HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY

(according to K. K. Platonov)

Short name of the substructure This structure includes The ratio of biological and social
Directional substructure Beliefs, worldviews, personal meanings, interests Social level (almost no biological)
Experience substructure Skills, knowledge, skills, habits Socio-biological level (significantly more social than biological)
Reflection shapes substructure Features of cognitive processes (thinking, memory, attention); features of emotional processes (emotions, feelings) Biosocial level (biological is much more than social)
Substructure of Biological Constitutional Properties The speed of the course of nervous processes, the balance of the processes of excitation and inhibition, etc.; gender, age Biological level (social is practically absent)

Biological heredity explains the individuality of the individual, its initial difference from other members of society. But the biological cannot create a person, because culture, social experience is not inherited. To be accepted in society, to receive help and support, a person must meet the requirements developed in this system of interaction. At the same time, each society is interested in a certain type of personality that best suits it and therefore makes its own demands on the formation of personal qualities. Social character is formed through the system of upbringing, education, mass media.

The main social content of the individual is social qualities. Social qualities are a set of socio-psychological properties of a person, interconnected in a certain way and determined by the type of social interaction with other people in specific socio-historical conditions and circumstances.

The most significant social qualities of a person:

1. Self-awareness – the selection by the individual of himself from the surrounding social environment, awareness of himself as “I”, opposing “others” and at the same time inextricably linked with them.

2. Self-esteem – an assessment by a person of himself, his capabilities, abilities, place occupied among people. The most important function of self-esteem is the regulation of behavior by a person. But since self-esteem develops into regulation, it means that it can lead to self-correction by the personality of its actions.

3. Activity – the ability of a person to independently, energetically and intensively carry out socially significant actions that are manifested in communication with others, in joint activities with them (or separately performed from them), in creativity.

4. Interests – a constant incentive mechanism for the knowledge and activity of the individual, pushing her to a deeper acquaintance with new facts, events, theories in any field of activity, to transform the latter in accordance with her needs, ideas, goals.

5. Orientation – a set of stable motives that guide the activity of the individual, regardless of the social situations in which she is, her aspiration to achieve a well-defined goal.

6. Beliefs – personal socio-psychological needs, which are based on certain ideas, ideas, principles that determine a person’s attitude to reality and encourage him to act in accordance with his ideals, principles, worldview.

7. Attitude – a social characteristic of a person, expressing her readiness for vigorous activity in a certain vital for her readiness for vigorous activity in a certain sphere of social reality vital for her – in economic, political, scientific, etc.

8. Value orientation – a set of social values that act as the goals of life and the main means of achieving them and therefore acquire the function of regulators of human social behavior.

9. Identity is a social quality that is the result of the conscious and emotional self-identification of an individual with other people, a social community or an ideal. Identity acts as a manifestation and result of identification – the process of identifying oneself with a certain ethnic, political, territorial, linguistic, religious, etc. community (I am a Belarusian, I am a student, I am a Minsker, etc.)

Social qualities represent in their totality a complex social structure of the personality.

Status-role concept of personality. The main provisions of this theory were formulated by the American social psychologist J. Meade. The role theory of personality describes its social behavior with two main concepts: social status and social role . Social status is the position of an individual in society, established in terms of the rights, duties, privileges and freedoms that she receives due to her position . Each person, being included in the system of social interactions, must perform certain social functions: a doctor – to treat, a teacher – to teach, etc. To perform specific functions in the course of social interactions, certain (functional) duties are imposed on a person; at the same time, a person is endowed with certain rights, privileges, powers of authority.

Each person in the social system has many statuses, but in this status set there will definitely be a main one. The main thing is the status that determines the style and way of life, the circle of acquaintances, the manner of behavior. The types of social status are:

attributed – the status in which a person is born, imposed by society, regardless of the efforts and merits of the individual (gender, nationality)

achieved – determined by the efforts of the person himself (writer, director)

A social role is a set of actions that a person holding a given status in the social system must perform. It is not the role that “adjusts” to the person, but the person is forced to adjust his behavior in accordance with the role expectations of those who are functionally associated with this status (for example, a teacher, performing his role, is forced to comply with the requirements put forward by the Ministry of Education, the school administration, and the parents of students) . If the role is not performed properly, then sanctions are applied to the person. Thus, the role is the main means of ensuring the effective functioning of the social system and its institutions.

Since a person occupies many social positions, and, consequently, plays a large number of roles, this inevitably leads to a situation of role conflict. It is of two types:

Inter -role – when two or more roles make conflicting demands on a person (for example, the roles of “caring father” and “scientist” combined in one person require him, on the one hand, to pay more attention to the family, and, on the other hand, all free time for research). This situation leads to the internal struggle of the personality, its split.

Intra -role – when the requirements of the role do not correspond to the abilities, capabilities or beliefs of the individual (for example, the role requires the performer to be rigid in character, which he does not have). In this case, a person experiences emotional and moral experiences.

Getting into a situation of role conflict, the individual may refuse to play the role. However, there are ways to get rid of the tension resulting from this conflict:

Rationalization – inventing convincing arguments for unacceptable situations and actions (for example, a young singer who does not have much talent and hope for a brilliant career in this field inspires himself and others with the idea that the career of a composer, conductor, etc. is much more interesting). This method is often used unconsciously.

Separation of roles – reduces role tension by temporarily removing one of the roles from life and excluding it from the consciousness of the individual (for example, often a mother-teacher continues her teaching activities at home, sometimes showing excessive rigidity, this method helps to get rid of the need to correspond to professional status all the time ).

Regulation of roles is a procedure by which an individual is released from personal responsibility for the negative consequences of the performance of a particular role. Responsibility is assumed by society, organization, collective (for example, obedience to the military oath, sometimes associated with the destruction of people, is justified by society with the help of such concepts as “duty”, “order”, etc.)

Socialization.

Socialization is the process of mastering by an individual patterns of behavior, social norms and values necessary for normal functioning in a given society . As a result of socialization, a person turns from an individual into a person. This process involves the formation of knowledge about oneself, other people, society and the world as a whole; formation of attitudes, value orientations; development of practical skills. The formation of personality begins at the moment of birth and continues throughout life, however, there is a significant difference between the socialization of an adult and a child. The following stages of the socialization process are distinguished :

1. Primary socialization (adaptation) – from birth to adolescence. This stage is characterized by uncritical assimilation of social experience, adaptation, imitation.

2. Stage of individualization – there is a desire to stand out, a critical attitude towards social norms. By the age of 25, stable personality traits are formed.

3. Stage of integration – there is a desire to find one’s place in society.

4. Labor stage – covers the entire period of a person’s maturity, his labor activity, when social experience is not only assimilated, but also reproduced.

5. Post- labor stage – old age.

From the point of view of society, socialization appears as a set of agents and institutions that shape, direct, stimulate or limit the formation of a person’s personality. Socialization agents are specific people responsible for teaching cultural norms (parents, teachers, etc.). Institutions of socialization – institutions that influence the process of socialization and guide it (state, church, school, etc.).

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