Level 1 (competence-based approach)

Fundamentals of medical knowledge and a healthy lifestyle.

Block 1.

Task 1 (choose one answer).

The ability to interact with the environment to maintain or restore balance is called …

Answer options:

1) health potential

2) health balance

3) health resource

4) adaptation

Task 2 (choose one answer).

Information perceived by the senses through the first signal system is called …

Answer options:

1) touch

2) verbal

3) structural

4) indifferent

Task 3 (choose one answer).

In practical medicine, to assess individual health, the concept is usually used …

Answer options:

1) norms

2) adaptation

3) mortality

4) fertility

Task 4 (choose one answer).

An infectious disease goes through the following successive stages (periods) …

Answer options:

1) incubation period – prodromal period – period of the peak of the disease – convalescence

2) prodromal period – incubation period – period of the peak of the disease – convalescence

3) incubation period – prodromal period – period of the peak of the disease – remission

4) relapse – the incubation period – the period of the height of the disease – the prodromal period

Task 5 (choose one answer).

Diseases caused by primary damage to the function of T- and B-lymphocytes are called …

Answer options:

1) immunodeficiencies

2) anemia

3) leukopenia

4) leukemia

Task 6 (- select one answer).

Tuberculosis infection in humans occurs mainly …

Answer options:

1) inhalation

2) through the blood

3) through food

4) by contact

Task 7 (choose one answer).

Among the correctable (changeable) risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease (ischemic heart disease) include …

Answer options:

1) hypertension

2) hereditary predisposition

3) hyperlipidemia

4) diabetes

Task 8 (- choose one answer).

Acute and chronic diseases can play a provoking role in the development of diabetes mellitus …

Answer options:

1) pancreas

2) respiratory organs

3) urinary organs

4) musculoskeletal system

Task 9 (choose one answer).

Reliable signs of biological death do not include (-s) …

Answer options:

1) lack of pupil reaction to light

2) the appearance of the symptom of “cat’s eye”

3) signs of drying of the cornea

4) the appearance of cadaveric spots

Task 10 (- select one answer).

Before starting artificial lung ventilation (ALV), you should …

Answer options:

1) ensure airway patency

2) inflict a precordial blow

3) put the victim on his bent knee, head down

4) turn the victim on his side or stomach

Task 11 (- select one answer).

Mechanical violation of the integrity of the skin, mucous membranes to their entire depth is …

Answer options:

1) wound

2) abrasion

3) scratch

4) bruising

Task 12 (- select one answer).

Abundant and very dangerous bleeding from such internal organs as the spleen, kidneys, liver, is called …

Answer options:

1) parenchymal

2) traumatic

3) arterial

4) hemorrhoidal

Task 13 (- select one answer).

In relation to the skin, fractures can be …

Answer options:

1) open and closed

2) complete and incomplete

3) transverse and oblique

4) infected and uninfected

Task 14 (- select one answer).

Overheating of the human body is accompanied by …

Answer options:

1) increased sweating and significant loss of water and salts

2) slight sweating and significant loss of water and salts

3) increased sweating and slight loss of water and salts

4) weak sweating and difficult circulation

Block 2.

Task 15 (- select two or more answers).

It’s called predisease…

Answer options:

1) latent, latent period of the disease

2) the stage of functional readiness of the body for the development of the disease

3) the vital activity of the organism, which is expressed in a change in the function

4) violation of the structure of organs and tissues

Task 16 (- select two or more answers).

The secondary flow of smoke emitted when smoking a cigarette is characterized by the fact that it …

Answer options:

1) moving away from the cigarette without puffs

2) creates conditions for passive smoking

3) absolutely harmless

4) contains minimal concentrations of harmful gases

Task 17 (- establish a correspondence between the elements of two sets).

Establish a correspondence between the stage of an infectious disease and its characteristics.

1. Incubation period

2. Prodromal period

3. The period of convalescence

Answer options:

1) begins from the moment the pathogen penetrates until the first clinical signs of the disease appear 1

2) is characterized by the appearance of the first, usually non-specific, symptoms (fever, weakness, malaise, etc.) 2

3) is characterized by the restoration of the normal functional state of the body 3

4) is characterized by the occurrence of clinical manifestations – common to many infections and specific to this

Task 18 (- establish a correspondence between the elements of two sets).

Establish a correspondence between the anti-epidemic measure and its characteristics.

1. Measures aimed at eliminating the source of infection

2. Measures aimed at preventing the spread of infection

3. Measures aimed at increasing the resistance of the population to infection

Answer options:

1) detection of persons who have been in contact with the sick, for subsequent monitoring of their health

2) regime restrictive measures – observation and quarantine, disinfection measures 2

3) immunization of the population according to epidemic indications, the use of antimicrobial agents for prophylactic purposes 3

4) limiting contacts among the population, involving the media

Task 19 ( – enter the answer in the field).

The deposition of lipids on the walls of blood vessels with a catastrophic narrowing of their lumen is called … (Enter the word in the answer field in the form of the appropriate case) atherosclerosis

Task 20 ( – enter the answer in the field).

Sudden short-term loss of consciousness (no more than 3-4 minutes), blanching of the skin and a sharp decrease in blood pressure are signs of … (Enter the word in the answer field in the form of the appropriate case) fainting

Task 21 (- select two or more answers).

The criteria for the correct application of a hemostatic tourniquet for arterial bleeding are …

Answer options:

1) pale color of the limb

2) lack of peripheral pulse

3) blue limbs

4) decrease in the strength of bleeding

Task 22 (- select two or more answers).

When stopping arterial bleeding, a tourniquet or twist should be applied …

Answer options:

1) above the wound

2) possibly closer to the wound

3) below the wound

4) as far away from the wound as possible

Block 3.

Task 23 (Case task).

Under the rubble after the earthquake, a victim was found, who more than 14 hours ago was crushed by a slab on both lower limbs. The victim is conscious, groans in pain, tries to free himself from under the rubble on his own.

Task 23.1 (- select one answer).

Assessing the picture of what happened, we can assume the development of the victim …

Answer options:

1) crash syndrome

2) cerebral stroke

3) diabetic coma

4) brain contusion

Task 23.2 (- select one answer).

The immediate danger to life in this situation is the acute (th) __________, which (th) develops in such victims after their release from the rubble.

Answer options:

1) intoxication

2) blood loss

3) dehydration

4) hypothermia

Task 23.3 (- select one answer).

When providing first aid in this situation, it must be remembered that a tourniquet should be applied to the injured limb before it is released if the compression lasts more than ______ hours.

Answer options:

1) 12

2) 2

3) 6

4) 10

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