Lyric genres by M.Yu. Lermontov

Expanded essay plan

I. General concept and main lyrical genres (see Reference materials).

II. The genre of a lyrical work depends on the artistic method of displaying reality. For Lermontov, the predominant method is romanticism.

1. Various types of elegies (the motive of loneliness, longing, dissatisfaction with life):

– “cemetery elegy” – the influence of Zhukovsky, a reflection of the philosophy of life: “Cemetery” (1830), “The desert left before me …” (1830);

– “a sad elegy” – the influence of Baratynsky: “To …” (1829);

– “historical elegy” – attraction to the genre of thought: “Napoleon” (1830), “I go out alone on the road” (1841), “As often, surrounded by a motley crowd” (1840).

2. Ballads – lyrical epic genre, traditions of Zhukovsky: “Glove” (1829), “Ataman” (1831), “Dispute” (1841).

III. The genre of a lyrical work depends on its theme.

1. Love Theme:

– a message – a direct appeal, the lyrical hero’s desire for union, reconciliation, repentance, a demonstration of his own pride: “K *” (1832), “N.F. And … howl” (1830), Ivanovsky and Sushkovsky cycles;

– stanzas – a small elegiac poem of philosophical or love content with a simple strophic structure: “Stans” (“I love when fighting with my soul …”) (1830), “Stans” (“Look how calm my eyes are …” ) (1830), “Stans” (“I can not languish in my homeland”) (1830-1831).

2. The theme of friendship:

– a message – a poetic appeal to friends. Unlike Pushkin’s understanding of friendship, for Lermontov this is as fickle a feeling as love: “To Peterson” (1829), “To a friend V.Shch.” (1831), “To Durnov” (1829).

3. Philosophical lyrics:

– stanzas – reflections of a philosophical nature about the meaning of life, the motive of rebellion, the motive of fate, fate: “I can not languish in my homeland” (1830-1831), “Stans to D ***” (1831), the thought “The grave of a fighter” (1830 ).

4. Theme of the story:

– plot poem: “Borodino” (1837), “The Dying Gladiator” (1836);

– ballad: “Dispute” (1841).

5. Mixed genres:

– epitaph – pamphlet: “Death of a poet” (1837);

– elegy – pamphlet: “As often, surrounded by a motley crowd” (1840).

IV. Some general genre features of M.Yu.Lermontov’s lyrics.

1. Journalistic endings in traditional genres: “The Poet” (1838);

2. Introduction of dialogue: “Borodino” (1837), “Epitaph of Napoleon” (1830).

3. Wide use of folklore genres: songs: “Song” (1831), “Cossack lullaby” (1840), ballads.

4. Definition of the genre of the poem in the title: elegy, stanzas, song, romance, thought.

Ideological and artistic originality of the novel “Eugene Onegin”

Thesis plan of the essay

I. The history of the creation of the novel.

“Eugene Onegin” is a work of amazing creative destiny. It was created over seven years – from May 1823 to September 1830. Work on the text did not stop until the appearance of the first complete edition in 1833. The last author’s version was printed in 1837. Pushkin has no works that would have such a long creative history. All chapters were published from 1825 to 1832 as independent parts of a large work, and even before the novel was completed, they became facts of the literary process.

II. literary direction. creative method.

Pushkin, moving away from romanticism, masters a new method – realism and sets himself the task of real reflection of reality.

The novel “Eugene Onegin” – the first Russian realistic novel, preceded the emergence of romance in the West. Belinsky called Pushkin’s novel a poetic feat, “a highly original and national Russian work.”

III. The main themes and problems of the novel.

“First of all, in “Onegin” we see a poetically reproduced picture of Russian society, taken in one of the most interesting moments of its development” (V. G. Belinsky).

Pushkin broadly and truthfully depicted life “as it appears to the observer in its double guise: society, with its stable types and mores, and personality, with its always new ideas and claims.”

IV. Pathos. Idea and ideological-emotional evaluation.

Pushkin, depicting Russian reality in one of the most interesting periods of its development, created a novel deeply national in its historical fidelity and completeness of characters, truly folk in its advanced ideology, democratism of the language, a wealth of connections and echoes with oral poetic traditions, truly realistic in concrete terms. -historical typification of characters and their social environment, truly critical in its objective historical conflict, reflecting the main social contradictions and patterns of that time. VG Belinsky called the novel “an encyclopedia of Russian life.”

V. System of images.

“Among the great merits of Pushkin is the fact that he brought the monsters of vice and heroes of virtue out of fashion, drawing ordinary people instead” (V.G. Belinsky).

The novel reflects the contemporary Russian life of the poet in all its manifestations, presents the features of life and customs of all strata of society: the landlord province, Moscow and St. Petersburg world. Main images: Eugene Onegin, Tatyana Larina, Vladimir Lensky, Olga Larina, Author (see the essay “The system of images in the novel by A.S. Pushkin” Eugene Onegin “).

VI. Artistic originality. 1. Genus and genre.

1. The novel “Eugene Onegin” is a work of mixed genre – lyrical epic.

The poet himself, in a letter to P. A. Vyazemsky, defined the genre of the future work as follows: “I am not writing a novel, but a novel in verse – a diabolical difference.”

The novel was conceived and created in a transitional era, when poetry was gradually losing its significance, and prose began to take the leading positions in the literary process.

The genre of “free novel” is a combination of impromptu narrative with compositional symmetry of chapters, equality of lyrical and epic, denial of universally recognized laws, resolution of the contradiction between poetry and prose.

2. Plot and composition.

The compositional basis of the novel is the “principle of narrative symmetry”.

The novel does not have a coherent narrative within the framework of the plot, “a collection of motley chapters.”

The compositional axis of the novel is the “comprehensive image of the Self” (S.G. Bocharov), lyrical digressions, the unique image of the Author. The main storyline: Tatiana – Onegin, side: Lensky – Onegin, Lensky – Olga.

3. Means of artistic expression:

– comparisons (concrete and subject) – emphasize the most significant socio-psychological features.

Expanded comparisons:

“So the pale moth shines,

And beats with a rainbow wing … “

Specific comparisons:

“How fearful the deer is in the forest…”;

– epithets create completeness, relief of the image, mark certain character traits of the characters. Tatyana: “wild, sad, silent”, gifted with “rebellious imagination”, “timid” girl, “indifferent” princess, “impregnable goddess” of the luxurious regal Neva.

The epithets are expressive, emotionally expressive, psychological: lorgnette – “disappointed”, vaults – “impudent”.

4. Features of the language of the novel:

– conciseness, easy-ironic style of narration, transparency, clarity, musicality;

– the vernacular vocabulary was introduced into the text: “like a zyuzya drunk”, “Tatiana jumped into another canopy” -,

– combination of high and low vocabulary:

“Winter! .. The peasant, triumphant,

On firewood updates the path;

His horse, smelling snow,

Trotting somehow.”

The language of the novel is characterized by ease, flexibility, conversational style:

“My uncle has the most honest rules,

When I fell ill in earnest,

He forced himself to respect

And I couldn’t think of a better one…”;

– change of intonation allows to reveal the richness of experiences of the author and his characters;

– the dynamics of speech is given by the saturation of the text with “bright” verbs: “blow your nose, cough, hiss, clap”;

– the use of homogeneous nouns: “instantly ran around / Curtains, bridges, meadow, / Alley to the lake, woods, / Broke lilac bushes …”; repeats: “Dreams, dreams! where is your sweetness?”;

– change the order of words: “The doorman passed by with an arrow”‘,

– musicality is achieved by sound instrumentation of the verse: “The murmur of a quiet stream”; “Under it the morning snow crunches”;

– the use of alliterations and assonances: “Singer of feasts”, “And the ball shines”, “To my dear dreamer”;

– the language of the novel is characterized by accuracy and aphorism:

“All ages are submissive to love”, “We all learned little by little / Something and somehow …”.

5. Features of the verse:

– iambic four-foot was chosen for the novel, except for the “Song of the Girls”, written in three-foot trochaic;

– features of the stanza: the stanza consists of fourteen lines, includes three quatrains with different rhymes (cross, adjacent, ring) and ends with two lines with adjacent rhyming. The stanza was called the “Onegin stanza”;

– features of rhyme: sometimes the rhyme is complete, sometimes extended;

– colorful polyphony of the stanza is given by rhyming polyphony: verbal rhymes “amuse – correct”; compound with simple “man – age”; homonyms “about that – that”; assonances: “ruts – lands”; juicy, or rich: “bolívar – boulevard”;

– sometimes the end of the stanza does not coincide with the end of the phrase, and part of the phrase goes from one quatrain to another. This technique enhances the feeling of ease and naturalness inherent in the speech flow of the novel.

VII. The value of the work.

The novel in verse “Eugene Onegin” to this day remains a unique work of world literature. Historical authenticity, genre originality, brightness and peculiarity of characters, democratism of the language, richness of links and echoes with oral folk art, realism and degree of typification determine the absolute originality of the work.

Pushkin consolidated the position of critical realism in Russian literature. The poet called the novel “Eugene Onegin” his best work.

The plot and composition of the poem by N.V. Gogol “Dead Souls”

Expanded essay plan

I. The history of the creation of the poem.

1. N.V. Gogol used the plot suggested to him by A.S. Pushkin.

2. The meaning of the name:

– Chichikov buys dead peasants from the landowners in order to pawn “the dead, who, however, would be listed as living according to the audit”, two hundred rubles each to the Board of Trustees and thus make up his capital;

– Gogol shows in the poem people whose hearts have hardened, and their souls have become “dead”.

II. Plot and plot elements.

1. The plot – chronicle – without indicating cause-and-effect relationships.

2. Events are transmitted in a certain sequence, at a certain time.

3. The plot-forming hero – Chichikov.

4. Plot-forming elements:

1) the motive of the road (traditions of a picaresque novel built on the adventures of a hero):

– the image of the road – an independent cross-cutting image, thanks to which meetings and incidents occur;

– takes on a symbolic meaning in the poem;

– associated with the positive ideal of the national Russian character;

– associated with the image of the author;

– associated with the philosophical concept of a person’s life path, intended for the improvement of the individual;

– the role and types of landscape in revealing the motive of the road:

a) lyrical (author’s);

b) epic (action);

c) social (characteristics of characters).

2) the motive of time and space:

– the movement of artistic time along with the movement of Chichikov’s britzka;

– the closed space of the city, life in the countryside;

– generalization – the boundless expanses of Russia.

3) Chichikov’s chaise:

– artistic detail;

– one of the means of creating the image of Chichikov;

– the development of the plot and plot transitions are connected with the chaise;

– compositional repetitions in the plot are connected with the chaise – determines the ring composition (the beginning is a conversation about the wheel, the end is the breakdown of the wheel).

4) mirage intrigue:

– the purpose of Chichikov’s journey is a mirage – he buys “one sound that is intangible to the senses.”

III. The composition of the poem.

1. The poem was conceived as a triptych modeled on the construction of Dante’s “Divine Comedy”: “Hell”, “Purgatory”, “Paradise”.

2. The idea of the first volume was realized. His composition:

– exposition – I chapter;

– plot – II-VI chapters;

– development of action – VII-X chapters;

– culmination – XI chapter;

– denouement – XII chapter;

– plot and compositional feature – the theme of change for the worse (each next landowner is “deader” than the previous one).

3. Insert elements:

– “The Tale of Captain Kopeikin” – a generalization: metropolitan officials are no different from provincial ones;

– a parable about Kif Mokievich and Mokiya Kifovich – the author’s subjective position, protecting the writer from accusations of unpatriotism.

4. Framing element in the composition – the image of the city (I-XI ch.)

5. Lyrical digressions and their role in revealing the plot and building the composition of the poem:

– digressions associated with the epic part – serve to reveal the characters and generalize them;

– digressions that reveal the author’s ideal about the future of Russia, linking together the motive of the road, the people and the nationality.

6. The meaning of the image of the author in the composition:

– the author as a lyrical hero;

– the author as a narrator.

IV. The meaning of the poem in the work of N.V. Gogol.

The plot and composition of the drama by A.N. Ostrovsky “Thunderstorm”

Thesis and quotation plan of the essay

I. Traditional literary plot (love triangle Tikhon – Katerina – Boris) as the basis of the conflict between the old and the new:

– in the relations of generations;

– in the social life of Russia.

II. The plot and composition of the drama “Thunderstorm”.

1. The traditional plot of love turns into a study of the social problems of Russian life.

2. Outset of the conflict – I action:

– characterization of the mores of the city of Kalinin: “Cruel morals, sir, in our city”;

– characteristics of the owners of life:

a) Dikoy: “Look for more such a scolder as Savel Prokofievich is with us!”‘,

b) Kabanikha: “A hypocrite, sir! He clothes the poor, but completely ate the household”;

– characteristics of characters suffering from despotism:

a) Boris’s lack of will: “But I, apparently, will ruin my youth in this slum”;

b) Tikhon’s humility: “I, it seems, mother, not a step out of your will”;

c) information about Katerina’s childhood, her love for Boris: “I lived, didn’t grieve about anything, like a bird in the wild”, “After all, this is not good, this is a terrible sin, Varenka, why do I love another?” ‘,

d) the first appearance of the theme of a thunderstorm: “How, girl, do not be afraid! Everyone should be afraid”, “… death will suddenly find you as you are, with all your sins, with all evil thoughts”;

e) the theme of the confrontation between Katerina and Kabanikha: “It’s nice to endure slander!”

3. Development of characters and plot – II act:

– Tikhon’s departure, Katerina’s last attempt to resist the internal conflict: “Take me with you”, “I don’t have tea, how to break out, and you still impose on me”, “How can I love you when you say such words?” ‘,

– Katerina’s consent to a meeting with Boris: “I should at least die, but see him”;

– development of Kabanikh’s character, attitude towards young people: “But, too, stupid ones, they want to do their own thing …”;

– development of Katerina’s character: “I was born that way, hot!”, “I can’t deceive…”

– information about the character of Varvara: “And I was not a liar, but I learned when it became necessary.”

4. Aggravation of the love conflict by the social – III action:

– the development of the characters of the Wild and Boar in the dialogues: “You deliberately bring yourself into the heart”;

– a generalization of the customs of the city of Kalinin in Kuligin’s monologue: “Robbing orphans, relatives, nephews, slaughtering households so that they don’t dare to utter a word about anything that he does there”;

– development of Boris’s character: Boris is not Katerina’s defender: “Only you look – you will make trouble for yourself, and you will bring her into trouble” (Kudryash’s warning);

– date and explanation of Katerina and Boris. Katerina is a stronger character: “If you hadn’t come, I think I would have come to you myself.”

5. The culmination of the love conflict – act IV – was prepared by the development of the plot in act IV: the conversations of the Kalinovites on the boulevard, the conversation between Diky and Kuligin , the dialogue between Varvara and Boris about the state of Katerina after Tikhon’s return: around the house, exactly what he is looking for, “”thumps at her husband’s feet, and will tell everything,” a thunderstorm over the city, the appeal of a wild lady: “Where are you hiding, stupid! You won’t get away from God!”

– public recognition of Katerina.

6. Development of Katerina’s internal conflict and denouement – V act:

– Tikhon’s refusal to protest and defend his wife: “I’ll take it, but I’ll drink the last one I have; then let my mother nurse me like a fool”;

– the flight of Varvara and Kudryash as an escape from the “dark kingdom”;

– Katerina’s awareness of the impossibility of life in the Kabanov family, the hopelessness of her situation and the fear of suicide as a grave sin: “… I have already ruined my soul”;

– meeting with Boris – an analogue of farewell to Tikhon;

– Katerina’s choice of a way to resolve external and internal conflicts: “Do not let a single beggar through, give everyone and order them to pray for my sinful soul”;

– the death of the heroine as a deliverance: “Will they not pray? Whoever loves will pray … But they will catch me and bring me back home by force … Oh, hurry, hurry!”;

– assessment by others of Katerina’s suicide as a desperate protest against the cruel customs of the “dark kingdom”: “Her body is here, take it; and the soul is now not yours: it is now before the Judge, who is more merciful than you!” (Kuligin), “Mommy, you ruined her!” (Tikhon).

III. “Thunderstorm” is Ostrovsky’s most decisive work “ (N.A. Dobrolyubov).

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