) group

3) have temporary reflex arcs

4) have permanent reflex arcs

5) are not inherited

6) customized

Answer: 356

55. What forms of human behavior, as well as unicellular and multicellular animals, are classified as hereditary?

1) instinct

2) conditioned reflex

3) gun activity

4) dynamic stereotype

5) taxis

6) unconditioned reflex

Answer: 156

56. Why does a person in his own house unmistakably find the switch, and in someone else’s house he looks for it for some time, even if he has already been there more than once?

Explanation.

1) In a familiar environment, the conditioned reflex is constantly supported.

2) In an unusual environment, the conditioned reflex fades.

57. What types of inhibition of conditioned reflexes exist, and in what cases do they appear?

Explanation.

1) External inhibition – occurs as a result of the action of a strong extraneous stimulus.

2) Internal inhibition – occurs in the absence of reinforcement of the conditioned reflex.

58. Describe the process of synaptic impulse transmission between nerve cells.

Explanation.

1. Excitation reaches the end of the axon.

2. As a result, the neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft.

3. The mediator binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane and causes excitation of the postsynaptic neuron

59. What role do conditioned reflexes play in human life? What are their differences from the unconditional?

Explanation.

1) Conditioned reflexes provide human learning and the ability to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions.

2) Conditioned reflexes are individual, unstable, not inherited, acquired during life

3) During the formation of a conditioned reflex, a temporary connection is formed in the cerebral cortex; and in the unconditioned reflex arc passes through the spinal cord or brain stem

60. What features of human physiology and anatomy allow him to use oral speech for communication? List at least three features.

Explanation.

1) Strong development of the forebrain.

2) The presence of speech centers in the cerebral hemispheres.

3) The special structure of the larynx and the presence of vocal cords.

4) The presence of the chin protrusion of the lower jaw and the muscles involved in the formation of sounds

61. Prove that visiting the school canteen is accompanied by both conditioned reflex and unconditioned reflex reactions.

Explanation.

1) Conditioned reflex reactions include the secretion of saliva and gastric juice to the sound of a school bell, the sight and smell of food.

2) Unconditioned reflexes include the secretion of saliva and digestive juices during meals.

62. Suggest how you can prove the assumption that the secretion of digestive juice by the pancreas is regulated by both nervous and humoral pathways.

Explanation.

1) It is necessary to set up an experiment that would test the hypothesis of two ways of regulation.

2) To prove the existence of nervous regulation, it is necessary to irritate the nerves innervating that part of the gland that secretes digestive juice. If the secretion increases, then the nervous regulation exists.

3) To prove the existence of humoral regulation, it is necessary to stimulate the secretion of digestive juice with food, but in the absence of nervous regulation. To do this, you can cut

certain nerves. And if, when food enters the duodenum, the secretion of juice increases, we can talk about humoral regulation.

63. Explain why unconditioned reflexes are classified as specific signs of animal behavior, what is their role in the life of animals. How did they form?

Explanation.

1. All animals of the same species have the same set of unconditioned reflexes, therefore they are classified as species characteristics.

2. Unconditioned reflexes are innate. They provide adaptation of the body to constant environmental conditions. They provide vital processes: digestion, reproduction, care for offspring, orientation in space.

3. These reflexes were formed in the process of evolution by natural selection. They are genetically coded and passed on to offspring.

64. Why is the regulation of body functions called neurohumoral? How is it carried out?

Explanation.

1) Two interconnected systems participate in the regulation of the activity of the human body – the nervous and endocrine.

2) The nervous system provides the reflex activity of the body, conducting nerve impulses from receptors to the central nervous system and from the central nervous system to organs.

3) Humoral regulation is based on the action of hormones, the release of which into the blood is controlled by the nervous system.

65. What underlies changes in human blood pressure at rest and during work? What parts of the nervous system provide this?

Explanation.

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