Lecture number 6. Storage of medicinal products in warehouses and pharmacies.

1. Storage of medicinal products in warehouses and pharmacies.

2. Influence of physical and chemical factors on the storage of medicinal products. Storage periods.

3. Pests Methodology for determining the degree of damage to pests by pests according to the AND.

Storage of medicinal plant raw materials is a process that ensures the good quality of raw materials during the shelf life established for it.

The purpose of storage is to preserve biologically active substances and raw materials as a material value. Harvested and dried medicinal raw materials are used as needed, so a significant part of it is subject to storage. To do this, dried raw materials must be well packed in paper bags, cloth bags, small boxes.

The rules for the storage of medicinal products are regulated by : Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated November 13, 1996 No. 377 “On approval of the Instructions for organizing storage in pharmacies of various groups of medicines and medical products” and NAKAZ No. 44 dated 16.03.1993 p. “ About the organization of savings in the pharmacy mortgages of various groups of medical benefits and the possibilities of medical recognition.”

The main factors affecting medicinal plant materials during storage are

– external – hygienic (humidity, temperature, light) and natural and climatic (season, zoning);

– internal – physico-chemical and biological processes occurring in medicinal plant materials.

The storage of MPRM is accompanied to some extent by losses of biologically active substances, which are caused by two main processes occurring in MPRM: biochemical and microbiological. In raw materials, immediately after harvesting, there is an intensive decomposition of active substances due to the activity of enzymes. This phenomenon can be slowed down or stopped by drying, which not only stops the vital activity of enzymes, but also accelerates the removal of intracellular moisture, thereby slowing down the processes of interaction of biologically active substances with enzymes. It should be added that drying also prevents the development of microflora in raw materials and minimizes the course of chemical oxidative processes. However, even in dried plants, albeit slowly, the decay and destruction of tissues and substances continues, the rate of which depends on a number of factors: humidity, temperature, air composition, illumination of the room in which the medicinal plant is stored.

The influence of microbiological processes, more precisely, the impact of microorganisms on biologically active substances of plants, has not been studied enough, but it has already been established that some types of fungi use the active substances of plants as a nutrient substrate and release toxic substances in the course of their life, which means that raw materials affected by fungus, mold and other microorganisms, unsuitable for use.

Among these factors, the influence of temperature is the most significant. A distinction should be made between storage at low temperatures above 0° and storage at temperatures below 0°. Temperature below 0° causes freezing of cells, resulting in the destruction of its plasma structure. After thawing, autolytic processes develop in the cell, which lead to the breakdown of active substances. Therefore, VP can be stored at a low temperature, but its freezing is completely unacceptable.

The air environment has a significant impact on the quality of HR during storage. Air oxygen , entering into chemical interaction with various substances, causes their oxidation. With a weak exchange of air, heat and moisture released during oxidation, accumulating in the mass of raw materials, can lead to its self-heating, thereby creating conditions favorable for the development of microorganisms and the associated deterioration of raw materials. Therefore, during the storage of raw materials, it is necessary to ensure constant air exchange with the help of natural or artificial ventilation, due to which moisture and heat will be removed.

An important condition for the preservation of VP is its humidity. It is unacceptable to accept raw materials with high humidity for storage, as this can lead to complete deterioration of the raw materials due to self-heating, caking and decay. For proper storage of VP received with normal humidity, it is necessary to control the humidity and temperature of the air, the dampness of the floor and walls of the storage room. Ventilation is advisable if the outside air is drier than the air in the warehouse. An increase in the moisture content of medicinal herbs during storage leads to the loss of active substances, especially glycosides and alkaloids. The most susceptible to the negative effects of high humidity are such types of PM as flowers and underground organs.

Under the influence of direct sunlight , the pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins) of plants decompose and, as a result, the green parts of the plants fade or turn brown, the bright color of the flowers disappears, and the raw material loses its presentation. In the dark, favorable conditions are created for the development of various pests. Taking this into account, it is necessary that the premises intended for the storage of medicinal products must have sufficient natural lighting, but direct sunlight is not allowed on the raw materials.

With poor storage, even properly collected and dried raw materials lose their healing qualities or become completely unusable. Store medicinal supplies in a clean, dry, dark, cool and ventilated place. Each type of raw material is stored separately, it must be provided with a label indicating the type of plant, the time of its collection. Poisonous plants are stored separately from non-poisonous ones, plants with a smell – separately from odorless ones. Delicate parts of plant materials (flowers, buds, etc.) are best stored in boxes lined with paper on the inside, in bulk, without tamping. The fruits of raspberries, blueberries, strawberries, etc. are well preserved in a draft in double cloth bags.

In industrial and pharmacy conditions, raw materials can be stored in various temporary and permanent storage facilities. For better preservation of biologically active substances, raw materials are stored in unground form, since this reduces the contact surface of biologically active substances with air. Temporary storage can be of the type of sheds, non-residential premises, sheds, covered verandas and are intended for temporary storage of raw materials – 3-5 days. Temporary storages protect raw materials from atmospheric precipitation and ensure the safety of raw materials for a short time.

Storages of a permanent type are called warehouses, and special requirements are imposed on them, since raw materials are stored in them for a long time.

The warehouse should have the following departments:

1. Reception, where documents are processed, the quality of packaging, labeling is checked, as well as sampling for analysis;

2. Isolator for temporary storage of medicinal raw materials affected by barn pests.

3. A room for temporary storage of non-standard medicinal raw materials for the purpose of its refinement.

4. A room for storing poisonous and potent raw materials.

5. Premises for storage of essential oil raw materials.

6. A room for storing juicy fruits.

7. Room for other raw materials.

Warehouses should be adequately equipped, have cement or wooden floors without gaps, plastered walls, no windows or they should be painted over with white paint. There should be instruments that measure temperature and humidity. The storage room is equipped with racks or pedestals with a height of at least 25 cm, the distance between the shelves of the racks is at least 75 cm.

Medicinal plant materials should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated area in well-closed containers, in pharmacies – glass, metal, in boxes with a lid, in warehouses – in bales or closed boxes on racks. Cut raw materials are stored in fabric bags, powders – in double bags: inner – paper, multilayer, outer – fabric, cardboard packaging. Depending on the physicochemical properties of medicinal plant materials, packaging made of polymeric materials is allowed.

Medicinal plant materials containing essential oils are stored in isolation in a well-closed container.

Some hygroscopic herbs, leaves and fruits must be stored in glass or metal containers well sealed (for example, foxglove leaves, kidney tea, etc.).

When storing dried juicy fruits, in order to prevent their spoilage by granary pests, it is recommended to place a bottle of chloroform in the boxes with fruits, in the cork of which a tube is inserted to volatilize chloroform vapors. Chloroform is added as it volatilizes.

Medicinal plant materials should be subject to periodic control in accordance with the requirements of the Global Fund. Grass, roots, rhizomes, seeds, fruits that have lost their normal color, smell and the required amount of active substances, as well as those affected by mold, barn pests, depending on the degree of damage, are either rejected or used after processing and control.

Particular attention during storage should be given to medicinal plant materials containing cardiac glycosides. For them, the GF has established more stringent periods of storage and re-control for the content of biological activity.

Poisonous and potent medicinal plant raw materials are stored in a separate room or a separate cabinet under lock and key. Poisonous (list A) and potent (list B) medicinal raw materials are stored in a separate storage room, in safes or locked metal cabinets. The windows must have metal bars, the doors are also upholstered with metal. The room is equipped with light and sound alarms. After completion of work, the room is sealed.

Shelf life, respectively, for each type of raw material is different: leaves, grass, flowers – no more than 2-5 years, birch buds – 2 years; roots, bark – 5-7 years; root tubers – up to 6 years; licorice root – up to 10 years. The expiration date is indicated in the file cabinet or on the label.

It is unacceptable to store raw materials with high humidity (above the norms stipulated by the ND), as this contributes to its self-heating, mold, caking and decay.

Increased air humidity in warehouses also leads to a decrease in the quality of raw materials and a decrease in the content of active substances in it, especially for hygroscopic species (hawthorn flowers, lily of the valley, henbane leaves, belladonna, etc.). Raspberries, blueberries, currants are best stored with frequent airing.

The bulk of medicinal raw materials is stored in common areas.

Store separately in groups in isolated rooms:

– poisonous and potent raw materials;

– essential oil raw materials;

– fruits and seeds.

Optimum t° = 10-15° C, air humidity 30-40%.

In pharmacies , raw materials are stored in special cabinets, boxes, in warehouses on racks.

Placement of raw materials on racks according to GF-XI, vol. one.:

– The distance between the rack and the floor must be at least 25 cm,

– stack height for fruits, seeds and buds – no more than 2.5 m;

– for leaves, flowers, herbs – no more than 4 m,

– for other species – 4 m and more.

The stack should be placed at a distance of at least 60 cm from the wall, the gaps between the stacks should be at least 80 cm.

Each stack is labeled with:

– name of raw materials;

– name of the company-sender;

– year and month of procurement;

– batch number (series);

– receipt date.

Storage containers: in pharmacies – glass, metal, boxes with lids, in warehouses – bales, closed boxes, bags.

Warehouses also carry out container storage, and each container is accompanied by the necessary information about the batch number, data on the analysis of raw materials, etc.

When stored in a warehouse, raw materials must be transferred annually, paying attention to the presence of barn pests and to the compliance of the storage period with the expiration date specified in the RD. The room and racks should be disinfected annually. Container storage is carried out in the warehouses of foreign firms for the processing of medicinal plant raw materials.

Shelf life is indicated in the ADS on the LRS. If there are no individual instructions, herbs, leaves, flowers and buds store 1-2 years, fruits 2-3 years, bark, roots and rhizomes 3-5 years.

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