Lecture: Presentation methodology.

Plan:

1. Detailed retellings and presentations.

2. Methodology for the presentation.

3. Types of presentations.

4. Ways to increase the independence and creative activity of schoolchildren.

A rare lesson passes without retelling, so the template in this work is dangerous. A variety of types of retelling, awareness of the tasks of each type, variation in preparation for retelling enlivens the lessons, gives them purposefulness, increases the interest of students in reading, and ultimately improves their level of speech development.

Expositions are written retellings of exemplary texts. As you know, if the exercise is performed in writing, then higher requirements are imposed on it – both in content, and in logic, and in composition, and in language. Therefore, the role of written presentations is to train schoolchildren from time to time against the background of constant and varied oral speech activity in compiling such texts that could be thought over, carefully checked.

The difficulties of presentation in comparison with oral retelling, as well as the slow pace of writing by students in the primary grades, force the teacher to ask students for written presentation texts that are smaller, and compositionally simpler, and more accessible in language.

The program provides for the second grade a text presentation of 30 – 45 words (under the guidance of a teacher) on questions or according to a given plan of 2 – 3 points; for the third grade, a text presentation of 60 – 75 words according to a plan drawn up collectively, of 3 – 5 points; for the fourth grade – a detailed, concise, selective presentation of 90 – 100 words according to a self-composed plan.

Children should know what requirements the school has for retelling and presentation. First of all, the living speech of the student himself should sound in the retelling; this means that the sample should not be blindly copied, but at the same time the student must use vocabulary and turns of speech taken from the sample.

The teacher monitors the obligatory use of those words that are encountered in the story for the first time, or in some new, unusual combination; observes the use of visual means of language, phraseological units, ensures that the style of the sample is preserved (for example, a fairy tale).

In the retelling, the sequence of the original, causal dependencies must be observed, the main facts must be conveyed. The completeness of the transmission of everything essential is one of the most important requirements for the retelling of a scientific text. Independence, liveliness of language is impossible without expressiveness. The retelling reflects the feelings of the student, his desire to interest other children. One of the shortcomings of retelling is its monotony, dryness.

If the student “entered the role”, empathizes with the heroes of the story, if his feelings sounded in the retelling, then the creative level of retelling is high: it turns into a story being created, and not memorized. The quality of the retelling primarily depends on how the sample is perceived, whether it made an impression on the student, whether it is correctly understood, whether its language is mastered, whether its images are perceived. Therefore, it is expedient to direct the student at retelling immediately when reading, and then in the analysis, to offer to retell individual fragments.

DETAILED REPRESENTATIONS AND STATEMENTS.

This type of retelling and presentation is used in school more often than others. It serves, firstly, as a means of consolidating the children’s memory of the content read in all its details, and secondly, as a means of mastering the logic of the sample and its linguistic means.

You need to start learning a detailed retelling from a narrative text, where there is a clear plot, then the children learn to include elements of description in the retelling (sketches of nature, the appearance of people and descriptions of objects).

It is most convenient for students to bring the retelling closer to the conditions of natural speech in a text where there is a dialogue that is previously read in faces. Questions play a certain role in the retelling close to the text. However, we should not forget that questions on the content reduce the level of independence of students. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the role of questions, and the questions themselves should be posed more general.

Detailed written presentation is carried out in all classes starting from the period of literacy (in the form of written elements of a prepared oral retelling).

The work on the presentation is structured as follows: the text intended for presentation is read by students no more than two times, so that they do not memorize it, then a conversation is held, the purpose of which is to reveal whether all the children have understood correctly, to achieve full awareness of the read, ideological meaning of the story .

The next stage of work is drawing up a plan; then vocabulary work is carried out – an analysis of the meanings of words and their spelling, attention is drawn to the construction of the most important syntactic constructions and to the visual means of the language. Individual sentences and even fragments of text can be composed. Finally, the children write the text of the presentation on their own, and the teacher monitors their work and provides the necessary assistance to the students individually. This is followed by self-examination and improvement of the text, after which the children hand over their notebooks to the teacher for verification.

When the results of the work are discussed, it is advisable to compare the texts written by students with the original, which will help to identify shortcomings in the content and language of children’s presentations.

Selective retelling. To retell selectively means to choose from the text that part that corresponds to a narrow issue, for example, to retell only the description of the character’s appearance, retell the picture of nature, etc.

Condensed retelling and presentation. You need to be able to state the topic not only in detail, but also briefly, concisely; this also applies to the retelling of what has been read. For a brief retelling, the student must select the main content from the text, convey it coherently, consistently, without gaps.

Creative retellings and presentations. There are several types of these exercises, which are called creative, since their own contribution to them is higher than usual. Creative works include retellings and presentations with the restructuring of the text and with the additions of schoolchildren.

METHOD OF CARRYING OUT EXPOSURES.

The choice of text for presentation is an important issue. Studies show that for primary school students, the most accessible text for presentation is a story, a narrative. Syntactically and lexically, the story should be simple and accessible to students.

In order to develop the independence of students, the texts are gradually becoming more complex in their design:

the text is divided into small parts and a point of the plan is given to each of them below;

the text is not divided into paragraphs, but there is a plan;

the text is divided into two (then 3-4) paragraphs, the plan is not given, but the latter is compiled collectively;

the text is divided into 3-4 paragraphs, there is no plan, the children compose it on their own and write a presentation;

the text is not divided into paragraphs, no plan is given; children need to make a plan of 3-4 points and write a summary.

So the student gradually masters the ability to write a summary of the finished text.

The most difficult, as observations show, is the presentation of a text perceived by ear. At the beginning of work, each student has the opportunity to read the text in the textbook himself, and then the teacher reads, while the books are closed. After that, the children write a summary of this text, in some cases making inquiries in the book.

How many times should you read the story that the children will write? It depends on the class, on how the teacher works on the presentation. But still, it is advisable to teach children to write a presentation after no more than twice, and sometimes even once, reading.

The text intended for presentation in the second grade may consist of 4-5 sentences. Such, for example, is the story “For the Fish”:

Yasha and Seryozha decided to go fishing. They went to the river. Yasha caught a pike. Serezha caught a perch. The children gave the fish to their mother.

A plan is written on the board in advance in the form of questions:

What were the boys thinking?

Where did they go?

Who was caught by Yasha and Seryozha?

The plan is closed for now so as not to distract the children’s attention from the text.

The teacher slowly and expressively reads the text once, opens the plan – questions and invites the children to read it to themselves from the beginning, then each question of the plan is read aloud by an individual student. Questions are answered. Then the text can be read by the teacher again, and the children write a summary.

The text for presentation in the third grade can be large in volume, individual sentences are more complex in design. For example, you can take the text “Two goats” from the Russian language textbook of grade 3.

First, the text is read in full, a plan is drawn up for it. The teacher draws the attention of the children to the fact that three parts can be distinguished in the story, each of them should be titled. In order to properly title each part, you need to think about what is the main and main thing in it.

As a result of collective work, a presentation plan is drawn up:

Meeting on a narrow path.

What did one goat do?

Dispersed.

The plan is written on the board. Each student thinks through his presentation according to this plan. The text can be read again before the children start writing the summary.

In elementary grades, as a rule, the presentation is educational in nature. When conducting presentation training, the teacher at first shows how to present the read text.

In the future, when working on the presentation, the children are more and more independent both in the transfer of content and in its speech design. At the same time, however, in cases of difficulties, they turn to the teacher for help; the teacher, for his part, constantly monitors the work of his students and helps them.

This type of presentation is also possible, when the student writes independently and independently draws up a plan for presentation. This presentation is essentially control. The control presentation is carried out at the end of training in the third and fourth grades.

The presentation can be of different types:

a) detailed or concise;

b) without changing the facts;

c) a presentation with an addition, with an insertion of episodes;

d) with a change in the beginning, end;

e) presentation with a change in the face of the narrator, time of action, etc.

The presentations of students in grades 2-4 must meet the following requirements:

Students must correctly, without distorting the facts, convey the content of the read text. In this case, the sequence of events and episodes in the text must be observed.

The sequence of presentation should correspond to a certain plan.

The presentation can be detailed or concise, depending on the tasks of the teacher.

The presentation must be spelled correctly.

WAYS OF INCREASING INDEPENDENCE AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN.

In school practice, it is not uncommon for the whole class to read the text, conduct a conversation, draw up a single plan for everyone. Since the answers of students to the same question of the teacher are almost the same, the entire text is also the same for everyone. With such a collective preparation, all presentations almost seem to repeat the text. But even this text is not compiled by the whole class, but by two or three strong students. The rest of the children remain passive. Therefore, in grades 3-4, collective text composition is permissible only when the teacher introduces children to a new genre of the model for them.

In other cases, the collective text should not be drawn up and spoken out. Each student works independently, and the teacher provides individual assistance. The sooner the teacher can introduce elements of independence into the presentation, the better.

The analysis of written presentations is very important in the process of learning to present. The teacher, checking the work, classifies them, taking into account:

accuracy of transmission, consistency of the content of the text;

inconsistency in the transmission of the content of the text;

errors in the construction of sentences;

misuse of words;

the most gross spelling and punctuation errors.

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