S.I. VOLKOV A.A. KARGAPOLTSEV N.N. KURILOV
UDC 621.396.967: 351.814
Reviewers: Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor I.I. Woolly,
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor V.A. Golodnov.
P 15 Volkov S.I., Kargapoltsev A.A., Kurilov N.N. Radar landing system RSP-6M2: Tutorial. / State educational institution of higher professional education “Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University)”. – M., 2010. – 153 p.
The purpose, composition, performance characteristics and placement of the RSP-6M2 radar landing system at the airfield, the principles of operation of the channels and devices included in the RSP-6M2 dispatcher (DRL-6M2) and landing (PRL-6M2) radars are considered, general information about the equipment for direction finding, radio communication, objective control, the RSP-6M2 power supply and distribution system, as well as the requirements for the tactical and technical characteristics of the RSP. The textbook was written for students of military departments studying under the training program for reserve officers in VUS 461700.
Tab. 6. Ill. 56. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Printed by decision of the editorial and publishing council of the university.
ISBN 5-7339-0211-6 © S.I. Volkov,
N.N. Kurilov, 2010
© MIREA, 2010
Radars for various purposes are an integral part of any modern air traffic control system. These include surveillance (control) radars, landing, meteorological and airfield surveillance radars .
The most important of these are surveillance (control) and landing radars, combined into a landing radar system (RSS).
The main task of RSP radars is to provide air traffic control and management in the airfield area.
Within the framework of this main task, with the help of radar landing systems, the tasks of detecting aircraft, measuring their coordinates and movement parameters, radar identification at command and control towers (CDP) or command posts (CP) are solved. In addition, additional information can be transmitted from aircraft through the FRS from aircraft: tail number, altitude, remaining fuel, etc.
The transmission of radar information from the RSP to the KDP can be carried out both via a broadband cable (cables) and a broadband radio transmission line.
Aircraft control loops can operate both in manual and semi-automatic modes, automated flight control systems (ACS).
In recent years, with the introduction of new high-precision radars into service, it has become possible to implement an automatic control mode in the automated control system, for example, at the landing stage.
Among the ground-based radio-technical means of navigation and landing, a significant place is occupied by radar landing systems for aircraft such as RSP-6, RSP-7, RSP-8, RSP-10, RSP-11 and their modifications, which play an important role in the process of ensuring the control of aircraft (LA) .
Radar landing systems are designed for landing aircraft equipped with conventional communication radio stations in adverse weather conditions day and night. RSP is a necessary addition to the means of instrumental landing and allows you to solve the problem of bringing aircraft to the aerodrome area, monitoring the air situation and regulating air traffic in the aerodrome area, identifying individual aircraft and groups of aircraft, ensuring approach and landing calculation by assigning the pilot (crew) to the aircraft landing course and glideslope of descent by commands from the ground. The use of RSP makes it possible to improve flight safety and the reliability of radar control.
The composition of the landing radar system includes surveillance and control tower (ODRL) and landing (PRL) radars, as well as direction finders and communications equipment.
The spatial position of an approaching aircraft relative to a given gliding line in the RPR is determined using a special landing radar. PRL provides a sector view of the space in the area of the runway (RWY) in the plane of the course and glide path planning. The deviation of the aircraft from the given course and glide path is recorded on the screens of the heading and glide slope indicators of the radar. At the same time, the indicators determine the distance from the aircraft to the touchdown point. Taking into account the data on the position of the aircraft relative to the planning line, the landing director transmits commands by radio to the aircraft, following which the pilot takes the aircraft to the runway. PRL allows for the reduction of aircraft of any type out of sight of the ground to a height of approximately 50 m.
As a PRL, centimeter-wave radars have been widely used. High accuracy and resolution of goniometric measurements of such a locator is ensured through the use of highly directional antennas. Accuracy and range resolution are achieved by using short pulses. An overview of the working sector is carried out by scanning two highly directional DNs in mutually perpendicular planes. To combat interference caused by the reflection of signals from local objects, the RSP use the methods of selection of moving targets (MTS), and to increase the range, an active mode of operation with an aircraft transponder (CO) is provided.
Surveillance and control radars of RSP systems are used to identify and control aircraft flights in the near zone with a radius of 50 … 60 km. According to the marks from the aircraft observed on the all-round visibility indicators (PPI) of the dispatching radars, the objective control of the air situation, the regulation of traffic at the pre-landing stages and the withdrawal of the aircraft with a given accuracy into the area of the PRL are carried out.
The use of remote indicators of the RSP, installed directly on the control tower, ensures a high degree of awareness of the PIU and the promptness of the issued data on the air situation.
RSPs have a limited bandwidth, do not exclude errors in the issuance of data due to operator errors and susceptibility to interference due to reflections from the terrain and meteorological factors. Due to these limitations, RSPs are used as backup systems during landing.
Currently, the airfields of the Air Force of the Russian Federation (RF Air Force) are mainly equipped with RSP-10MN and RSP-6M2 radar landing systems.
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT RSP-6M2 LANDING RADAR SYSTEM
Purpose and composition
The radar landing system RSP-6M2 is designed to solve the problems of the main parts of the automated control system (Fig. 1.1): the link for obtaining information about the actual flight path of the aircraft and the link for transmitting to the aircraft crew the information necessary to correct the flight path. The link for obtaining information about the flight path of the aircraft is made up of radar facilities (SRL), and the link for transmitting information is made up of radio communications facilities (RCS). The object of control is the aircraft manually piloted by the pilot according to the instrumental equipment (SW) and control commands received by the radio station (RS). The group of flight directors and the means of presenting information used by it constitute a link in the processing of information and the formation of control teams.
Fig.1.1. Structural diagram of automated control system based on RSP-6M2
The automatic control system based on the RSP-6M2 implements the manual method of aircraft control (the pilot manually executes control commands) in two stages. The first stage includes: controlled withdrawal of the aircraft into the near zone (Fig. 1.2); flight of an aircraft in the near zone along a given trajectory at a given flight level; exit of a certain (assigned) aircraft to the landing zone. At this stage, the control of the aircraft (pilot) with the help of commands is carried out by the flight director in the near zone (RBZ). The second stage includes the approach of the aircraft for landing with the exit to the given planning line (ZLP) and the descent along it until the beginning of the visual landing of the aircraft.
This automated control system is used to control aircraft that are not equipped with beacon landing systems.
1. Landing radar station PRLS-6M2 (Fig. 1.3), including –
– dispatching radar DRL-6M2;
– landing radar PRL-6M2;
– automatic radio direction finder ARP-11 (E-519);
– equipment for photographic recording of radar information;
Fig.1.2. Distribution of airspace in the aerodrome area
Fig.1.3. Landing radar station PRLS-6M2
two MN-61 tape recorders for recording audio information;
three radio stations R-863;
radio transmission line E-531;
means of wired radio communication.
2. Mobile autonomous power plant PEP-6M2, including –
– two diesel units AD30-T/230/Ch-400;
– VPL-30MD frequency converter;
– voltage converter PO-500;
– power distribution board.
RSP-6M2 is powered from a three-phase industrial power supply network with a voltage of 220/380 V and a frequency of 50 Hz through a VPL-30MD frequency converter or from one of two diesel units.