M.R. Lvov distinguishes four levels in the work on the development of students’ speech
The directions of work at the pronunciation level are: work on the technique of speech, organization of the assimilation in practice of the orthoepic norms of the Russian language, improvement of the intonation skills of students.
The lexical level of speech development involves the enrichment, clarification and activation of the vocabulary of younger students. Younger students usually lack vocabulary, they may use words in the wrong sense and speak in simple sentences. Older children are so accustomed to using slang in colloquial speech that it is difficult for them to literally express their thoughts in an essay. Work at this level leads to the accumulation of words in the speech of younger students, understanding the various shades of their meanings, as well as the readiness to use words in speech activity.
The grammatical level of work on the development of speech involves teaching students to quickly, syntactically correctly build a variety of constructions and link them in the text. This is achieved by building phrases and sentences of different types, establishing links between words, etc.
The fourth level is text. This level is characterized by various exercises with the text: retellings, speeches, improvisations, compositions, presentations, dramatizations.
Analysis of the works of M.R. Lvov, N.N. Svetlovskaya, T.A. Ladyzhenskaya, T.G. Ramzaeva and others made it possible to study and formulate in more detail the main requirements for the speech of primary school students. They are also the criteria for evaluating student oral and written statements:
I am the lucidity of speech. Speech should be accessible to the listener, focused on the perception of the addressee. The speaker takes into account the capabilities, interests and other qualities of the addressee. Speech is harmed by excessive confusion, excessive complexity of syntax. Speech should be communicatively expedient in any situation and depend on the purpose of the statement, on the conditions for the exchange of information.
Expressiveness of speech, a quality that implies an impact on the listener with the help of language brightness and persuasiveness.
Correct speech. This quality is ensured by compliance with the literary norm (grammatical, orthoepic – for oral speech).
Wealth of language resources. The ability to choose in different situations different synonyms and sentence structures that best convey the content.
speech accuracy. This requirement implies the ability not only to speak, but also to choose the optimal language means for the set goal – such words, phrases, phraseological units that most accurately convey the student’s thoughts and feelings.
Logic of speech. Speech should be consistent, clearly constructed, connected in its parts. Logic implies the validity of the conclusions, the ability to start and end the statement.
Speech content. This quality depends on how much the student knows what he is talking about. When the statement is built on knowledge of the norms of speech etiquette, facts, observations, when it is carefully considered, then it is meaningful, and, as a rule, effective (convincingly, heard, understood, accepted).
Communication is a complex, multifaceted process of establishing and developing contacts between people, generated by the need for joint activities; includes the exchange of information, the development of a unified strategy of interaction, the perception and understanding of the partner [2, p.326].
Individuality is the features of character and mental make-up that distinguish one individual from another [36, p.214].
Personality is a mysterious excess of individuality, its freedom, which cannot be calculated, predicted [2, p.266].
Consciousness is the ability of a person to think, reason and determine his attitude to reality [2, p.243].
Thinking is a person’s ability to reason, which is a process of reflecting objective reality in representations, judgments, concepts [36, p.315].
Emotions are a special class of mental processes and states associated with instincts, needs, motives and reflecting in the form of direct experience the significance of phenomena and situations affecting the individual for the implementation of his life activity [2
Signs of a formed and flexible thinking – the ability to analyze, generalize, logically correct, clearly, and also emotionally build one’s speech, which is possible with a large vocabulary
The purpose of literary reading lessons is to purposefully enrich the lexical and grammatical structure of children’s speech, based on the acquired knowledge of the language, to teach them to perceive (and understand) someone else’s speech, and also to build their own statements (texts) in accordance with the norms of the Russian language, to evaluate the actions of heroes , think about them, try them on, and in general, it means to develop .
Work on the development of students’ speech in reading lessons should be systematic. We list the main areas of work:
– vocabulary work;
– drawing up a work plan;
– training in oral retelling;
– training in illustration .
– VERBAL DRAWING is the ability of a person to express his thoughts and feelings based on a read fairy tale, fable, story, poem;
– COMPOSITION OF FAIRY TALES is the ability to realize through speech the child’s imagination, observation and thinking of younger students
– FAIRY STORIES . Pupils come up with imagination, the task of the teacher, personal observations.
– THE METHOD OF COLLECTIVE COMPOSITION OF A FAIRY TALE WITH A SIMULTANEOUS DESCRIPTION OF WHAT IS HAPPENING (GAME-DRAWING ACCOMPANIED WITH A STORY).
COMPOSITION is a creative work that requires the independence of the student, activity, enthusiasm, introducing something of his own, personal into the text. It contributes to the formation of the personality of the student. In the essay, the spelling, all the grammatical rules studied, acquires meaning for the student .
PATENT TWISTERS can be used to develop skills in the correct pronunciation of sounds, for the articulation of speech sounds, as well as expressive reading. Forms of work with a tongue twister can be different:
– pronunciation of tongue twisters at a different pace, with different intonations (joyfully, enthusiastically, sadly, excitedly, surprised, preoccupied, disappointed);
– pronunciation, accompanied by certain hidden actions (for example, clapping, waving a hand, dance movements);
– improvisational staging of tongue twisters;
– creation of tongue-in-cheek greetings, etc. .
EXERCISES AIMED AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTONATIONAL WEALTH OF SPEECH
To do this, some object is passed around the circle and a tongue twister is pronounced (the same or different for each person).
A ribbon is fixed at the ends of two sticks (you can use a thread or rope). On command, two people begin to twist it and at the same time say a tongue twister. Who will roll the tape faster and at the same time pronounce the tongue twister correctly.
Tongue twisters with continuation
If one of you comes up with the beginning of a tongue twister, then you can offer it to everyone else to finish it. When this process is completed, everyone who took part in the creation of the tongue twister read out what they got. For example, such tongue sets, each of which can be supplemented
– hissed at the cat,
– Shurik slapped with a silk scarf,
– mixed vermicelli with chocolate,
– hung vermicelli on the puppy’s ears,
– threw cones into the closet …
Approbation is the approval of something or approval, the basis of which is a survey. – this is a test of the operability of processes, schemes, models, methods established theoretically, carried out in real conditions.