Influence of biotic factors on human health.

Ecology.

Ecology is the science of the relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environment. The term ecology was introduced by the German biologist E. Haeckel in 1866. By the term “ecology” he understood “the sum of knowledge relating to the economics of nature.”

Nature is a collection of living and non-living organisms.

Subject of study of ecology:

Ecosystems

Biogeocenoses

Interaction of ecosystems with nature

Ecology tasks:

· Recycling

Development of ecological irrigation

· Forest protection

Animal protection

Creation of nature reserves and parks

Studying the laws of interaction between nature and society

Optimization of human interaction with nature

Ecology methods:

1. Observation – recording the breed, animals, plants and deriving patterns.

· Bioindicative method – an organism expressed under laboratory conditions is placed in a natural ecosystem and observed.

· Meteorological – registration of atmospheric phenomena, their impact on ecosystems.

2. Experimental method:

Physical influence on the subject

· Chemical influence on the subject

Radiation exposure

3. Modeling – forecast and the possibility of influencing the ecosystem.

An ecosystem is a stable highly organized system of animals, plants, m / o and non-living factors interacting with each other, between which there is an external and internal exchange of matter and energy.

Ecosystem organization levels:

1. Intraorganismal level (microbiological and parasitic) – endoecology.

2. Organismic – factorial and autoecology – the object of study is the organism, its endurance and reactions to stress and climatization.

3. The population level – deecology – studies the interactions between organisms of the same species within a population and the environment, as well as the ecological patterns of the existence of populations. studies communities.

4. The interspecific level – synecology – studies the relationship between organisms of different species within biocenoses and the environment from the habitat as a whole, as well as the ecological patterns of ecosystem functioning.

5. Global level – planetary ecology – the study of the laws of interaction between nature and society and the optimization of this interaction.

Ecosystem sublevels:

Animal ecology

human ecology

plant ecology

Ecology m / o

· Ecology of parachytes…

Human ecology is a complex discipline that studies the general patterns of the emergence, existence, development of the anthropoecological system and its interaction with the biosphere, as well as the influence of the natural environment on humans and groups of people at all levels of ecosystem organization.

Medical ecology is an applied branch of ecology that studies the influence of environmental factors leading to human disease.

Environment – a set of elements or factors that act on an individual in its habitat.

Habitat is a part of nature that surrounds living organisms and has a certain effect on them.

aquatic habitat

land-air environment

soil habitat

The organism’s habitat

Ecological factors of the environment.

Environmental factor – individual elements of the environment that affect organisms.

1. The abiotic factor is the components of inanimate nature:

climatic – light, t 0 С, humidity, wind, atmospheric pressure …

Geological – geological activity of the lithosphere, the movement of glaciers, the natural background of increased radiation.

soil-ground – density, structure, pH, chemical composition of the soil …

hydrological – flow, density, water pressure …

2. Biotic factor – components of living things – viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, animals (they enter into intraspecific and interspecific interactions).

phytogenic – influence of plants

zoogenic – the influence of animals

microgenic – the influence of m / o

3. Anthropogenic factor – human activity, its impact on the environment, leading either to a direct impact on living organisms, or to a change in their habitat. A person creates strong electromagnetic fields with cell phones, increased radiation from nuclear power plants, creates antibiotics, pesticides, causes m / o mutation and the emergence of new strains).

technogenic factors

biogenic factors

4. Limiting factor – an obligate factor, without which the existence of an organism is impossible (fish – water, living organisms – oxygen, plants – light …).

The action of environmental fakirs:

Indirect impact – carried out through other environmental factors

Direct action (high t with direct action causes burns, and with indirect action causes dehydration of the body).

Types of factors by action, frequency and direction:

relatively constant – gravity, solar radiation, ocean salinity

very variable – temperature and humidity, wind strength

periodic factors – regularly repeated in time (illumination during the day)

non-periodic factors – do not have periodicity (volcanic eruption …)

· Primary periodic factors – illumination, high tides, low tides – are associated with cosmic causes.

secondary periodic factors – arise as a result of the action of primary factors (temperature, rainfall, biomass, productivity).

directional factors – ultimately leads to a certain result

factors of uncertain action lead to unpredictable consequences

Ecological valency is the ability of an organism to master new living conditions.

· Narrow valence – an organism lives only in certain environmental conditions, changing which or moving it to another environment can become deplorable.

Broad valence – an individual can live in different environmental conditions, can independently change them (migration) or survive when they change.

Adaptation is the process of adapting an organism to environmental conditions or changing the norm of a reaction.

· Genetic or determining – arises in the course of natural selection according to the given factor and historical time (captures several generations).

Phenotypic or adaptive – a change in the phenotype under the influence of the environment (with an increase in t – sweating increases, with an increase in UV – the skin darkens).

Acclimatization of the body – the process of active adaptation of the body to new climatic, unusual environmental conditions and biological clocks or a set of protective reactions of the body that occur under the influence of minor environmental factors – stress factors.

Main levels of adaptation:

Intracellular – the flow of multidirectional reactions within each cell

Humoral – carried out by hormones and other chemicals

Pituitary gland – the pituitary gland regulates the activity of all endocrine glands, and controls all changes in the body.

Hypothalamus – responsible for coordinating the interaction of the body with the environment.

· CNS level – the cerebral cortex carries out the supreme management of life.

Stages of adaptation:

1. Hyperfunction of functional systems – a shift in homeostasis and the appearance of stress.

2. Formation of a structural system trace by activating the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins in the cells of the system responsible for this direction of adaptation.

3. Completion of long-term adaptation, when in the new conditions of the relationship between the body systems and new levels of their functioning, stress disappears and we can talk about a sufficient adaptation of the body to new conditions and environmental factors.

4. Wear and tear of functional systems (decompensation). This stage develops only with excessive stress of adaptation.

Environmental disease is a state of the body caused by environmental factors.

Periods of development of ecological disease:

Compensation – occurs due to the strengthening of the functions of organs, the body adapts to changing environmental factors. Unfavorable sensations in the body do not occur.

· Decompensation – the organs work at the maximum of their capabilities, the body is in an unstable state – as the forces of the organs run out and the function fades away.

Illness – the manifestation of signs of illness, the appearance of sensations.

Adaptive ecological types of a person:

Adaptive types of a person are formed under the influence of climatic and geographical zones.

The adaptive type is the norm of a biological response to a set of environmental conditions and is manifested in the development of morphofunctional, biochemical and immunological traits that ensure optimal adaptability to given environmental conditions.

Common elements – increase the overall resistance of the body to adverse conditions.

· Specific elements are closely related to the prevailing conditions in a given habitat.

Arctic adaptive type:

relatively strong development of the musculoskeletal component of the body

Large chest dimensions

a high level of hemoglobin

large volume of red bone marrow

High blood levels of proteins, cholesterol

Increased ability to oxidize fats.

Enhanced energy metabolism

asthenics – rare.

special mechanisms of thermoregulation

Tropical adaptive type:

elongated body and limbs

reduced muscle mass

Decreased chest circumference

more intense sweating

increased number of sweat glands

low levels of basal metabolism and fat synthesis

Decreased concentration of cholesterol in the blood.

Adaptive type of temperate zone:

According to somatic indicators, the level of basal metabolism, the population of the temperate zone occupies an intermediate position between the indigenous inhabitants of the Arctic and tropical regions.

Influence of biotic factors on human health.

Living in a certain climatic zone, a person experiences the influence of periodic changes in nature, both of the globe and of cosmic origin.

In the course of evolution, living organisms had to adapt to these periodic fluctuations → organisms acquire the ability to respond to fluctuations – biological rhythms.

Biological rhythms are based on 2 components:

· Endogenous – fixed genetically – inherited.

Exogenous – due to illumination, t-mode … if it is violated, a temporary disorientation of the body develops (when the time zone changes).

Each meteorological component has various effects on the body during the day, and many components are often not noticed, but in some cases they are accompanied by decompensation phenomena. For example, ↑ BP – stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, suppresses mood, reduces performance, increases the likelihood of infectious diseases.

At ↑ BP, the parasympathetic nervous system is stimulated. Such phenomena are often observed in older people.

Meteorological reactions are the reactions of the body to the action of weather factors, the ability of the body to respond to their action by the development of pathological reactions, which is defined as meteosensitivity.

Clinical criteria for weather sensitivity:

There are signs of meteosensitivity in history

· Complaining about weather changes

Premonition of weather change

Signal clinical manifestations before the onset of manifestation

Increased irritability, fatigue, depression.

Temperature regime:

Relationship between the seasons and a certain disease

· In the northern hemisphere in the summer, CCC disease is less common than in the winter.

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