Functional painting and safety signs

In the conditions of modern production, workers are required to have greater composure, accuracy of movements and speed of reaction. One of the means of reducing the emerging psychophysiological load is color signaling – the so-called functional coloring. Functional painting in industrial premises of industrial buildings is usually used to solve three main tasks:

for a more rational organization of work, with the help of simple and visual means. It helps employees navigate the complex system of passages, crossings and communications;

serves to prevent accidents and accidents at work;

· performs the task of light accents, creating the expressiveness of architectural solutions for the interiors of industrial premises.

Labor protection rules provide for functional coloring of in-shop handling equipment (red, yellow, black, etc.). Such colors warn of danger and remind you of the need for increased attention.

To designate the elements of internal workshop transport (crane cabins, cargo hook cages, side surfaces of electric cars, loaders, trolleys, etc.), a warning color should be used – yellow signal color with inclined or straight black (red) stripes (See Appendix Fig. 5 ). The width of the black and yellow stripes depends on the size of the object itself and on the distance from which the warning should be visible.

Moving containers with explosive, dangerous and harmful substances are painted white with red cells or diagonal red stripes.

Functional painting of engineering communications (pipelines), electrical devices facilitates process control and ensures the safety of maintenance personnel. (See Appendix Fig. 6).

The identification coloring of communications is regulated by the norms. When choosing colors for painting pipelines, the following requirements are taken into account:

The colors of pipelines should be bright, saturated and easily distinguishable; they must be associated with the properties or content of the pipelines;

· Recognition of pipeline colors should depend as little as possible on subjective features of perception (including color blindness of individuals);

· the colors of pipelines should not noticeably change when changing lighting conditions (natural and artificial).

TsNIIPromzdaniy recommends the following colors for identifying pipelines: water – green, steam – red, air – blue, gases – yellow, acids – orange, alkalis – purple, liquids (combustible and non-combustible) – brown, other substances – gray, sewage – black.

To designate the most dangerous transported substances, warning color rings are applied to pipelines. The width of the warning rings and the distance between them depend on the outer diameter of the pipelines.

Color signals are usually supplemented with other types of visual information – symbolic images, conventional signs, signs, inscriptions, graphic diagrams, etc., specifying color information. Such signs are:

· prohibition signs . Action signs: prohibition or restriction of any action. The color and shape of the signs: a red circle with a white field inside and a symbolic black image crossed out by a red stripe or a red circle with a white field inside and explanatory black inscriptions.

· Warning signs . Action of signs: warning of a possible danger. The color and shape of the signs: a yellow equilateral triangle with its apex up with a symbolic image of black, and for signs of radiation danger and the danger of electric current – red.

· prescriptive signs . Action of signs: permission of action only if specific safety requirements are observed when using personal protective equipment. The color and shape of the signs: a green square with a white symbolic image or a green square with a white circle inside and an explanatory black inscription.

· indication signs . The action of signs: indicating the location of various objects and devices in industrial enterprises. Color and shape of signs: a blue rectangle with a white arrow and a symbolic image or inscription in black inside a white square.

The sizes of safety signs posted in industrial premises are standardized. When choosing the size of signs, the distance from which they are perceived is taken into account.[10]

Conclusion

Creating a favorable color environment in an industrial interior can improve performance and create a favorable working environment.

For this, the following conditions must be taken into account:

Improving visual work, stimulating the performance of labor operations by employees;

Improving the aesthetic qualities of the interiors of industrial buildings by enhancing the color of the impact of the interior space on a person;

· facilitating orientation in individual elements of the workplace and production equipment and increasing labor safety through the use of color signaling.

Along with the solution of functional problems in the interiors of industrial premises, it is desirable to take into account the psychophysiological and aesthetic aspects of the formation of a color environment. The overall emotional atmosphere should be enhanced by an appropriate selection of interior colors. When solving all problems, a color interior is able to create the impression of spaciousness and freedom, evoke a feeling of cheerfulness and optimism.

List of used literature

1. Blokhin V.V. Architecture of the interior of industrial buildings. – M .: “Stroyizdat”, 1973. – 192 p.

2. Blokhin V.V. Interior of industrial buildings. – M .: “Stroyizdat”, 1989. – 271 p.

3. Dyatkov S.V. Architecture of industrial buildings. Textbook for construction universities. M .: “Higher School”, 1976. – 464 p.

4. Ponomareva E.S. Color in the interior. – M .: “Higher School”, 1984. – 167 p.

5. Guidelines for the design of color finishes for the interiors of industrial buildings of industrial enterprises (SN 181-70). – M .: “Stroyizdat”,

1972.– 79 p.

Appendix 1

Rice. 1 “Color wheel” Fig. 2 “Color Contrast”

Rice. 3 “Warm and cold colors” Fig. 4 “Increasing and decreasing

colors”

Table 1.

“Reflex reactions in color perception”.

Colour The nature of the associations
warm cold lungs heavy retreating speakers exciting oppressive soothing
Spectral colors:
Red………….. X X X X
Orange………. X X X
Yellow…………… X X X X
Yellow-green….. X X X
Green………….. X X X
Green-blue….. X X X X
Blue………….. X X X X
Blue……………. X X X
Violet……… X X X X
Purple………. X X X X
Achromatic colors:
White…………….. X
Light gray……. X
Dark grey…….. X X
Black…………… X X

Table 2.

“The color scheme, the allowable amount of color and color contrast depending on the categories of work, the nature of the lighting and sanitary and hygienic conditions in the production premises.”

Annex 2

Rice. 1 “Complex of the Kama Automobile Plant in the city of Naberezhnye Chelny”.

Rice. 2,3,4 “The use of polymeric materials in the interiors of industrial enterprises.”

Rice. 5 “Designation of elements of intrashop transport”.

Rice. 6 “Functional coloring of engineering communications”.

1. Blokhin V.V. Architecture of the interior of industrial buildings. – M .: “Stroyizdat”, 1973. – 3 p.

2. Ponomareva E.S. Color in the interior. – M .: “Higher School”, 1984. – 7 p.

3. Ponomareva E.S. Color in the interior. – M .: “Higher School”, 1984. – 13 p.

4. Blokhin V.V. Interior of industrial buildings. – M .: “Stroyizdat”, 1989. – 10 p.

5. Blokhin V.V. Architecture of the interior of industrial buildings. – M .: “Stroyizdat”, 1973. – 27p.

6. Guidelines for the design of color finishes for the interiors of industrial buildings of industrial enterprises (SN 181-70). – M .: Stroyizdat, 1972. – 4 p.

7. Dyatkov S.V. Architecture of industrial buildings. Textbook for construction universities. M .: “Higher School”, 1976. – 38 p.

8. Dyatkov S.V. Architecture of industrial buildings. Textbook for construction universities. M .: “Higher School”, 1976. – 40 p.

9. Ponomareva E.S. Color in the interior. – M .: “Higher School”, 1984. – 15 p.

10. Guidelines for the design of color finishes for the interiors of industrial buildings of industrial enterprises (CH 181-70). – M .: Stroyizdat, 1972. – 70 p.

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