Task in the discipline “Philosophy”
Name the idealist philosophers known to you.
David Hume, Immanuel Kant, George Berkeley, Friedrich Schelling, Johann Fichte
How did representatives of Marxist philosophy understand matter?
The main question of philosophy, according to Engels, is the question of the relationship between matter and consciousness, being and thinking, nature and spirit. Philosophers – materialists recognize the primacy of matter, being and the secondary nature of consciousness, thinking. Materialists argued that the world (Universe) is uncreatable and indestructible, and consciousness, spirit is a product of the development of highly organized matter, or in other words, consciousness is a function of matter
In what era did religion become the leading form of spiritual culture?
In the era of the Middle Ages.
List the sections of philosophical knowledge.
Ontology (the doctrine of being);
Gnoseology (the doctrine of knowledge);
Knowledge about a person;
Knowledge about society.
What is the problem of philosophy?
Philosophy as an established system of knowledge has a number of specific issues that it is designed to solve. Each philosophical system has a core, main question, the disclosure of which is its main content and essence. So, for ancient philosophers, this is a question about the fundamental principles of everything that exists, for Socrates it was associated with the principle of “know thyself”.
Name the functions of philosophy.
A worldview function that is associated with an abstract theoretical conceptual explanation of the world
The methodological function lies in the fact that philosophy acts as a general doctrine of the method and as a set of the most general methods of cognition and development of reality by a person.
The prognostic function of philosophy formulates hypotheses about the general trends in the development of matter and consciousness, man and the world
The social function of philosophy is quite multifaceted in its content and covers various aspects of social life: philosophy is called upon to perform a dual task – to explain social being and contribute to its material and spiritual change.
When did philosophy appear?
Ancient philosophy arose in the Greek city-states at the turn of the 7th-6th centuries. BC e. First, on the western coast of Asia Minor (in Ionia), then in the Greek cities of Southern Italy, in the coastal Greek cities of the island of Sicily, and, finally, in Greece proper – in Athens (V century BC)
What is the fundamental difference between philosophy and science?
The fundamental differences are that philosophy studies the world and a person, science studies only the world, not a person (biology does not study a person – it studies its structure, psychology does not study a person – it studies only his psyche, a separate part of him)
What is the main question of philosophy?
The main question of philosophy is a metaphilosophical and historical-philosophical concept in the philosophy of Marxism, according to which the main problem of philosophy throughout its history is the question of the relationship of consciousness to matter, thinking to being, spirit to nature
How is skepticism different from agnosticism?
Skepticism is a philosophical trend that puts forward doubt as a principle of thought, especially doubt about the reliability of truth. Moderate skepticism is limited to the knowledge of facts, showing restraint in relation to all hypotheses and theories.
Agnosticism is a term in philosophy, theory of knowledge and theology, which considers it fundamentally impossible to know objective reality only through subjective experience and impossible to know any ultimate and absolute foundations of reality.
Provide definitions for the following terms:
Rationalism is a philosophical direction that recognizes reason as the basis of human knowledge and behavior.
Empiricism is a direction in the theory of knowledge that recognizes sensory experience as a source of knowledge and suggests that the content of knowledge can either be presented as a description of this experience, or reduced to it.
Sensationalism is a direction in the theory of knowledge, according to which sensations and perceptions are the main and main form of reliable knowledge,
Idealism is a term for a wide range of philosophical concepts and worldviews, which are based on the assertion of the primacy of ideas in relation to matter.
Materialism is a philosophical worldview, according to which matter as an objective reality is ontologically the primary principle (cause, condition, limitation) in the sphere of being, the ideal (concepts, will, consciousness, etc.) is secondary (result, consequence).
Anthropocentrism is an unscientific idealistic view, according to which man is the center of the Universe and the goal of all events taking place in the world.
Cosmocentrism is a system of philosophical views in which the cosmos (as a philosophical concept) occupies a central place.
Theocentrism is a philosophical concept based on the understanding of God as the absolute, perfect, highest being, the source of all life and any good.
Gnoseocentrism – the orientation of the philosophy of the Enlightenment to the process of cognition; scientism,
Nominalism is a philosophical doctrine according to which the names of such concepts as “animal”, “emotion” are not proper names of integral entities, but general names (universals), a kind of variables, instead of which specific names can be substituted.
Conceptualism is a direction of scholastic philosophy; the doctrine that knowledge manifests itself with experience, but does not proceed from experience.
Realism is a style and method in art and literature, as well as a philosophical doctrine according to which objects of the visible world exist independently of human perception and knowledge.
Category is an extremely general concept that expresses the most essential relations of reality. The study of categories consists in determining the most fundamental and broad classes of entities.
Universal – the term of medieval philosophy, denoting general concepts. The problem of universals goes back to the philosophical ideas of Plato and Aristotle and is one of the main themes of scholasticism, especially its early period.
Being is the subject of study of ontology. More narrowly (Heidegger believes that the question of being, which, according to him, is the main philosophical question, was forgotten in the entire history of Western philosophy, starting with Plato.
Substance – that which exists independently, in itself, in contrast to the accidents that exist in another and through another,
Consciousness – the state of a person’s mental life, expressed in the subjective experience of the events of the external world and the life of the individual himself, as well as in the report on these events,
Attribute – an essential, integral feature of an object or phenomenon (as opposed to its transient, random states) – what constitutes the essence of a substance, its fundamental property, a predicate necessary for its existence.