Forms of family organization.

Content.

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………3

2. Typology of family structures…………………………………………..5

2.1. Forms of family organization…………………………………………….5

2.2. Forms of power……………………………………………………….6

2.3. Forms of residence of married couples………………………………7

2.4. Forms of marriage…………………………………………………………8

2.4.1. Exogamy and endogamy…………………………………………8

2.4.2. Monogamy and polygamy……………………………………….9

3. Family functions…………………………………………………………..10

4. Factors influencing the choice of a partner for marriage……………………..14

5. Family life cycle…………………………………………………….16

6. Children in the family…………………………………………………………… ….18

6.1. Small children……………………………………………………. …..eighteen

6.2. Working mothers…………………………………………………….18

7. Alternative lifestyles……………………………………….20

7.1. Bachelor life………………………………………………….. 20

7.2. Unregistered couples………………………………………….20

7.3. Homosexual couples……………………………………………….21

7.4. Families with single parents……………………………………… .22

8. Trends in the development of family and marriage relations………………………23

8.1. Conflict in the family……………………………………………………24

8.2. Causes of Divorce……………………………………………………26

9. Conclusion………………………………………………………………..28

10. List of used literature……………………………………….29

Introduction.

The separation of the institution of the family from other social institutions of society and its thorough study is not accidental. It is the family that is recognized by all sociologists as the main carrier of cultural patterns inherited from generation to generation, as well as a necessary condition for the socialization of the individual. Since it is mainly in the family that a person learns social roles, receives the basics of education, behavior skills.

The family is a social institution, on the one hand, and a small group that has its own patterns of functioning and development, on the other. Hence its dependence on the social system, existing economic, political, religious relations and, at the same time, relative independence.

Closely connected with the institution of the family is another social institution – “the institution of marriage – sanctioned by society, socially and personally expedient, sustainable form of sexual relations” [3].

The concept of family is difficult to define accurately. Many of us imagine the family as a social unit, consisting of a married couple and their children living in the same house and leading a common household. But this definition is too limited. Often, a family is understood as a group united by family ties, and not a married couple and their children. Sociologists generally view the family as a social group based on kinship and regulating relationships between spouses, parents and children, and immediate family members who live together, co-operate economically, and care for children. In addition, some scientists believe that psychological ties play a major role in families; that is, a family is a tightly knit group of people who care for and respect each other.

As a rule, the basis of the family is a married couple. However, there are families that are not legally registered, but are characterized by cohabitation, common housekeeping. In addition, there are incomplete families where one of the parents is absent or, for some reason, an entire parental generation (for example, when children live with their grandparents without parents).

Typology of family structures.

Forms of family organization.

According to the forms of family organization, nuclear and extended families are distinguished. In a nuclear family, spouses and their children form the core of the relationship, and blood ties fade into the background. In an extended family consisting of several generations, the core of family relations is formed by blood relatives, and marital ties are functionally secondary.

“For some time, sociologists have believed that industrialization has undermined the extended family while promoting the development of nuclear families. For example, William J. Good, based on a survey of the state of families in many countries of the world, came to the conclusion that industrialization weakens the extended family due to a number of factors. First, industrialization encourages people to move in search of new jobs and career opportunities, which weakens kinship ties that require frequent and close contact. Secondly, industrialization promotes social mobility, which leads to friction between blood relatives belonging to different social strata. Thirdly, industrial society replaces consanguineous groups in solving such common problems as security, education, military protection and money lending with social institutions. Fourth, in an industrial society, the personal achievements of the individual come to the fore, which reduces the dependence of individuals on their families.

However, in recent years, many sociologists have come to a different view and believe that industrialization and the extended family are not incompatible. In particular, researchers studying the family life of textile workers in New Hampshire in the 19th century found that industrialization strengthened family ties. Different generations not only often lived in the same house and ran a common household, but also helped each other in many ways. Indeed, economic change and the increase in the number of blood relatives may have actually contributed to the formation of extended family structures during the initial period of industrialization in Western countries.

Forms of power.

According to the nature of the distribution of family responsibilities, according to how the issue of leadership and power is resolved in the family, sociologists distinguish the following types of families:

1. Traditional (or patriarchal) family. This type of family organization, when at least three generations live together, and the role of leader is assigned to the older man.

The traditional family is characterized by:

a) economic dependence of a woman on her husband;

b) a functionally clear division of the spheres of family life and the consolidation of responsibilities (the husband is the breadwinner, the wife is the mistress);

c) recognition of the unconditional priority of men in matters of family headship.

2. Matriarchal family – a family structure opposite in properties – that is, the concentration of power in the hands of women. However, pure matriarchy is rare. However, while matriarchy is not the preferred form of family life in most societies, it often arises due to certain circumstances – as a result of the death of a husband or his departure from the family.

2. Neotraditional family. It retains traditional attitudes towards male leadership and the delimitation of male and female family responsibilities, but unlike families of the first type, without sufficient objective economic grounds for this. Sociologists call this type of family exploitative, because along with the right to equal participation in social work with men, a woman receives an “exclusive” right to domestic work.

3. Egalitarian family (family of equals).

This type of family is characterized by:

a) proportional division of household duties between family members, interchangeability of spouses in solving everyday problems (the so-called “role symmetry”);

b) discussion of the main problems and joint adoption of important decisions for the family;

c) the emotional intensity of the relationship.

There are also transitional types of families in which the role settings of men are more traditional than their actual behavior, or, conversely, with democratic role settings, men participate little in housekeeping.

In the modern family, not only the traditional roles of women are being transformed, which is associated with their participation in professional activities, but the roles of men are also changing. For example, in Western European countries it is no longer abnormal and unusual for a man to take parental leave.

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