How to calculate the length of the slings required for tying a log 8 m long?

What is a typical scheme for slinging long loads?

For goods of the same shape, but having different sizes, standard slinging schemes are developed.

Rice. 1.11. Typical scheme for slinging long loads:

●L — cargo length;

●A – distance between slinging points.

A typical scheme for slinging long loads using slings provides for tying the load with two

with universal slings in the “on a boa constrictor” way, so that during the movement the fall of its individual parts is excluded and a stable position is ensured.

The distance from the edge of the load to the place of application of the sling should be 1/4 of the length L of the load. The angle between the lines should not exceed 90°.

For slinging long loads, it is recommended to use traverses.

How to calculate the length of the slings required for tying a log 8 m long?

Slings should overlap from the edge of the load at a distance of 1/4 of its length: 8/4 u003d 2 m, therefore,

distance A (see Fig. 1.11) between the strapping points will be 8-2-2 = 4 m.

In order for the angle between the lines to be no more than 90 °, the length of the line must be at least 3/4 of the distance

between strapping points: 4/4 x 3 = 3 m.

Answer: for tying a log 8 m long, two universal slings with a length of at least 3 m are required without

taking into account the length of the slings, for the coverage of the cargo.

With a fracture of the spine, there is a sharp pain in the spine, the inability to bend the back and turn around. Do not lift the victim, put a board under him or turn him over. In order not to damage the spinal cord of the victim, do not bend his torso. When damaged, the victim is unable to move his toes.

Re-testing the knowledge of slingers is carried out by the commission of the enterprise:

1) Periodically (at least once every 12 months);

2) When moving from one enterprise to another;

3) At the request of an engineering and technical worker for supervision of the safe operation of hoisting machines or an inspector of Rostekhnadzor.

Re-testing of knowledge is carried out in the scope of the production instruction and is drawn up in a protocol with a mark in the certificate.

The slinger must remember that before each operation for lifting and moving the load, he must personally give the appropriate signal to the driver or signalman, and when servicing one crane by several slingers, the signal must be given by the senior slinger.

4.2. Before signaling and lifting the load, the slinger must:

make sure that the cargo is securely fastened and not held by anything;

Check if there are loose parts and tools on the load before lifting large-diameter pipes, so that they do not contain soil, ice and make sure that the load cannot catch on anything during lifting and moving;

· make sure that there are no people near the load, between the lifted load and the wall, columns, stacks, machines and other equipment.

4.3. Before lifting the load with a jib crane, the slinger must also check the absence of people near the crane itself, on its fixed platform and in the zone of lowering the boom and load, and leave the danger zone himself.

4.4. When lifting and moving cargo with a crane, the slinger must:

Preliminarily give a signal to lift the load to a height of 200-300 mm and at the same time check the correctness of the slinging, the uniformity of the tension of the slings, the stability of the crane and the operation of the brakes, and only after that give a signal to lift the load to the required height, if necessary, correct the slinging, the load must be omitted;

When removing the load from the foundation bolts, make sure that the lifting is carried out at the lowest speed, without distortions, jamming and horizontal movement of the load until it is completely removed from the bolts;

· before moving the load horizontally, make sure that the load is raised to a height of at least 0.5 m above the objects encountered on the way;

To prevent spontaneous reversal of long and bulky loads during their lifting or moving, use special braces;

· Stowing the load evenly, without violating the dimensions established for storage and without blocking the passages and driveways, so that the distance from the protruding elements of the rotary part of the self-propelled jib crane to the load is at least 1 m. If this condition cannot be observed, work must be stopped.

· Stowing cargo in the body of the car, as well as removing it should not cause imbalance of the vehicles, and the vehicles themselves must be strengthened in order to avoid their arbitrary movement.

· lifting bulk and small-piece cargoes to be carried out in a specially designed container, while filling the container no higher than the established norm.

4.5. When lifting and moving cargo, the slinger is prohibited from:

be on the load during lifting or moving, and also allow lifting or moving the load if other people are on it;

be under a lifted load or allow other people to be under it;

pulling the load while it is being lifted, moved or lowered;

· stay and allow people to stay on the railway platform, in the back of a car, in a gondola car, etc. when loading or unloading them with clamshell or magnetic cranes;

· to load and unload vehicles if there are people in them.

4.6. When operating self-propelled jib cranes near a power line, the slinger must be especially careful. To avoid jamming between the swivel and non-swivel parts of the crane, the slinger must not be in dangerous places (zone).

4.7. If necessary, during the work of carrying a flexible cable that feeds a self-propelled jib crane, the slinger must warn the driver not to turn or move the crane at this time.

4.8. If, during the lifting or moving of the load, the slinger notices a malfunction of the crane or crane runways, he is obliged to immediately signal the termination of the lifting (moving) of the load and report the malfunction to the driver

Slinging of external and internal walls of large-panel buildings

A feature of the slinging of the outer and inner walls of large-panel buildings is that in some cases they have displaced centers of gravity. Slinging of wall panels with a displaced center of gravity is advisable to use slings with equalizers. If there are two mounting loops, slinging is carried out with two branches, united by one block.

The slinging of the panel with four loops is carried out in pairs, hooking the hooks of each two-branch sling to two adjacent loops. A branch with an equalizing rope is placed on the side of the loop, which is closer to the center of gravity. When lifting the panels, their gravity is distributed evenly to each branch; 1 – which is achieved by rolling the slings – but to the blocks.

Slings with equalizers are used, and for. slings of horizontal elements. Branches with equalizing ropes in this case are placed diagonally.

Do not sling loads for parts not intended for this purpose.

Slinging order :.

The slinger climbs onto the platform of the cassette, using a crowbar, checks the strength of the mounting loops and, if necessary, corrects their position.

Having slinged the panel for all mounting loops, the slinger gives a signal: the crane operator to pull the slings. Then the slinger descends from the platform and, having moved 4–5 m from the panel, gives a signal to the crane operator to raise the load by 200–300 mm. After making sure that the slinging is reliable, the slinger gives a signal to the crane operator to lift the panel.



Warehousing of wall panels of large-panel buildings

Wall panels of large-panel buildings should be stored in the working position “on edge”, vertically, in cassettes or pyramids on wooden linings located at the places where the panels are lifted (Fig. 76). Lining – ki consist of boards 50 mm thick.

Metal pipes – with a diameter of up to 500 mm – the height of the stack is not more than 2 m on gaskets with wedges, the width of the stack is not less than the height of the pipe with a diameter of more than 300 mm – the height of the stack is allowed no more than 3 m without gaskets. There must be a lining with wedges. At the same time, pipes should be laid in a pyramid

Rules for assisting in case of injury:

1. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap. If this is not possible, lubricate your fingers with iodine tincture.

2. Never touch the wound even with clean hands.

3. Do not wash the wound with water, do not lubricate with anything, so as not to introduce an infection.

4. Do not clean the wound yourself from contamination. This should be done by a healthcare professional.

5. To provide first aid, apply sterile material from an individual package to the wound and bandage it. If there is no sterile bandage or cotton at hand, you can use clean handkerchiefs, linen rags, preferably freshly ironed. A swab that is applied directly to the wound, lubricate with iodine tincture.

The test is carried out by the manufacturer.

During testing, each sling is checked for compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents for manufacturing, the Rules for load-bearing mechanisms, design documentation and completeness.

Each sling must be tested with a static load exceeding the capacity of that sling by 25%.

Sling elements (hooks, connecting links, sling branches, etc.) are subject to testing with a static load that exceeds the carrying capacity of the element by 75% at the manufacturer.

It is allowed to test these elements directly as part of a sling of the appropriate carrying capacity.

When testing slings of static load, their branches must be located at an angle of 90o to each other for 10 minutes.

The slinger before lowering the load must:

Preliminarily inspect the place where the load must be lowered and make sure that it is impossible for the load to fall, tip over or slip;

· at the place of installation of the load, if necessary, pre-lay strong gaskets for the convenience of extracting the slings from under the load;

Remove the slings from the load or hook only after the load is securely installed and, if necessary, secured.

5.2. It should be remembered that the slinger is prohibited from placing the load on temporary ceilings, pipes, cables or other places not intended for laying the load.

5.3 The slinger is obliged to lay materials, products and equipment as follows:

bricks in pallets no more than 2 tiers, in containers in a row, and delivered without containers – no more than 1.7 m high;

foundation blocks and blocks of basement walls in stacks no more than 2.5 m high and on pallets and gaskets;

wall panels in cassettes or pyramids, and partition panels – vertically in cassettes;

floor slabs – in stacks with a height of no more than 2.5 m on linings and gaskets;

blocks of garbage chutes – in stacks with a height of no more than 2.5 m;

· sanitary and ventilation blocks – in stacks with a height of no more than 2.5 m on linings and gaskets;

crossbars and columns in stacks up to 2 m high, on linings and linings;

large wall blocks – only vertically, the remaining blocks in stacks and horizontally, no more than 2 rows on linings and gaskets;

Tiled materials (asbestos-cement tiles, asbestos-cement wavy sheets, asbestos-cement flat slabs) – in stacks no more than 1 m high;

· asbestos-cement hollow slabs in stacks up to 15 rows;

Tiles (cement-sand and clay) – in stacks up to 1 m high per edge with gaskets;

roundwood – in stacks no more than 1.5 m high with spacers between the rows and the installation of stops against rolling, the width of the stack must be at least its height;

lumber – in stacks, the height of which when stacked in rows is not more than half the width, and when stacked in cages – not more than the width of the stack;

small-grade metal – in racks with a height of no more than 1.5 m;

heating devices (radiators, etc.) in the form of separate sections or assembled – in stacks no more than 1 m high.

· large-size and heavy equipment or its parts in 1 row on pads;

glass in boxes and rolled material – vertically in 1 row on linings;

· pipes with a diameter of up to 300 mm – in stacks up to 3 m high, on linings and gaskets with end stops, with a diameter of more than 300 mm – in stacks up to 3 m high in a saddle without gaskets. The lower row of pipes must be laid on linings, reinforced with inventory metal stops, securely fastened to the linings;

Bitumen in a tight container, excluding its spreading or in special pits with a fence;

ferrous rolled metals (sheet steel, channels, I-beams, section steel) – in stacks up to 1.5 m high with linings and gaskets;

heat-insulating materials – in stacks up to 1.5 m high with storage in a closed dry place.

5.4. When working on stacks with a height of more than 1.5 m, it is necessary to use portable inventory platforms and ladders to move from one stack to another.

5.5. Gaskets and linings in stacks should be placed in the same vertical plane, their thickness when stacking panels, blocks, etc. must be greater than the height of the protruding mounting loops. Gaskets must be of the same section and of sufficient strength.

5.6. The slinger should remember that the use of O-rings when storing building materials in piles is prohibited.

5.7. For the placement of materials, sites must be prepared, leveled and compacted, and in winter, cleared of snow and ice.

5.8. The slinger must know the location of the switch (magnetic push-button starter) that supplies voltage to the main trolley wires or the flexible cable of the electric crane.

Slings are not repaired, but only discarded.

On the outer side of the container, the following designations are applied: tare weight, name of the cargo, load capacity and dates of the tare check.

Information about the flock should be recorded in the journal.

With arterial bleeding occurs with deep chopped or stab wounds. Bright red (scarlet) blood pours out in a pulsating stream (in time with the contractions of the heart muscle), and sometimes beats with a fountain. When large arteries (carotid, subclavian, brachial, femoral, popliteal) are injured, very heavy bleeding occurs, and if it is not stopped in time, the victim may die within a few (10-20) minutes.

To quickly stop severe bleeding, you can press the bleeding vessel with your fingers. Pressing (squeezing) is performed in those places where the arteries lie superficially and can easily be pressed against the bones.

Arterial bleeding can also be stopped by strong flexion of the limbs in the joints located above the injury site. Pressing the arteries can be replaced with a tourniquet.

A tourniquet is applied above the wound (closer to the heart), after pressing the bleeding vessel with fingers to the underlying bone over some kind of soft pad (bandage, gauze or scarf, folded in several layers and wrapped around the limb) to reduce pain and exclude possible infringement of the skin.

If the tourniquet is applied correctly, then the pulsation of the vessel below the place of its application is not determined, the limb turns pale. However, the tourniquet must not be overtightened, as this can damage muscles, compress nerves, and cause limb paralysis.

The tourniquet can be applied for a time not exceeding 1 hour in summer and 0.5 hours in winter. To control the time, it is necessary to put a note under the tourniquet or twist indicating in it the exact time of their application and the name of the victim, attach it next to the clothes.

We apply a bandage over the tissue and tighten as the bleeding stops. The time of loosening and re-tightening is determined by the color of the limb.

One of the conditions for ensuring safety during the operation of load-carrying machines is the correct storage of cargo in the warehouse. Warehousing is carried out according to the project, which specifically indicates the places and scheme of warehousing, installation of self-propelled hoisting machines. Loads on the site must be placed so that they have a free approach and access by crane and vehicles.

Plaques, markings or inscriptions on the packaging should, if possible, face the aisle or driveway.

Loading and unloading areas should be located outside the areas of overhead power lines.

In a conspicuous place, there must be: a slinging scheme, a storage scheme, a traffic flow diagram and a table indicating the mass of goods.

Loading and unloading operations are carried out under the supervision of a person responsible for the safe operation of cranes.

Loading and unloading operations are carried out according to the technological maps of loading and unloading operations. The person responsible for the production of loading and unloading operations checks the serviceability of lifting mechanisms, rigging, fixtures, scaffolds and other loading and unloading equipment, and also explains to the employees their duties, the sequence of operations, the meaning of the signals given and the properties of the materials supplied for loading (unloading).

In places of constant loading and unloading of motor vehicles and gondola cars, stationary overpasses or hinged platforms for slingers are arranged. The overpass flooring should be 150 mm lower than the side of the gondola car. Overpasses are equipped with inventory ladders for access of slingers to gondola cars with protective fences. Overpasses should be arranged along the wagon on the opposite side from the direction of movement of goods.

To ensure the safe movement of slingers when escorting cargo, it is necessary to provide passages free from cargo and with a planned surface, at least 1 m wide.

Guys are made of a hemp rope or a thin flexible cable and are fixed directly to its mounting loops.

A container is a container for storing, packaging and transporting manufactured goods and agricultural products. There are rigid containers (barrels, bottles, boxes), semi-rigid containers (baskets, cardboard boxes), soft containers (bags, coolies).

Industrial packaging designed for storage, movement, warehousing of goods with a gross weight of 0.25 tons or more, used as a multi-turn packaging tool for intra-warehouse and inter-warehouse transportation.

Depending on the purpose, the container can be universal and special, depending on the design features – collapsible and non-collapsible. In terms of functionality, containers are divided into warehouse, frame, rack, box, with an opening wall, mesh, conical.

For the safe operation of the container, it is necessary:

1) Ensure that the container is kept in good condition;

2) Carry out technical examination;

3) Appoint a person responsible for the safe operation of the container;

4) Keep a log of those. container inspections.

The tare is not tested, but a control filling is made with the material for which it is designed (10 cm below the edge of the side) and weighed, inspected and marked.

Container marking:

1) Date of manufacture;

2) Symbol;

3) Tare weight;

4) Gross weight;

5) Name of the manufacturer.

In cases where the area served by the hoisting machine is not completely visible from the control cabin (driver, operator), in order to transmit signals from the slinger to the crane operator, the person responsible for the safe performance of work by hoisting machines must single out the signaler from among experienced slingers.

With artificial respiration:

– stand on the side of the victim;

– put one hand under his body;

– with the other hand, as much as possible, tilt his head back. So that his chin is at chest level. In this case, the root of the tongue moves away from the back wall of the larynx and opens air into the respiratory tract.

The chin rises strongly, the mouth opens. If there is mucus, vomit in the mouth, remove them with a handkerchief or a clean rag. Check if there are any foreign objects in the patient’s mouth: dentures, mouthpiece and others. Remove these items. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief.

Under the shoulder blades you need to put a roller to tilt the head.

After that, start blowing air into the mouth or nose of the victim.

Remember to hold his head upside down with one hand and keep his mouth half open with the other. Remember the blowing sequence:

– inhale deeply

– firmly press your mouth through a handkerchief to the mouth of the victim

– Exhale slowly.

Note : pinch the nose of the victim at the moment of exhalation.

1. After exhaling, move away from the patient a little, unclench his nose

2. Take a deep breath (from the side, so as not to be poisoned by gas in case of gas poisoning), the exhaled air contains 17% oxygen, against 21% in pure, carbon dioxide – up to 4%. The specified gas, entering the lungs of the victim, excites his respiratory center in the central nervous system and stimulates the restoration of spontaneous (independent) breathing.

3. Repeat the entire cycle again in the same sequence. At the same time, watch for the expansion and lowering of the chest (3-4 cm). Breathe in at your own breathing rate, every 5-6 seconds. 12 times per minute.

4. in the process of revival, we follow the results – for the rise of the chest, and not the abdomen. The abdomen rises if air enters, then turn the victim to the side, squeeze the air out of the abdomen, prepare again and continue. Watch the pulse, it may disappear.

– If the casualty’s jaws are tightly clenched, or when air is blown through the victim’s mouth, his chest does not expand, then blow air into the nose.

– If the patient inhales and exhales, stop artificial respiration, lay him down and monitor his breathing.

– If the victim suddenly stops spontaneous inhalation and exhalation, resume artificial respiration (artificial respiration should be carried out until obvious signs of death appear or until a doctor arrives).

Manufacturing and testing is carried out at the manufacturer.

During testing, each sling is checked for compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents for manufacturing, the Rules for load-bearing mechanisms, design documentation and completeness.

Each sling must be tested with a static load exceeding the capacity of that sling by 25%.

Sling elements (hooks, connecting links, sling branches, etc.) are subject to testing with a static load that exceeds the carrying capacity of the element by 75% at the manufacturer.

It is allowed to test these elements directly as part of a sling of the appropriate carrying capacity.

When testing slings of static load, their branches must be located at an angle of 90o to each other for 10 minutes.

Lifting devices are selected in accordance with the mass and nature of the load being lifted. Slings should be selected (taking into account the number of branches) of such a length that the angle between the branches does not exceed 90 degrees.

1) To carry out slinging of goods, the mass of which is unknown or exceeds the lifting capacity of the crane (hoisting machine);

2) Use damaged or unmarked load-handling devices and containers, connect the links of broken chains with bolts or wire, tie ropes;

3) To carry out strapping and hooking of the cargo in ways not indicated on the slinging diagrams;

4) Use for tying and hooking loads not provided for by slinging schemes devices (crowbars, pins, wire, etc.);

5) To make a hitch of pallets with bricks without a fence (with the exception of unloading onto the ground from vehicles);

6) To make a hitch of concrete and reinforced concrete products for damaged loops;

7) Hang the load on one horn of the two-horned hook;

8) Drive the hooks of the slings into the mounting loops of reinforced concrete products or other loads;

9) Correct the lifting devices on the load being lifted by blows of a hammer, sledgehammer, scrap, etc.;

10) Use ladders when tying large wall blocks and other high loads (in these cases, portable platforms should be used);

11) Use the grab to lift loads suspended with slings by the jaws of the grab, as well as to perform other work for which the grab is not intended;

12) To carry out slinging of a load that is in an unstable position.

Manufactured slings should be stored in closed ventilated rooms on racks vertically suspended. It is allowed to store the manufactured slings on racks in a horizontal position. Tape and synthetic round slings should be stored away from heat sources (no closer than 0.2 m) and chemicals, protected from direct sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet radiation.

8.3.1. Manufactured slings should be stored grouped by load capacity, type, design and length in the marked cells of the rack.

With fractures of the ribs, there is pain when breathing, coughing and moving. To reduce pain, bandage the chest tightly or pull off with a towel while the victim exhales.

Crane operators must establish a procedure for the exchange of signals between the slinger and the crane operator. The recommended sign signaling is given in Appendix 18. When erecting buildings and structures with a height of more than 36 m, two-way radio communications should be used. Sign signaling and a signal exchange system for radio communications should be included in the production instructions for crane operators and slingers.

Installing the GPC to perform construction and installation work should be in accordance with the Project Works.

Install the crane on a planned and prepared site.

It is forbidden to install the crane to work on freshly poured, uncompacted soil, as well as with a slope exceeding the allowable for this crane.

Install the crane so that the distance between it and the stacks is at least 1 meter.

Illumination should be 50 lux.

10 cm below the edge of the board.

Any type of transport (in wooden boxes).

The victim is checked for pulse and respiration. In their absence, lay the victim on his back, on a flat surface. Unfasten the collar and belt and other clothing that restricts breathing. Check for foreign objects in the oral cavity. Tilt your head back and inhale. In the lower third of the chest, two fingers above the solar plexus, we make pressure.

The arms should be straightened at the elbow joints. The person performing the massage should stand high enough, as if hanging with his body over the victim and putting pressure on the sternum not only with the effort of his hands, but also with the weight of his body. The pressing force should be sufficient to shift the sternum towards the spine by 4-6 cm (Fig. 3.7). The pace of the massage should be such as to provide at least 60 contractions of the heart in 1 minute. When resuscitation is carried out by two persons, the massager squeezes the chest 5 times with a frequency of approximately 1 time per 1 second, after which the second assister makes one vigorous and quick exhalation from the mouth to the mouth or nose of the victim.

Make 2 breaths, massage 60-70 pushes per minute. Legs should be elevated.

Alternating 2 breaths, 30 chest compressions

The timing of cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be made before the arrival of a doctor or until signs of life appear.

Report the incident to management.

There must be an access road.

The slope should not exceed the angle specified in the passport, the slope for the flow of melted water and other water.

Freshly poured soil must be compacted.

The site must be planned.

It is necessary to install the crane near the trenches according to the table, depending on the depth and nature of the soil.

It is allowed to lift bricks on pallets without fencing during loading and unloading (on the ground) of vehicles. The supply of cargo to window openings, balconies and loggias without special receiving platforms or special devices is prohibited.

At least 1 meter.

In cases where the area served by the hoisting machine is not completely visible from the control cabin (driver, operator), in order to transmit signals from the slinger to the crane operator, the person responsible for the safe performance of work by hoisting machines must single out the signaler from among experienced slingers.

Chemical burns can be caused by contact with the skin of acids, alkalis and other aggressive substances. Rinse the burned area immediately with plenty of running cool water for 15-20 minutes. Cold water washes out the reagent, slowing down the reaction rate. The same should be done for chemical eye burns.

Load gripping devices must be branded or firmly attached with a metal tag indicating the number, passport load capacity and test date. Load-handling devices, in addition to the stamp (tag), must be provided with a passport.

Each lifting device must be tested and in good working order.

The work of cranes under non-switchable wires of electric transport should be carried out at a distance of at least 1000 mm between the crane boom and contact wires when installing the stop (limiter)

3. What does the sign signaling mean: a sharp movement of the hand to the right and left at the level of the belt, the palm is facing down?

Stop.

When lifting and moving cargo with a crane, the slinger must:

Preliminarily give a signal to lift the load to a height of 200-300 mm and at the same time check the correctness of the slinging, the uniformity of the tension of the slings, the stability of the crane and the operation of the brakes, and only after that give a signal to lift the load to the required height, if necessary, correct the slinging, the load must be omitted;

When removing the load from the foundation bolts, make sure that the lifting is carried out at the lowest speed, without distortions, jamming and horizontal movement of the load until it is completely removed from the bolts;

· before moving the load horizontally, make sure that the load is raised to a height of at least 0.5 m above the objects encountered on the way;

To prevent spontaneous reversal of long and bulky loads during their lifting or moving, use special braces;

· Stowing the load evenly, without violating the dimensions established for storage and without blocking the passages and driveways, so that the distance from the protruding elements of the rotary part of the self-propelled jib crane to the load is at least 1 m. If this condition cannot be observed, work must be stopped.

· Stowing cargo in the body of the car, as well as removing it should not cause imbalance of the vehicles, and the vehicles themselves must be strengthened in order to avoid their arbitrary movement.

· lifting bulk and small-piece cargoes to be carried out in a specially designed container, while filling the container no higher than the established norm.

1) Provide the victim with complete immobility;

2) Free the limb from clothing or shoes;

3) Take a tire or improvised means (plywood, board, metal plate, bunch of branches);

4) Apply a splint above or below the fracture area so that the splint captures at least two of the nearest joints;

5) Fix the tire with a bandage or improvised means and tie in a circle.

In case of a fracture of the bones of the shoulder or forearm, the entire arm is fixed, bent at a right angle.

Each sling must be tested with a static load exceeding the capacity of that sling by 25%.

When testing slings with a static load, their branches must be located at an angle of 90 degrees to each other.

Tests at a different angle are allowed with a corresponding recalculation of the acting loads.

In serial production of slings, their holding time under load is 3 minutes.

Raise a load or hook.

Up to 2.5 meters high with spacers 2 cm thick above the hinges.

Thermal burns come in several degrees:

I degree – characterized by redness, swelling of the skin. In this case, the burnt surface should be cooled with cold water, snow or ice for 15 minutes to relieve pain and prevent heat from penetrating into the deeper layers of the skin.

II degree – characterized by the appearance of blisters on reddened skin – apply a dry sterile bandage.

In addition to burns of I and II degrees, there are more severe burns, accompanied by a violation of the skin and charring of the skin – these are burns of III and IV (charring of the muscles) degrees .

In case of severe, extensive burns, help must be provided by a doctor, who must be called as soon as possible.

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