with the vital activity of living organisms are called:
a) environmental conditions; b) abiotic factors;
c) biotic factors; d) anthropogenic factors.
62. Animals get water by oxidation:
a) amino acids ; b) lipids; c) minerals; d) vitamins.
63. Morphological methods of maintaining normal water balance include: a) change of habitats; b) allocation of dry feces;
c) keratinization of the integument; d) immersion in suspended animation.
64. An ecosystem includes a biotope including:
a) atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, pedosphere;
b) microbiocenosis, phytocenosis, zoocenosis, mycosphere;
c) hydrosphere, pedosphere, mycosphere, phytocenosis;
d) phytocenosis, zoocenosis, microbiocenosis, mycocenosis.
65. The area of u200bu200bthe abiotic environment that the biocenosis occupies is called:
a) ecotope; b) area; c) an ecosystem; d) biotope.
66. The factor, the level of which approaches the limits of the body’s endurance or exceeds it, is called:
a) optimal; b) environmental; c) minimal; d) limiting.
67. Trophic connections in the biocenosis occur when individuals of the same species:
a) create a habitat for individuals of another species;
b) change the living conditions of individuals of another species;
c) feed on living individuals of another species;
d) participate in the distribution of another species.
68. From the listed factors, select those that fall out of the classification under consideration:
a) anthropogenic; b) soil; c) biotic; d) abiotic.
69. A certain type of external structure of organisms, which reflects the way they interact with the environment, is called:
a) living environment; b) environmental factor; c) life form; d) metamorphosis.
70. The main reasons for the instability of agroecosystems lie in :
a) the small size of such systems;
b) monoculture of agroecosystems and complete dependence on humans;
c) unsuccessful territorial distribution of agroecosystems;
d) poor soils on which agroecosystems are placed.
71. Agrocenoses differ from natural biocenoses in that:
a) require additional energy costs;
b) plants do not reproduce well in them;
c) always occupy an area larger than natural;
d) are characterized by a large number of diverse populations.
72. In agrocenoses, for pest control, food relations between living organisms are used (biological method of control), which consists in:
a) the use of strong insecticides;
b) the use of predatory or parasitic insects, bacteria, viruses;
c) the use of special fertilizers; d) special tillage.
73. To ensure the circulation of substances in an ecosystem, the presence of such components as: a) wind and water energy; b) biogenic elements;
c) producers, consumers, decomposers, biogenic elements;
d) producers, solar energy and internal energy of the Earth.
74. Soil fertility depends on the presence of such a layer as:
a) turf; b) a layer transitional to the parent rock; c) a layer of litter; d) humus.
75. The upper limits of the spread of life are limited by a height of:
a) 5 km; b) 10 km; c) 20 km; d) 40 km.
76. The highest concentration of ozone is located within the following limits from:
a) 5 to 10 km; b) 10 to 20 km; c) 20 to 25 km; d) 25 to 40 km.
77. The areas of “condensation” of life (according to V. I. Vernadsky) are:
a) mountain tops b) subsoil layers;
c) thickness (average depths) of the seas and oceans ; d) interface between media.
78. Cycles of the most important biogenic elements in the biosphere, created by living organisms, are divided into:
a) gas cycles and sedimentary cycles; b) cycles of gases and metals;
c) circulation of solutions and rocks;
d) cycles of organic and inorganic substances.
79. Many marine species accumulate calcium, silicon or phosphorus in their skeletons and, dying, create large strata at the bottom of the seas and oceans:
a) volcanic rocks; b) sedimentary organogenic rocks;
c) metamorphic and igneous organogenic rocks;
d) there are no such special breeds.
80. Xenobiotics are:
a) viruses; b) detergents; c) iodine-containing substances; d) parasites.
81. Synecology studies: a) the interaction of individual organisms; b) populations;
c) ecosystem and biosphere; d) all together.
82. The body’s need for a periodic change of day and night, seasons is called: a) biorhythms; b) photoperiodism; c) adaptation; d) coadaptation.
83. The stability of biogeocenosis is mainly determined by: a) consumers;
b) producers; c) decomposers; d) great species diversity.
84. Succession is characterized by :
a) change of biotope of the ecosystem; b) directed community change;
c) seasonal change of community; d) undirected community change.
85. Under the influence of an ecological factor of low intensity, most of the individuals of the population: a) adapt; b) is in the stage of compensation;
c) is in the stage of decompensation; d) dies.
86. Not a law formulated by ecologist B.Commoner:
a) everything is connected with everything; b) the development of society depends on the global ecology;
c) nature knows best; d) everything has to go somewhere.
87. The ability of species to increase in numbers in geometric proportions is based on such a fundamental property of living matter as:
a) heredity; b) variability; c) self-reproduction; d) self-regulation.
88. The main limiter to the unlimited growth of the population of the species is:
a) death from infectious diseases; b) the influence of predators;
c) lack of food; d) number of offspring.
89. The main property of living matter, which allows various types of organisms to maintain their existence indefinitely, is the ability to: a) metabolism; b) self-reproduction;
c) movement; d) development of new habitats.
90 . Homeothermic organisms include:
a) seaside wormwood ; b) black swift; c) North Sea shrimp;
91. The factor that limits life in the terrestrial-air habitat in the Far North is: a) high humidity; b) the presence of snow cover;
c) temperature regime; d) feature of the landscape.
92. An indicator of the demographic structure of a population is:
a) relationships between same-sex individuals;
b) adaptation to seasonal changes in conditions;
c) the number of born and dead individuals; d) the formation of isolated settlements.
93. Mutually beneficial relationships between individuals of different species, without which the existence of individuals becomes impossible, are called:
a) mutualism; b) commensalism; c) amensalism; d) neutrality.
94. A biocenosis is called: a) a complex consisting of the landscape and soil and climatic conditions of a given habitat;
b) a set of organisms and habitats, united by the circulation of substances and the flow of energy;
c) a community of organisms in which cohabiting species maintain their existence through relationships;
d) a group of coexisting organisms of the same species.
95. Changes in the living conditions of one species as a result of the life of another species in the biocenosis are characterized by: a) phoric connections ; b) topical links; c) factory connections; d) trophic connections.
96. Demography is called:
a) a combination of all factors favorable for the species;
b) description of the sex and age composition of populations;
c) a generalized description of the community;
d) description of specific relations of two types.
97. Biotic relationships based on the participation of individuals of one species in the distribution of individuals of another species are called:
a) factory b) trophic; c) topical; d) phoric.
98. Trophic connections in the biocenosis occur when individuals of the same species:
a) participate in the spread of another species; b) change the living conditions of individuals of another species; c) feed on the dead remains of individuals of another species;
d) create a habitat for individuals of another species.
99. The most significant result of trophic relationships is considered:
a) increase the productivity of the biocenosis; b) distribution of species in space;
c) containment of growth in the number of species; d) habitat change.
100. Eating chains begin with:
a) producers; b) consumers; c) decomposers; d) herbivores.
101. Products of animals or other consumers are called:
a) primary; b) secondary; c) tertiary; d) main.
102. In terms of their weather conditions, large industrial centers differ from their suburbs in that: a) there is less summer precipitation than in the suburbs; b) the temperature in summer is higher than in the suburbs; c) the temperature in winter is lower than in the suburbs; d) there are more sunny days during the year than in the suburbs.
103. Measures aimed at restoring lost soil fertility are called: a) recapitulation; b) reimmigration; c) reintroduction;
104. Ecological successions caused by internal factors include: a) overgrowth of rocks; b) overgrowing of the lake due to the ingress of excess nutrient (organic) elements; c) change in the meadow under the influence of grazing;
d) change in forests caused by recreational factors.
105. Under the influence of internal factors in the process of succession, first:
a) there is a change of annual plants to biennials;
b) biennials disappear, being replaced by annuals;
c) all herbs disappear, being replaced by trees;
d) woody forms of plants change to herbs.
106. In the process of development of succession, the rate of change:
a) gradually slows down; b) gradually increases; c) does not change;
d) is growing rapidly.
107. Environmental successions caused by external factors include: a) overgrowth of rocks; b) overgrowing of the lake due to the ingress of excess nutrient (organic) elements; c) self-overgrowth of the lake;
d) self-overgrowing of waste rock dumps.
108. Each subsequent stage of natural succession in duration :
a) longer than the previous one; b) shorter than the previous one; c) remains at the same level;
d) only slightly shorter than the previous one.
109. When comparing the diversity of life forms and the number of individuals in the oceans and on the continents, it turns out that:
a) the organic world of the land is more diverse in terms of species and has a greater number of individuals than the organic world of the oceans and seas;
b) the organic world of the oceans and seas is species-wise more diverse and has a greater number of individuals than the organic world of the continents;
c) the organic worlds of the seas, oceans and continents do not differ in diversity and are almost indistinguishable in the number of individuals;
d) the organic world of the oceans and seas is only slightly more diverse in the number of species than the organic world of the continents, but the number of individuals is much greater in the oceans than on the continents.
110. The ability to reproduce is the most important property of the living matter of the biosphere. Particularly rapidly multiply:
a) mushrooms b) insects; c) bacteria; d) flatworms.
111. The density of life depends on a number of factors, one of which is:
a) the size of living organisms; b) climate; c) the terrain on which organisms live; d) geographical location.
112. Species diversity of plants increases (increases) in the direction :
a) from north to south b) from the foot of the mountain to its top; c) from the surface of the ocean to its depths; d) from the coastline to the central regions of the ocean.
113. The same chemical elements pass from inanimate nature into the composition of plants, then into animals and humans. This process is called:
a) transformation of elements; b) transduction of elements;
c) the circulation of substances in nature; d) biogenic migration of atoms.
114. One of the properties of living organisms of the biosphere is their ability to:
a) accumulation of various elements; b) radiation of radioactivity;
c) unlimited growth and release of nitrogen;
d) release of oxygen and absorption of heat and water.
115. The composition of the biosphere, as well as the composition of any ecosystem, should include the following components: a) producers and decomposers;
b) producers, consumers and decomposers; c) only consumers, decomposers and parasites; d) saprotrophs-reducers, consumers and zoophages.
116. The biosphere, like any ecosystem, is:
a) a closed system b) open system; c) a completely autonomous system;
d) a completely independent system.
117. An increase in the complexity of various kinds of connections between living organisms on land occurs: a) from south to north; b) from the north to the equator;
c) from the surface of the seas and oceans to their depths; d) from the foot of a mountain to its summit.
118. The most important link in the biogeochemical cycle is:
a) air transport; b) photosynthesis; c) glycolysis; d) water transfer.
119. The ozone screen is located:
a) at an altitude of 8-10 km at the poles and more than 25 km above the equator;
b) at an altitude of 25 km at the poles and 10 km above the equator;
c) both at the poles and at the equator, on average, at the same height, equal to 15 km;
d) both at the poles and at the equator at the same height – above 25 km.
120. VI Vernadsky saw the further development of the biosphere in its transition to the state: a) technosphere; b) anthroposphere; c) noosphere; d) urbospheres.
121. The biosphere is one of the shells of the Earth and by age it:
a) the oldest b) is equal to all other shells of the Earth that were formed simultaneously; c) the youngest of the shells of the Earth; d) slightly older than the hydrosphere.
122. When climbing to the top of a mountain, there is not only a change in humidity and air temperature, but also: a) a decrease in radioactivity;
b) change in atmospheric air pressure; c) decrease in wind speed;
d) dust pollution of the air.
123. Biogenic migration of elements carries out:
a) the formation of sedimentary rocks; b) biogeochemical circulation of substances and nature; c) the process of restoring disturbed lands;
d) transport of substances within the land.
124. Oil, peat, coal – fossil deposits:
a) formed as a result of the activity of bacteria of ancient geological eras;
b) formed from the remains of ancient plant organisms that have accumulated solar energy; c) inorganic substances formed in past geological epochs by microscopic animals;
d) being products of volcanic activity.
125. The pioneers in the development of land spaces belonging to multicellular organisms in ancient geological eras were:
a) mosses and algae; b) colonies of coelenterates and cockroaches;
c) lichens; d) mushrooms, sponges and corals.
126. The main rocks of the earth and metals that make up the earth’s crust:
a) carbonates, marbles and aluminum; b) basalts, granites and aluminum;
c) granites, gneisses and iron; d) basalts, granites and copper.
127. The range of action of a factor on the body between min and max is called:
A) ecological niche; b) zone of tolerance; c) adaptation; d) plasticity.
128. When moving to the North, the average body size of warm-blooded animals increases – this law was established by: a) D. Allen; b) K. Bergman;
c) J. Liebig; d) V. I. Vernadsky.
129. Poikilothermic organisms are: a) birds; b) mammals;
B) a person d) reptiles.
130. Organisms requiring strictly defined environmental conditions:
A) eurybionts; b) stenobionts; c) geobionts; d) autobionts.
131. After the retreat of the glacier in Alaska, mosses settle, then sedge – this is an example of: a) secondary succession; b) primary succession; c) climax of biocenosis;
132. Biogeochemical function of living organisms in the biosphere is not:
A) gas b) redox; c) self-regulation and reproduction; d) concentration.
133. The form of existence of populations, in which each species benefits from association with another species, is called:
A) predation b) parasitism; c) competition; d) symbiosis.
134. The main idea of V. I. Vernadsky is that:
A) living organisms are open systems ; b) organisms convert the energy of the sun into the energy of geochemical processes; c) the biosphere consists of the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere; d) in nature there is a cycle of substances.
135. The best way for an individual to participate in the conservation of the biosphere is to: A) refuse to drive a car; b) participation in the development of laws on nature protection; c) reducing the consumption of meat food; d) stop poaching.
136. The main substance that causes acid rain is:
A) sulfur dioxide b) carbon dioxide; c) nitric oxide; d) silicon oxide.
137. Endemic diseases include:
A) fluorosis; b) measles; c) Graves’ disease; d) ascariasis.
138. The ozone layer of the atmosphere is destroyed by:
a) hard solar radiation; b) organochlorine compounds;
c) carbon dioxide; d) changes in the geomagnetic properties of the atmosphere.
139. All species that form the food chain exist due to organic matter created: A) only by plants; b) only plants and animals; c) animals, fungi and bacteria;
d) plants, cyano- and chemosynthetic bacteria.
140. The functions of the biosphere, due to the processes of photosynthesis, include: a) gas; b) redox;
c) concentration; d) gas and redox.
141. The ozone layer is a necessary condition for the existence of the biosphere, because it: A) is formed as a result of cosmic radiation; b) prevents the penetration of ultraviolet rays; c) protects the atmosphere from pollution;
d) contributes to the cleansing of the seas from heavy metal pollution.
142. Any environmental condition to which an organism reacts with adaptive reactions is called: a) an extreme condition; b) environmental factor;
c) place of residence; d) an ecological resource.
143. The return of chemical elements (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus) into the circulation is carried out mainly by: A) producers; b) decomposers;
c) industrial enterprises; d) consumers.
144. A decrease in the thickness of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, even by 0.1%, leads to an increase in the level of diseases:
a) respiratory organs; b) esophagus and stomach; c) skin; d) excretory organs.
145. Vivid examples of human extermination of wild animals are:
a) dolphins, moose, grizzly bears;
b) Biscay whale, wild bull of the tour, Steller’s cow;
c) leopard, Ussuri tiger, llama;
d) bear – kodiak, giant panda, orangutan.
146. Decomposers are: A) fungi, bacteria; b) algae, bacteria;
c) insects, algae; d) plants and animals.
147. Succulents live in: a) seas; b) deserts; c) temperate zone;
d) humid subtropics.
148. The limiting factor in layering is: a) water; b) light;
c) temperature; d) mineral nutrition.
149. Cause of leaf fall: a) length of daylight hours; b) temperature;
c) humidity; d) the strength of the wind.
150. Xenobiotics are: a) pesticides; b) phytoncides;
c) ultraviolet; d) ozone.