HUMANITARIAN BASIS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
Resume: The article analyzes the ideological significance of the ideas of the humanities in preschool education, which is of particular relevance during the period of modernization and development and implementation of the federal state educational standard for preschool education.
Key words: humanitarianism , humanitarization of education, federal state educational standard, preschool education, social situation of development
HUMANITARIAN FOUNDATION OF FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
Abstract: The article examines the philosophical significance of the humanities ideas in pre-school education. They are of particular importance in the period of modernization and the development and implementation of the federal state educational standards of pre-school education.
Keywords: humanitarianism, humanization of education, the federal state educational standards, early childhood education, social development situation
One of the reasons for the insufficient effectiveness of the educational process in the modern system of preschool education is the discrepancy between the existing pedagogical paradigm, created in its context of program content, and the set of parameters that adequately describe the modern child. This circumstance enhances the relevance of the emergence of the Federal State Educational Standard (hereinafter referred to as the Standard) for preschool education, which is being developed and implemented for the first time in the history of the development of education in the Russian Federation.
This step is due to the requirements of the federal law “On Education in the Russian Federation”, which outlines the status and place of the preschool level as the first stage in the continuous education system.
We can call the new standard a child-centric standard, since it was developed for the sake of the child and its main goal is the development of the child, taking into account his individual characteristics. The main idea in the Standard is the preservation of the uniqueness of preschool childhood, which is recognized as an important and self-valuable stage in the overall development of a person. In the requirements for the main general educational programs, for the conditions for the implementation of programs and for the results of preschool education, there is a tendency to create a new methodological apparatus that serves and supports the educational process in preschool educational institutions, which fully meets the new concept of preschool education and ensures the fullest possible disclosure of the psycho-emotional and intellectual potential of the child, using for this, all the means and methods existing in the pedagogical and psychological arsenal.
The proposed Standard is a state instrument for the development of the stage of preschool childhood through systemic updates of preschool education, which form a fundamentally new look at the content, structure, organization and result of preschool education, on compliance with the criteria of completeness, necessity and sufficiency. Taking into account the characteristics of modern children, the Standard aims to provide each child with an actual result adequate to the age and the possibility of self-assertion: perceiving oneself as a capable person, a confident start before entering school life [2, p. eight].
Modern education, according to the developers of the Standard, should become a safe education, which is naturally characterized by love and respect for childhood in general, and for a particular child in particular, and is designed to solve a whole range of problems related to the ecology of childhood. Today, there is a need to develop key positions for updating preschool education based on the ideas of humanitarization, the priority of universal human values.
The ideas of the humanities in modern education consider a person as a self-creating and creative being, the human person as an intrinsic value and recognize its priority over the state. In this context, preschool education becomes the most important attribute of human existence, and not a function of society.
Humanitarianism in the context of the modernization of preschool education is considered by us as an appeal to the personality of the child through the strict observance of his rights, ensuring his interests, meeting his needs, developing his abilities, that is, the formation in each child of his subjectivity as a need and ability for self-determined, self-organizing, self-regulating and self-controlled behavior[3, p. 112].
The humanitarian approach, as the theoretical and methodological basis of the Standard, puts forward a specific child as the main professional and pedagogical value, and considers him as the highest achievement of the world with his own inner space, the specifics of the individual process of cognition, and the multiple readings of the same personality.
The humanitarian basis of the federal state standards of preschool education is the principles of supporting the diversity of childhood; full-fledged living by the child of all stages of preschool childhood, amplification (enrichment) of child development; creating a favorable social situation for the development of each child in accordance with his age and individual characteristics and inclinations [4, p. 4]. Compliance with these principles makes the Standard a kind of response to the challenges that have matured in modern society and which require their solution.
The consequences of saving on childhood have a negative impact on the well-being of the child, both in physical and mental development, on continuity between different periods of his life. The principle of supporting the diversity of childhood as a humanitarian basis of the Standard contributes to the elimination of social inequality in childhood, provides opportunities for the full development of each child during preschool childhood, regardless of national-cultural, demographic, social, psycho-physiological and other characteristics.
This basis is laid down in the goal of the standard, which sounds like the state ensuring equal opportunities for each child in receiving high-quality preschool education and implies variability and diversity in the content of educational programs and organizational forms of the level of preschool education, the possibility of developing educational programs of various levels of complexity and focus, taking into account educational needs and abilities of pupils[4, p. 4].
The next humanitarian basis of the Standard, we can name an increase in the culture of pedagogical literacy of the family, which is struggling with the process of deformation of the traditional family, the traditional way of life. The Standard seeks to stop the destruction of traditional parental functions that is currently taking place in our society. In the text of the Standard, this foundation is noted as introducing children to socio-cultural norms, traditions of the family, society and state.
A serious problem today is the destruction of the culture of children’s life, children’s play, the loss of the identity of childhood and children’s subculture. The life of a modern child is very much organized by adults, which in preschool education has led to schooling, to pressure from the school on the kindergarten. In this sense, the Standard structures the content of preschool education, exposing a kind of barrier in relation to primary school.
The theoretical and methodological basis of the GEF of preschool education is similar to the GEF of primary education, which contributes to the successful adaptation of the child to schooling and the development of his new social roles and new leading activities.
The cooperation of children with each other and with adults in the educational process, their interaction with people of different cultures, religions, subcultural groups and the world around them as a whole is another humanitarian basis of the Standard.
At the same time, the importance of not only the zone of proximal development of the child, which is provided by adults, preparing him for the development of social norms and stereotypes of culture, is noted, but also the zone of variable development, formed by a group of peers, a children’s subculture, which sets the “simultaneous existence and” roll call “of different cultures, other logics, and ensures the readiness of the child to solve problems in unforeseen circumstances” (V.V. Abramenkova).
In the cultural space of the children’s subculture, the primary socialization of the child takes place. Interaction with peers forms a child’s social circle, in which he creates his own autonomous norms and forms of behavior and learns to adapt in society [1, p. 136]. In this kind of psychological space that protects the child from the all-encompassing influence of adult culture, he forms his own individual life “experimental” platform, thanks to which he acquires his essence, constructs his own world, in practice chooses and tries different types of behavior and norms of communication. That is why the Standard focuses on the task of preserving and supporting the individuality of the child, developing the individual abilities and creative potential of each child as a subject of relations with people, the world and himself. This is also the reason for the increased attention to the organization of independent activities of children, to “creating conditions for the independent choice of the child, the formation of readiness and ability to act on the basis of constant choice and the ability to get out of a situation of choice without stress.”
Freedom of choice and responsibility for it, independent actions and deeds can be ensured only with the active involvement of the child in various activities. In this regard, the system-activity approach, which involves solving the problems of the development of children in four educational areas: communicative-personal, cognitive-speech, artistic-aesthetic and the field of physical development, can be called a backbone in the concept of the Federal State Educational Standard. The child’s involvement in children’s activities: motor, play, communication, cognitive research, visual, musical, elementary labor activity, perception of fiction and folklore, construction from various materials contributes to the acquisition of social experience.
Another humanitarian basis of the implemented standard is associated with the development of the CEP of preschool education, which for the first time is defined not as a training program, but as a program of psychological and pedagogical support for positive socialization and individualization of the development of preschool children.
The program regulates the process of creating conditions for the social situation of the development of preschoolers, which contribute to the positive socialization of the child, his comprehensive personal moral and cognitive development, the development of his activity, initiative and creativity in the process of mastering various types of activities (games, fine arts, design, perception of a fairy tale, etc.). ), cooperation with adults and peers in the zone of proximal development.
The program defines a system of conditions for creating an educational environment in a preschool educational institution as a zone of proximal development of the child and necessary for the successful socialization and development of children. These are spatio-temporal conditions, suggesting the flexibility and transformability of the subject space of a preschool institution; social conditions as forms of cooperation and communication, role and interpersonal relations of all participants in the educational process, including teachers, children, parents, administration; activity conditions that ensure the availability and variety of activities that correspond to the age characteristics of preschoolers, the tasks of development and socialization.
One of the most striking humanitarian foundations of the proposed Standard lies in the requirements for the results of the development of the child, which are presented in the form of targets for preschool education and represent the social and psychological characteristics of the child’s possible achievements at the stage of completing the level of preschool education.
The specific features of preschool childhood are the flexibility and plasticity of the child’s development, the great variety of developmental trajectories, its immediacy and involuntariness. As systemic features of preschool education, they name the optional and voluntary completion of the level of preschool education in the Russian Federation, the lack of responsibility of the child for the result achieved. Taken together, these features have led to the fact that the standard notes the illegality of the requirements for a preschool child of specific educational achievements and necessitates determining the results of mastering the educational program in the form of targets that are not subject to direct assessment, including in the form of pedagogical diagnostics (monitoring), and are not the basis for their formal comparison with the real achievements of children.
Thus, an important place in the structure of the requirements of this Standard is occupied by the requirements for the conditions for the implementation of the Program, which ensure the social situation of the development of the personality of each child. The social situation includes a system of communication with the teacher, with other children, various activities, encouraging the initiative and independence of the child. Such a Standard imposes a lot of obligations and requires a willingness to implement it.
1. Abramenkova V.V. Social psychology of childhood: development of child relations in children’s subculture. M.; Voronezh, 2000.
2. Dialogue. Approximate basic general educational program of preschool education / ed. O.L. Soboleva. – M.: Bustard, 2013.
3. Mikheeva, E.V. Federal state requirements as a new concept for the development of the system of preschool education / E.V. Mikheeva // Theoretical and methodological problems of modern education: materials of IV scientific-practical. conf. (Moscow, April 5-6, 20011). – M.: Publishing House of the Institute for Strategic Studies, 2011.
4. Draft Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool Education.