Information collection methods: survey, observation, study of documents, experiment. Describe each method of collecting information.

Questions on sociology I rating

1 Object and subject of sociology

2 What is “social”

3 Macro-micro sociology

4 Functions of sociology

5 Comparison of sociology and ideology

6 Prerequisites for the emergence of sociology

7 The contribution of O. Comte, G. Spencer, K. Marx, E. Durkheim, M. Weber to the development of sociology

8 Development of sociology in the 20th century in the West

9 The development of sociology in Russia since the end. 19th century to con. 20s of the 20th century

10 The development of sociology in Russia since the end. 20s-early 30s to mid. 50s of the 20th century

11 The development of sociology in Russia, con. 50s to ser. 80s of the 20th century

12 The development of sociology in Russia since the end. 80s 20 to the present day.

13 The concept of sociological research. The logical scheme of sociological research.

14 Talk about the Law of Large Numbers

15 Types of sociological research

16 Stages of sociological research

17 Methods of collecting information: survey, observation, study of documents, experiment. Describe each method of collecting information.

18 Program of sociological research. What sections does it consist of? Describe the sections of the sociological research program.

19 Signs of society, the concept of society.

20 Structural composition of society.

1. The object of sociology is the carrier of a particular social problem. It is characterized in terms of spatial certainty and can be described qualitatively, quantitatively and structurally.

The subject matter is usually taken as: – the main, most significant properties and features of the OI in relation to this study; those aspects of the activities of the IO that are planned to be studied.

2. Social – 1. The property of individuals and groups, which is formed in the process of socialization and integration of a person into society, social relations. 2. A special type, a form of regulation of behavior based on an anticipatory forecast of the behavior of others, which is possible due to mutual obligations, agreements.

Social – is a set of certain properties and features of social relations, integrated by individuals or communities in the process of joint activity in specific conditions, and manifested in them.

Social – – a set of certain properties and features of public relations (see) of a given society, integrated in joint activities (interaction) by individuals or groups of individuals in specific conditions of place and time and manifested in their relationship to each other, to their position in about-ve, to phenomena and processes in societies. life.

3. Macro and micro. The basis here is the education of Norbert Elias, figurative sociology (also process sociology), which goes beyond the analysis of actors and is flow-structural (“figurative”), but rejects the Macrosociological reification of “total society”.

The concept of macrosociology . Macrosociology studies social structures, communities, large social groups, layers, systems and processes taking place in them. The social community that is the object of macrosociological analysis is civilization and its largest formations. The macrosociological approach does not require a detailed consideration of specific problems and situations, but is aimed at their comprehensive coverage. Macrosociology focuses on behavior patterns that help to understand the essence of any society. The concept of microsociology. In the 30s of our century, a new branch of sociological knowledge arose in sociology, called sociometry or microsociology. Microsociology studies the ubiquitous behavior of people in their interpersonal interaction.

4 . Functions of sociology. cognitive function . It consists in the study, research, analysis of social reality, which acts as one or a whole group of interrelated factors. This function is aimed at the “production” of new sociological knowledge. Its implementation takes place at all levels of sociological knowledge, since society is a complex system and it is impossible to cognize, study it by accumulating and synthesizing only the theoretical knowledge of fundamental sociology. At the general theoretical level, it appears in the form of formulating the problems of social reality, developing hypotheses, determining ways, methods of sociological research tools, as well as determining social forecasts. At the middle level (particular sociological theories), general concepts are transferred to the empirical level, knowledge is accumulated about the essence, contradictions of phenomena and specific situations that take place in human life. At the empirical level, sociological research, by revealing new facts, leads to an increase in well-founded knowledge about social reality.

The descriptive function consists in describing, systematizing, and accumulating the material obtained by researchers in the form of various scientific reports, articles, and books. They reflect the real picture of the studied social object. Naturally, this work requires a high moral purity and decency from the researcher, since practical conclusions are drawn on the basis of the materials obtained and they will act as a source of measurement, reference, comparison for future generations. predictive function . This feature plays a very important role. The results of sociological research provide concrete information necessary for the implementation of conscious social control and management of social processes in society. It is expressed in the fact that it gives scientifically based forecasts of the development of both the whole society and its individual spheres and structures, which acts as a theoretical basis for building long-term plans for their development. Making forecasts is very important for all social phenomena, since they are not only indicate the need for a certain change, but also show the real possibilities of implementing this change, practical recommendations and proposals are being developed to improve the efficiency of managing various social processes. The critical function thanks to it the cognizable world is evaluated from the point of view of the interests of the individual. Obtaining objective knowledge, sociology has the ability to signal the deviations that have occurred in the development of society, which can lead to any negative social phenomena and consequences. Sociology, performing this function, approaches reality in a differentiated way. ideological function. The presence of this function is due to a number of circumstances. Although the sociologist is interested in obtaining the most accurate and objective information about the phenomenon under study, the results are not always free from political evaluation. The choice of a research topic, development of tasks, research technique, interpretation of the results obtained are often determined by its socio-political position and depend on its value orientations and political interests.

5. Comparison of sociology and ideology. Sociologists and ideology have much in common, firstly, they have the same object – modern society, and reflect it in a generalized form. Secondly, they rely in their development on the available and material about society. And they use basically the same concepts. They are elements of the theoretical level of social consciousness. Sociology and ideology are different from each other. Ideology expresses interests by reflecting reality as it seems, and sociology reflects reality as it is. They have different social functions. Ideology unites a certain social stratum of society to achieve political values. They also differ in the nature of the reflection of social reality. Ideology draws out the ideas of reason, often formulates myths. Sociology is a system of categories, patterns of principles of research methods formulates scientific positions.

7.Vlad. O. Kant 1789-1857 he is the founder of sociology. He is the founder of the positivist trend in sociology. Positivism is knowledge, which proceeds from the fact that knowledge in society must be accurate, provable and verifiable. Sociological positivism was the dominant trend in the 19th century. To justify the role and place of sociology in society, Kant used 3 stages, which were formulated by Henri de Simon. In history, 3 are distinguished stages that differ in the way of understanding the surrounding reality: 1st. Theological (the idea of the world is unrealistic, dominated by myths and religion) 2st. Metaphysical (abstract constructions dominate in the system of cognition have little connection with reality) 3. Positive (science dominates and sociology arises).

Spencer , an English scientist (1820-1903), to explain social processes, Spencer used the parallels between the development of society and the human body; his directions were called the “naturalistic direction.” Spencer’s main merit lies in the fact that the systematic approach formulated the concept of “social institution”. KARL MARX (1818-1883) German thinker and philosopher, he owns the discovery of the basic laws of functioning. Firstly, he singled out the main spheres of society, revealed the essence and significance of each of them. Secondly, he gave a detailed analysis of the economic formation, especially its highest stage, bourgeois society, highlighting both positive and negative aspects in it. Thirdly, Marx discovered the main factor of social progress of the economic formation is the development of productive forces. In general, Marx gave the methodological foundations for the study of social life and deeply revealed the relationship between man and society. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) , a philosopher, argued that the condition for turning sociologists into an independent science is the presence of a special subject and an appropriate method. He considered this subject to be a special reality that was not dealt with by any of the sciences. It is based on social facts that have a number of independent characteristics. Durkheim subdivided social facts, which he subdivided as things into material and spiritual. He substantiated the idea of social solidarity, which was dedicated to all his work. Max Weber (1864-1820) The German social philosopher and historian, along with Marx and Durkheim, is the most prominent founder of sociology. He believed that the most important thing in the study of society is a logical understanding of social processes and their scientific explanation. Weber entered the history of sociology as the founder of understanding sociology and the theory of social action. He believed that science should understand and explain the social process as a set of people’s actions. An important place in the works of Weber is occupied by the problem of values – moral political, etc. In the history of social knowledge, Weber used the ratio of empirical and theoretical levels of knowledge. At the same time, he identifies the main types of social actions (purposeful, holistically rational, effective, traditional).

8. The development of sociology in the 20th century in the West At the beginning of the 20th century, the specifics of national schools in sociology began to appear, associated with the peculiarities of their formation. So, in France, sociology sprouts from the historical and philosophical tradition, in Germany – from the philosophical and economic one, in Italy sociology “ripened” in the bosom of political sciences, in Great Britain – managerial ones. The American stage (30s – early 50s) in the development of sociology is determined by the movement of the “geographical” center of sociological research from Europe to the USA. This was primarily due to the events that preceded the Second World War and caused the mass emigration of prominent scientists, first from the Soviet Union, and then from Western Europe. In terms of content, this period is characterized by the massive development and improvement of empirical research and the development of new methods for studying social phenomena. The first approach and the sociological tradition that follows from it proceed from the primacy of society in relation to the individual and focus their attention on the study of patterns of a “high” order, leaving the sphere of subjective motives and meanings in the shade. Society is understood as a system that rises above individuals and cannot be explained by their thoughts and actions. The logic of reasoning in substantiating such a position is approximately as follows: the whole is not reduced to the sum of its parts; individuals come and go, are born and die, but society continues to exist. This tradition originates in the sociological concept of E. Durkheim and even earlier – in the views of O. Comte. Of the modern trends, it primarily includes the school of structural-functional analysis (T. Parsons) and the theory of conflict (L. Koser, R. Dahrendorf). The second approach, on the contrary, shifts its focus towards the personality, arguing that without studying the internal human world, its motives and meanings, it is impossible to create an explanatory sociological theory. This tradition is associated with the name of the German sociologist M. Weber, and among modern representatives one can name such areas as symbolic interactionism (G. Blumer), phenomenology (A. Schutz, N. Luckmann) and ethnomethodology (G. Garfinkel, A. Sikurel) .The third approach focuses on the study of the very mechanism of the process of interaction between society and the individual, occupying, as it were, a “middle” position between the first two approaches. One of the founders of this tradition is the early P. Sorokin, and one of the modern sociological concepts is the theory of action, or the theory of exchange (J. Homans). Finally, the fourth approach is the Marxist one. In terms of the type of explanation of social phenomena, it is similar to the first approach. However, the fundamental difference is that in line with the Marxist tradition, sociology is expected to actively intervene in the transformation and change of the surrounding world, while the first three traditions consider the role of sociology rather as a recommendation.

13 The concept of sociological research. The logical scheme of sociological research. Sociological research is a system of logical and cognitive methodological and methodological procedures whose main task is to obtain information about phenomena and processes. logical (on a sheet) diagram.

14. Tell us about the Law of Large Numbers. – a general principle, due to which the joint action of random factors leads, under certain very general conditions, to a result that is almost independent of the case. The convergence of the frequency of occurrence of a random event with its probability with an increase in the number of trials (noted first, apparently, in gambling) can serve as the first example of the operation of this principle. The latter circumstance is used in sociological. research almost always, when certain provisions of the theory of probability or statistics of mathematics are applied. Important for a sociologist is another example of the arithmetic mean. the value of n identically distributed independent random variables with mathematical. the expectation equal to 1 tends to (I) as n increases (strictly speaking, the distribution functions under consideration must also satisfy certain natural and, as a rule, regularity conditions that are fulfilled in practice). In practice, the equivalent (in most cases) formulation is more often used of the same statement: the arithmetic mean of a certain random variable (the so-called empirical mean) calculated for a sample (see) of size n tends to the mathematical expectation of this quantity in the general population (see) as n grows. This circumstance reveals the practical role of mathematical expectation as a generalization of the concept of a sample arithmetic mean to the general population.

15 Types of sociological research . Sociological research is a system of logically consistent methodological, methodological and organizational-technical procedures, interconnected by a single goal: to obtain reliable data about the phenomenon or process under study for their subsequent use in the practice of social management.

There are three main types of sociological research: intelligence (probe, pilot), descriptive and analytical.

Intelligence research is the simplest type of sociological analysis that allows solving limited problems. In fact, there is a test of tools (methodological documents): questionnaires, questionnaires, cards for studying documents, etc. The program of such a study is simplified, as is the toolkit. The surveyed populations are small – from 20 to 100 people. Intelligence research, as a rule, precedes a deep study of the problem. In the course of it, goals, hypotheses, tasks, questions, their formulation are specified.

Descriptive research is a more complex type of sociological analysis. With its help, empirical information is studied, which gives a relatively holistic view of the studied social phenomenon. The object of analysis is a large social group, for example, the workforce of a large enterprise. In a descriptive study, one or more methods of collecting empirical data may be applied. The combination of methods increases the reliability and completeness of information, allows you to draw deeper conclusions and substantiate recommendations.

The most serious kind of sociological analysis is analytical research. It not only describes the elements of the phenomenon or process under study, but also allows you to find out the reasons underlying it. It studies the totality of many factors that justify a particular phenomenon. Analytical research, as a rule, completes exploratory and descriptive research, during which information was collected that gave a preliminary idea of certain elements of the studied social phenomenon or process.

16. Stages of sociological research . Sociological research is a way of obtaining knowledge about the social world, based on a rigorous collection of facts and their logical explanation. It consists in a systematic series of steps aimed at ensuring maximum objectivity in the study of the problem. Ideally, sociological research follows a similar step-by-step procedure, although this is not always possible in practice. Even under such circumstances, the steps outlined below provide useful milestones for conducting scientific research.

The choice of the problem under study . The range of questions open to social research is as vast as the range of patterns of human behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to find a problem worthy of attention and amenable to research using scientific methods. For example, sociologists Donald O. Dutton and Arthur P. Aron set out to test whether there really was a connection between states of intense fear and sexual arousal, as the Roman poet Ovid, who lived in the 1st century BC, claimed. AD Ovid claimed that love passion is aroused in women while watching the fierce fights of gladiators. Presumably, the feelings of fear and disgust evoked by violent scenes are somehow transformed into love attraction.

Literature review. Dutton and Aron studied the literature on sexual attraction and strong emotional states. While reviewing the literature, they learned of another study that had already been completed and had given rise to many directions, thus avoiding the repetition of work already done by other authors. Ethologist Niko Tinbergen has found a link between “aggression” and courtship in some animal species, and a number of psychologists have experimentally demonstrated the existence of similar links in human behavior.

Building a hypothesis. After completing a review of the literature, researchers usually arrive at an experimental guess about the relationship they believe exists between the two variables. They build this relationship in the form of a hypothesis. Dutton and Aron set out to test the hypothesis that a state of intense fear (independent variable) increases sexual desire (dependent variable). But before embarking on the study, they needed to formulate operational (working) definitions of their variables. When formulating operational definitions, scientists put abstract ideas into forms that allow them to be evaluated. Dutton and Aron formulated their working hypothesis as follows: “An attractive woman appears more attractive to men if they meet her in circumstances that cause these men a strong emotional state (fear) than in the absence of such circumstances.”

Choice of research program. Once researchers have formulated their working hypothesis, they will need to determine how data will be collected for further analysis and hypothesis testing. Depending on the nature of the hypothesis, scientists may design experiments, conduct interviews, observe the behavior of people in certain situations, study available results and historical evidence, or use all of these procedures in various combinations. Dutton and Aron conducted the field study.

Data collection . Dutton and Aron collected experimental data near two footbridges that people used to cross the Capilano River in North Vancouver, Canada. The first of the “experimental” bridges was a 450-foot-long structure, 230 feet above a mountain canyon and a roaring stream at the bottom of the canyon; this bridge, under people’s feet, bent and swayed in such a way that it gave the impression of a shaky structure, from which it is easy to fall. The second, or “control”, bridge is wide, durable, made of wood. It is located a little further up the river. At this point, the river is a shallow and narrow stream. The bridge is only 10 feet above the water. An attractive woman approached the men who had just crossed one of the bridges and explained to them that she was participating in a psychology training project. She asked the men to complete a short questionnaire and write a short dramatic story based on the image of a young woman. When the men (called subjects) filled out the questionnaire, the woman left each of them her last name and phone number in case “they wanted to know more about the study.”

Analysis of results. Once the researchers have the necessary data at their disposal, they will have to analyze it to find answers to the questions posed in their research project. The analysis involves the search for significant links between the facts that emerged in the course of the study. After analyzing the stories written by the subjects of the study, Dutton and Aron concluded that men who crossed the river on a rickety suspension bridge experienced more sexual arousal than men who crossed on a stronger and safer bridge: the young woman who conducted the survey received a call 50% men who crossed the river on a swinging bridge, and only 13% of men who chose a less dangerous bridge.

Findings. After analyzing the data, the researchers have to draw certain conclusions. They usually accept, reject, or modify the original hypothesis. In addition, scientists usually seek to relate their data to other data and theories. In our case, Dutton and Aron recognized the correctness of the hypothesis that strong emotions increase sexual arousal.

Information collection methods: survey, observation, study of documents, experiment. Describe each method of collecting information.

A sociological survey is a method of obtaining primary sociological information based on direct or indirect communication between the researcher and the respondent in order to obtain the necessary data from the latter in the form of answers to the questions posed. Types of surveys: written (questionnaires, tests), oral (interviews), face-to-face (personal), correspondence (communication through a questionnaire, television, newspaper), group and individual.

The specifics of surveys: the source of information is a person, i.e. direct participant in the phenomena under study. The information received is related to his experience and interests. In this information, social reality is refracted in individual consciousness. A survey is a kind of communication, and its results depend on a number of circumstances: the psychological state of the respondent at the time of the survey;

survey situation (conditions that should be favorable for communication);

the content of the questionnaire or oral question (the problem of using questions of various types and their adequate understanding by the respondent). The survey method is used in a number of cases: When the problem under study is not sufficiently provided with documentary sources of information, or when such sources are absent at all; When the subject of the study or its individual characteristics are not available for observation; When the subject of study is the elements of social or individual consciousness: need, interests, motivations, moods, values, beliefs of people, etc.; methods.

SOCIOLOGICAL OBSERVATION – a method of collecting primary social information about the object under study by directed, systematic and direct visual and auditory perception (tracking) and registration of social phenomena, processes, situations that are significant from the point of view of the goals and objectives of the study, which are subject to control and verification.

In the process of applying sociological observation, it is necessary to keep in mind and take into account the following features of it. First, sociological observation is characterized by the connection of the observer with the object under study. In no other science, except sociology, does the researcher have to observe the totality to which he himself belongs or which has a strong influence on him. The fact is that a sociologist studies society, one or another of its aggregates – territorial, ethnic, etc., being himself a member of this society, and sometimes a member of the studied social aggregate. And this belonging to a society or some part of it leaves a significant imprint on the observer’s perception of social reality, on its understanding, interpretation and evaluation.

Secondly, the observer perceives the studied social object through the prism of his interests, attachments, emotions, likes, dislikes, etc. etc.) and its evaluation and interpretation.

Thirdly, in the process of sociological research, observation is always selective; pictorial, aimed at very specific objects that are subject to observational operations, and not taking into account all the others. The direction of selectivity is determined by the goals and objectives of the study.

Fourth, in sociology, unlike in other sciences, it is usually difficult to make repeated observations. Such observation is extremely difficult, since social phenomena and processes are exposed to a huge number of factors, under the influence of which they constantly change, even if the object of observation is the so-called cyclical events, for example, the movement of people to and from work, their participation in election campaigns, etc. .P. Therefore, only a well-organized, carefully conducted and repeated observation can provide the researcher with reliable information. For the same reason, observation as a method of collecting primary sociological information rarely acts as the main tool for sociological research. It is most often used in conjunction with other methods1. The method of studying documents is a method of collecting primary information, the main source of which are documents. Documents are printed, handwritten, etc. materials that are created to store information.

The types of documents are:

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