QUESTIONS OF SAC on the discipline “Information systems and technologies in logistics and supply chain management”
1. Logistics information system, its components, functions. 2
2. Information flows in the process of functioning of the logistics system 10
3. Technology of automatic identification of bar codes in logistics and DRM 13
4. Technology of electronic data interchange (EDI) in supply chains. eighteen
5. Electronic digital signature: functionality. Places of use and importance in the formation of workflow. 22
6. Radio frequency identification (RFID) of packages and goods in the network structure of supply chains. 27
7. Information systems for tracking, communication and dispatching of transport. thirty
8. Integrated software products of domestic and foreign manufacturers. 34
9. Significance and functionality of integrated information systems in logistics at the present stage. 44
Logistics information system, its components, functions
An information logistics system is a special case of an information system, which is commonly understood as a system designed for storing, transmitting or processing data.
An information logistics system is a flexible structure consisting of personnel, production facilities, computer equipment, necessary directories, computer programs, various interfaces and procedures (technologies), united by related information used in the management of an organization for planning, controlling, analyzing and regulating the logistics system.
Information logistics systems by the nature of interaction with the environment belong to the class of open systems.
An information logistics system combines all logistics subsystems: procurement logistics, in-house logistics, distribution logistics, etc.
The architecture of an information system characterizes its general logical structure, hardware, software, describes the methods of encoding information, i.e., the process of representing data by a sequence of characters. The architecture also defines the user interface with the system.
Hardware (hagdwage) is a complex of electronic, electrical and mechanical devices that are part of an information system or network.
Software (software) is a set of computer programs that provides data processing or transmission, as well as the development of new programs.
An information system consists of two main components: IT infrastructure and IT services provided on its basis.
The company’s IT infrastructure is formed from a combination of computer, telecommunications, technological equipment and software. IT infrastructure provides the possibility of passing information processes.
The provision of IT services to business units of the company depends on it. IT infrastructure management is necessary for its reliable functioning, to provide reliable services and measure their quality. Management also allows you to optimize the IT infrastructure, predict its growth and change, make management decisions based on reliable information.
Information logistics systems must meet the following requirements: scalability, distribution, modularity, openness.
The logistics information system performs a number of specific functions:
At the base of the functional pyramid of the logistics information system is a system of operations between the links of the logistics system, which determines the relationship between the functional divisions of the company (in terms of the implementation of logistics functions), logistics intermediaries and consumers of the company’s products. At the level of analysis, the logistics regional or administrative managers of the firm mainly use information for tactical purposes for marketing, forecasting financial and operational performance. Finally, at the top strategic level, logistics determines management strategy and is linked to strategic corporate planning and the firm’s mission.
The characteristics of the system levels of the functional structure of the logistics information system are associated with the achievement of certain strategic and tactical goals of the company and competitive advantages.
The organizational structure of the logistics information system can be broadly formed from four subsystems:
management of order procedures,
scientific research and communication,
supporting logistics solutions and generating output forms and reports. These interconnected subsystems carry out information and computer support for all the functions of logistics management and communication with the micro- and macrologistic environment.
In the organizational structure of the logistics information system, the subsystem for managing order procedures is singled out as one of the main subsystems, which is due to the direct contact of this subsystem with consumers in the processes of processing and fulfilling orders. Of great importance here is the use of the concept of “electronic data interchange” and the standards based on it.
The subsystem of scientific research and communication reflects the influence of the external and internal environment of the company on the process of logistics management and carries out interaction between the links of the logistics system and management functions due to:
• integration of logistics planning with corporate planning;
• interaction of logistics management with other corporate functions;
• strategic guidelines for the organizational structure of the logistics system and personnel;
• integration of information technologies;
• preparation or purchase of technological solutions and use of intermediaries;
• adaptation to the conditions of the company forms of logistics chains, channels and networks, as well as management functions;
• emphasis on productivity and quality of services in logistics.
The considered subsystem plays an important role in reflecting the changes and requirements of both the external and internal environment of the company. The logistics manager can use this subsystem to scan the firm’s micro and macro environment in four ways:
1) indirect consideration based on a general analysis of the information received, when there is no specific target;
2) direct consideration, when information about the external and internal environment of the company is actively analyzed with a predetermined goal;
3) informal research on limited and unstructured data;
4) formal research using a predetermined plan, procedures and methods for processing and analyzing the information received.
To optimize the results of assessing the impact of the external and internal environment of the company on the behavior of the logistics system, the logistics manager must use the key information sources of the subsystem in the monitoring process. Two aspects must be taken into account here. First, the use of information by the firm’s personnel to evaluate the effectiveness of their logistics decisions. For example, accounting information or information about prices for finished products of competitors can give an exhaustive answer about the effectiveness of management; information on the size of freight shipments can be used by the company’s transport departments, etc. Secondly, the company’s logistics partners, such as suppliers of material resources, resellers, carriers and consumers of finished products, can also use subsystem information to improve coordination and reduce their own costs. An important place in the subsystem under consideration belongs to forecasting, in particular, to such aspects as collecting initial information, assessing accuracy, reliability, and using the most effective forecasting methods.
The third component of the logistics information system is the logistics decision support subsystem , which is an interactive computer information system that includes databases and analytical models that, as a rule, implement optimization tasks that arise in the process of logistics management. The subsystem generates, updates and maintains differently structured, centralized and distributed databases for four main file types:
• basic files containing external and internal information necessary for making logistics decisions;
• critical factors that determine the main actions, goals and constraints in decision-making;0,
• policies/settings containing the main logistical operating procedures for key areas;
• decision files that store information about previous (periodic) decisions for various logistics functions.
This subsystem uses a large number of economic and mathematical models and methods (in particular, forecasting to support decisions made by logistics management). All these models and methods can be divided into classes: optimization, heuristic and simulation. Optimization decision-making models are based on the methods of operational calculus: programming (linear, non-linear, dynamic, stochastic, integer), mathematical statistics (correlation-regression analysis, theory of random processes, identification theory, theory of statistical decision-making models, etc.), calculus of variations, optimal control, queuing theory, graphs, schedules, etc. In particular, the following problems can be specified for various logistic functions:
• optimal dispatching in production, transportation, cargo handling;
• optimal placement of objects in production, distribution, warehousing;
• building optimal logistics chains, channels, networks;
• building an optimal organizational structure of the logistics system;
• optimal routing;
• determination of the optimal duration of the components of logistics cycles;
• optimization of procedures for collecting, processing and fulfilling orders;
• optimization of parameters of inventory management systems;
• optimal choice of carrier, forwarder, supplier, etc.
In the subsystem under consideration, interactive (dialogue) procedures for information support of decision-making by logistics management are widely used.
The fourth element of the organizational structure of the logistics information system is the subsystem for generating output forms and reports.
The information support system in logistics to perform the above functions must be organized accordingly. The specificity of this system lies in the fact that in the course of its activities it should be able to influence all functional subsystems of the logistics organization. Based on this, three ways of its organization are possible: centralized, decentralized and specialized.
With a centralized method of organization, information support activities are concentrated in one department (division) and report directly to the top management of the organization through the vice president (deputy director) for information systems (technologies). The advantage of this method of organization is to ensure high efficiency of work on the introduction of new information systems and technologies. The disadvantages include high costs for the maintenance of the management apparatus.
With a decentralized way of organizing the information support subsystem, specialists from different functional departments perform the functions of managing information flows in their subject area. The advantage of this method of organization is the high level of knowledge of the subject area of the information systems manager, the disadvantage is the duplication of tasks and functions of the same type in different departments of the organization.
With a specialized method, there are no divisions for information systems (technologies) in the organization. If it is necessary to develop and implement a new information system, these organizations turn to specialized firms and perform work on a contractual basis (outsourcing).
This is typical for small organizations that cannot have their own full-time IT specialists and resort to the services of consultants. The advantage of this method of organizing the information support system is the high level of scientific and methodological developments, the disadvantage is the complexity of taking into account the specific features of the object.
The choice of one or another method of organizing an information support system depends on many factors, primarily on the size of the organization, the business processes existing in it, and the availability of free funds. Note: the information support system has now reached such a level of specialization that it requires attention to its organization – this is understood by modern leaders. Therefore, any small organization has information services in its composition. The information system necessary for the adequate performance of logistics functions must meet the following requirements:
• information flows should be compatible in terms of information;
• internal interconnections and interdependencies of information flows should be of a causal nature;
• hierarchical subordination of information flows to should be clear;
• an information system should be inherent in the property of integrativity.
2. Information flows in progress
functioning of the logistics system
The goal of information logistics is determined by the overall goal of logistics, i.e. its six rules: the right product, in the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity and quality, at the lowest cost. Information is required to comply with these rules.
The purpose of information logistics is to have:
* the necessary information (for material flow management);
* in the right place;
* at the right time;
* necessary content (for the person making the decision);
* at minimal cost.
Logistic information is a purposefully collected set of facts, phenomena, events of interest and subject to registration and processing to ensure the management of the enterprise’s logistics system.
One of the key concepts of logistics is the concept of information flow. The information flow is a set of messages circulating in the logistics system, between the logistics system and the external environment, necessary for the management and control of logistics operations. The information flow can exist in the form of paper and electronic documents.
In logistics, there are types of information flows :
1. depending on the type of systems connected by the flow
2. depending on the place of passage:
3. depending on the direction in relation to the logistics system:
− day off.
4. depending on the type of storage media:
5. depending on the density:
− low-intensity (up to 1 Mbit/s),
− medium intensive (1—2 Mbit/s),
− high-intensity (over 2 Mbit/s).
6. depending on the frequency:
The information flow can be ahead of the material flow, follow simultaneously with it or after it. At the same time, the information flow can be directed both in one direction with the material one, and in the opposite direction:
1. the advanced information flow in the opposite direction contains, as a rule, information about the order;
2. advancing information flow in the forward direction – these are preliminary messages about the upcoming arrival of the cargo;
3. Simultaneously with the material flow, there is information in the forward direction about the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the material flow;
4. Following the material flow in the opposite direction, information about the results of cargo acceptance in terms of quantity or quality, various claims, confirmations can pass.
The path along which the information flow moves may not coincide with the route of the material flow.
The information flow is characterized by indicators :
1. source of occurrence;
2. direction of flow;
3. transmission and reception speed;
4. flow intensity, etc.
You can manage the information flow :
1. changing the flow direction;
2. limiting the transmission rate to the corresponding reception rate;
3. limiting the volume of the flow to the value of the throughput of an individual node or section of the path.