Features of the development of social pedagogy in Russia.


Science, as you know, is a sphere of human activity aimed at developing and systematizing new, objective knowledge and ideas about reality. At the same time, each individual science – and there are a great many of them today – does not study the entire reality as a whole, but only some of its specific area, some fragment or aspect of reality. Philosophy is called the science of the universal laws of the development of nature, society and thought; sociology – the science of society; psychology – the science of the patterns of development and functioning of the human psyche; pedagogy – the science of education, upbringing and training of the younger generation.

Any science “grows” out of a specific reality, is its reflection, accumulates and organizes knowledge about it. Therefore, scientific, theoretical knowledge cannot develop on its own, in isolation from practical activity, science and practical activity are always inextricably linked. Moreover, it is practice that is primarily a source of knowledge for any science. On the other hand, any practical activity is the more effective, the more it is based on the achievements of science. Scientific theory, being the basis for practical activity, makes it possible to direct, transform and improve it. This means that theoretical research must necessarily go hand in hand with the development of practical activity.

In addition, each science has its own history, its own “biography”. Knowledge of this history, the circumstances and reasons for its appearance, the path that it has traveled in its development, as well as its relationships and interconnections with other areas of scientific knowledge that have had and are influencing it, helps to better understand the current state and prospects for the development of this science. .

Therefore, the consideration of social pedagogy as a science seems appropriate to begin with identifying the very sources and causes of its occurrence, separating it into an independent branch of scientific knowledge, for it is known: find the beginning of everything and you will understand a lot.

Features of the development of social pedagogy in Russia.

In domestic science and pedagogical practice, the origins and prerequisites for separating social pedagogy into an independent field of knowledge can be found in the works and practical activities of such classics of pedagogy as K.D. Ushinsky, P.F. Lesgaft, L.N. Tolstoy and many others.

In particular, the history of studying the role and significance of the environment as an existing reality that has an impact on the child originates in pre-revolutionary pedagogy. More K.D. Ushinsky believed that for education and development it is important to know a person “as he really is with all his weaknesses and in all his greatness”, you need to know “a person in a family, among the people, among humanity … at all ages in all classes .. .”[one]. Other prominent psychologists and teachers (P.F. Lesgaft, A.F. Lazursky and others) also showed the importance of the environment for the development of the child. A.F. Lazursky, for example, believed that poorly gifted individuals usually submit to the influences of the environment, while richly gifted natures themselves tend to actively influence it.

Of particular importance for the formation of social pedagogy was that stage in the development of domestic pedagogical science, which falls on the 20-30s. XX century. In this difficult time, the activities of such outstanding teachers as A.S. Makarenko, S.T. Shatsky, V.N. Soroka Rosinsky, was aimed primarily at helping “children knocked out of the social rut”, that is, in fact, they were precisely social teachers, and the activities of children’s experimental stations, communes and other institutions organized by them and many other teachers became practical implementation of socio-pedagogical ideas.

This period was also marked by the appearance of a whole galaxy of talented scientists – teachers and psychologists, such as P.P. Blonsky, L.S. Vygotsky, A.B. Zalkind, M.S. Jordansky, A.P. Pinkevich, V.N. Shulgin and many others. In their scientific works, the ideas of social education and pedology were deeply developed, the foundations of a new scientific direction, the so-called “environmental pedagogy”, were laid. The main issue that was discussed by scientists was the impact of the environment on the child, the management of this influence. There were different points of view on the role of the environment in the development of the child: some scientists defended the need for the child to adapt to a particular environment; others believed that the child, to the best of his strength and abilities, can organize the environment himself and influence it; still others suggested considering the personality and environment of the child in the unity of their characteristics; the fourth made an attempt to consider the environment as a single system of influence on the child. There were other points of view as well. But what is important is that deep and thorough studies of the environment and its influence on the formation and development of the child’s personality were carried out.

It is interesting that in the professional vocabulary of teachers of that time such concepts as “environment for the child”, “socially organized environment”, “proletarian environment”, “age environment”, “comradely environment”, “factory environment”, were widely used. “public environment”, etc.

The impressive achievements of practitioners in the social rehabilitation of “difficult” children and adolescents, and scientists have received well-deserved international recognition and largely determined the development of domestic pedagogy, in particular, laying the scientific and practical foundation for the emergence of social pedagogy.

However, the evolutionary development of social pedagogy as a science in Russia did not take place. First, there was a significant gap between the new, Soviet pedagogy and what had been accumulated by pedagogy in the pre-revolutionary period, when the infamous thesis “we will destroy the whole world of violence to the ground …” was also extended to pedagogy. The statement of a prominent teacher of the 1920s–30s A.P. Pinkevich that it is necessary to forget everything written in the field of pedagogy before the revolution was supported by many Marxist teachers. Then, from the end of the 1930s, when the victory of socialism was proclaimed in the country, the school was recognized as the main institution for the upbringing and development of children, and the main pedagogical and psychological research was devoted specifically to the school and its influence on the development of the child. Scientific research in the field of pedology and pedagogy of the environment was practically banned, and the very concept of “environment” was discredited for many years and left the professional vocabulary of teachers. Since that time, a tendency to hush up social problems arose and firmly strengthened, which began to be regarded as separate, easily eradicated “remnants of the past”, which also did not contribute to the development of social pedagogy.

At the same time, the social aspects of education in their extremely ideologized manifestation were actively studied and developed within the framework of the theory of communist education, which became the core of Soviet pedagogy. And it should be noted that throughout the entire Soviet period, many effective forms of social (communist in content) education were developed, although most of them had an openly political orientation.

Scientific interest in the problems of the environment resumed in the 1960s–70s in connection with the study of the school community, which has the characteristics of complexly organized systems functioning in different environments (V.A. Karakovsky, L.I. Novikova, N.L. Selivanova, V. .A. Sukhomlinsky and others) [2]. The environment (natural, social, material) becomes the object of a holistic system analysis. Various types of environments are studied and researched: “learning environment”, “out-of-school environment of the student team”, “home environment”, “microdistrict environment”, etc.

From the 80s of the XX century. again, there has been a clear turn towards social pedagogy proper, the creation and development of its organizational forms and institutions, the resumption of theoretical research in the field of pedagogy of the environment. The need for its revival was dictated not only by the desire of teachers to restore interrupted traditions in the development of pedagogical science, but also in many respects by the needs of pedagogical practice itself – the need to search for new forms of educational work, covering not only educational institutions, but also society, using its educational potential.

The practical implementation of these ideas, which received the deepest development in the works of V.D. Semenov, found in the creation throughout the country of various complexes that united the school with other social structures – socio-pedagogical, educational and cultural, sports and recreation, rural schools-complexes, etc. For V.D. Semenov, youth housing complexes (MZhK), which began to be built in Sverdlovsk in the 1970s and 80s, served as an experimental base. The main idea was to create a unified educational environment within the framework of such complexes.

Since the introduction of the profession of “social teacher” in the country was associated with this scientific direction, which at the initial stage acted as its theoretical foundation, it was renamed social pedagogy. From this point of view, the names of the leading works of V.D. Semenov, which appeared in the period from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s: “Interaction between the school and the social environment” (1986), “Pedagogy of the environment” (1993), “Social pedagogy: history and modernity” (1995).

Within the framework of the same direction, a number of works by A.V. Mudrik, in which social pedagogy is revealed as a branch of knowledge that studies social education in the context of socialization [3].

However, a cardinal change in the general orientation of the professional activities of social educators. Their activity was initially associated with solving the problems of out-of-school education, social problems of children and young people with deviant behavior, various disorders in the process of social adaptation and socialization, simply thrown “to the sidelines of life”, etc. All this served as a natural reason for reorientation and scientific ideas in the field of social pedagogy.

Social pedagogy began to develop as a pedagogy of “social deviations”. The development of this direction was carried out, first of all, by those researchers who, in their scientific research, proceeded from the needs of the practical sphere of social pedagogy that is being formed in the country.

At the same time, it should be emphasized that the scientific problems of social pedagogy in Russia have begun to be actively dealt with, first of all, by university professors, mainly pedagogical ones – the organizers of the professional training of social pedagogues. They were inevitably brought to this by the need to develop content and training in general, and separate training courses that reveal various aspects of social and pedagogical activity, as well as study guides for these courses. Already in the first half of the 1990s, scientific teams were formed on the basis of various educational institutions in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Omsk and other cities of the country, actively solving theoretical and applied issues of social pedagogy.

The circle of scientists – researchers of the problems of social pedagogy – gradually expanded and at the expense of those practical workers in the socio-pedagogical sphere, who in their activities could reach the level of scientific understanding of practical, empirical experience.

In the field of view of social pedagogy, a person falls who needs help in the process of his active socialization – the transformation of an individual into a social subject. First of all, this concerns the child as a developing, emerging personality . In addition, adults who, for various reasons, have broken ties with society, have not formed social norms and rules accepted in society, fall into the field of view of social pedagogy. In this case, a person needs help in resocialization. This is where a social worker can help.

Today, for the development of social pedagogy, it is necessary to re-read and rethink from new positions the works of domestic teachers – both pre-revolutionary and Soviet periods, in order to find its origins that correspond to the cultural and historical traditions of our people.

Of no small importance is the development of foreign experience in order to adapt it in relation to our Russian reality. All this determines the features, directions and contradictions of the development of social pedagogy in our country, which at the initial stage proceeded in an atmosphere of acute scientific controversy and discussion.

Object and subject of social pedagogy. To understand the specifics of social pedagogy as a science, it is necessary to understand what it should study, to isolate its own field of research. For this purpose, the concepts of object and subject of research are used in science.

The object of study of a particular science is understood as a certain area of the really existing world, the real reality, to the study of which this science is directed. The subject of any science is the result of theoretical abstraction, which allows scientists to single out certain aspects, as well as the patterns of development and functioning of the object under study. Thus, the object of science is a fragment of objective reality, the subject is the result of its comprehension.

One and the same object can be studied by different sciences. For example, a person acts as an object of study of biology, philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogy and other sciences. But each of these sciences has its own subject, that is, what it studies in the object, in this case, in man. So, psychology studies the laws and mechanisms of human mental development, pedagogy – the laws of upbringing and education of the individual, etc. At the same time, any science is limited in its approach to the object by the tradition in which it was formed, by the conceptual apparatus that has developed in it, by the means and methods by which it studies the phenomena of reality that interest it.

It should also be emphasized that no science is able to describe its object in its entirety. Moreover, in every science, as a rule, there are many different, often even contradictory, points of view on the question of what is the object and subject of this science, a variety of their formulations are offered. And this does not at all hinder the development of science, the study within its framework of certain phenomena.

Then the question may arise: why even try to define the object and subject of science? In fact, the problem of defining the object and subject of science is very important. It is from the choice of the object and subject that it will depend which phenomena and in what aspects can be studied by this particular science, and from what points of view they should be considered by other sciences. That is, through the object and subject, the boundaries of science are established, distinguishing it from other sciences, determining precisely its place in the system of scientific knowledge.

This is especially significant for such sciences that are associated with a specific area of practical activity and are called upon to provide it with scientifically based means of development. Such sciences are called applied , in contrast to the fundamental sciences , which study the most general laws and patterns of reality and thereby create a general theoretical foundation for the development of other sciences with a practical orientation.

In particular, for social pedagogy, which also belongs to the practice-oriented sciences, the problem of choosing an object and subject is of great importance. It will depend on this whether this applied science fulfills its main task – to ensure socio-pedagogical activity in the fullness of its components and varieties that exist in real practice with scientifically based content, forms and methods, whether all the phenomena covered by the socio-pedagogical sphere, come to the attention of science. In other words, the choice of the object and subject of science affects the content of the theory and practice of social pedagogy.

Social pedagogy, as a young and developing branch of scientific knowledge, is characterized by an extraordinary variety of approaches to identifying the object and subject of this science. Scientific publications and textbooks on social pedagogy published in recent years present different definitions of the object and subject of social pedagogy.

When talking about social pedagogy, they most often and first of all refer to the works of A.V. Mudrik. As an object of social pedagogy, the scientist considers social education , by which he understands “education of all age groups and social categories of people, carried out both in organizations specially created for this, and in organizations for which education is not the main function.” At the same time, social pedagogy is considered as a branch of pedagogy and is on a par with such pedagogical branches as family and confessional pedagogy. That is, these branches of A.V. Mudrik singles out the main subject of education: if such is the family – family pedagogy, confessions – confessional pedagogy, society – social [4]. This point of view of A.V. Mudrik is shared by his followers Yu.V. and T.A. Vasilkovs, V.R. Yasnitskaya and others.

According to another, also quite common point of view, the object of social pedagogy is the process of social development, formation, formation of a person . For example, V.I. Zagvyazinsky and his co-authors, as an object of social pedagogy, consider the process of human development in society based on the totality of his social interactions. The subject of this science, according to these scientists, is the pedagogical aspects of human socialization, its adaptation in society and integration into society [5].

Common to these scientific positions is that social pedagogy is seen as a component, a branch of pedagogical knowledge . Moreover, theoretically, supporters of both positions insist that social education (or pedagogical influence on the development of a person in society) can be directed to all people, regardless of age. When they consider any specific types and forms of socio-pedagogical activity, then, as a rule, they are talking about educational institutions for children, first of all, about the school. However, in the latest textbooks, these authors significantly expand the institutions of socialization of the individual (institutions of additional education, universities, public organizations, etc.). The area of socio-pedagogical activity is also expanding, in particular, with the marginalized population, the elderly, etc. [6]

Some scholars believe that social pedagogy goes beyond pedagogy and is a field of social knowledge . So, L.V. Mardakhaev considers social pedagogy as a component of social work. The object of her attention, he, just like V.I. Zagvyazinsky and others, considers the social formation and further improvement of the individual, social groups in the process of socialization, but the subject of this science, the scientist believes, is the laws and patterns of social management of the group (mass), taking into account the influence of environmental factors on them and in order to prevent and overcome social deviations in them [7].

G.N. Filonov considers social pedagogy even more broadly than the scientists named and sharing their point of view. The object of social pedagogy, according to G.N. Filonov, is also “the process of human development in society based on the totality of his social interactions”, i.e. social development of man [8] . However, the subject of this science is understood by him on a larger scale. In its goal-setting, social pedagogy, in contrast to the traditional one, has acquired in some way an opposite vector of action. It is aimed at economic and socio-cultural transformation, overcoming crisis situations in order to bring society closer to the individual, that is, to create real conditions for the implementation of large-scale social programs of a humanistic orientation. A huge range of tasks, which, according to G.N. Filonov, should be addressed by social pedagogy, goes far beyond pedagogical goals, and, in fact, covers the entire area of social policy of the state, social management of social development . In this understanding, social pedagogy and pedagogy are two independent sciences related to different fields of knowledge, having common boundaries, “adjacent”, as the author puts it, but not hierarchically connected as part and whole. And this point of view also has a lot of supporters. Thus, social pedagogy studies the phenomena of reality associated with the conditions and circumstances of the social development of a person , i.e. its entry into society, familiarization and adaptation to its norms and rules.

Despite the difficult conditions for the formation and development of social pedagogy, scientific disputes and disagreements between scientists, social pedagogy is actively developing today as a relatively independent scientific discipline that has arisen within the framework of pedagogical science. And although the problem of defining its object and subject is still debatable, the variety of approaches to understanding the essence of social pedagogy allows, nevertheless, to single out a number of the most generally recognized provisions that determine its specificity:

– social pedagogy is a branch of pedagogy;

– social pedagogy contributes to social formation, human development, overcoming the problems of his socialization;

– social pedagogy uses the possibilities of pedagogical influence, management of these processes.

An analysis of the above scientific papers, as well as many years of experience in scientific and pedagogical activity, makes it possible to determine the important characteristics of social pedagogy under consideration in this way. Its object is the socialization of a person with psychological, pedagogical, social problems ; subject – principles, patterns, content, forms and methods of socialization of a person with problems.

Questions for self-control

1. What are the origins of social pedagogy in Russian classical pedagogy?

3. Why did social pedagogy fail at the beginning of the 20th century in Russia?

4. What is the relationship between social pedagogy and social work as a field of scientific knowledge?

4. Why is it necessary to single out the object and subject of social pedagogy?

5. Analyze the definitions of the subject and object of social pedagogy from various sources.


1. Belyaev, V.I. Social pedagogy: methodology, theory, history / V.I. Belyaev, E.N. Saltanov. – M. : Soyuz, 2004. – 413 p.

2. Lipsky I.A. Social Pedagogy. Methodological analysis: textbook. allowance. M., 2004. – 320 p.

3. Mardakhaev, L.V. Social Pedagogy. Full course: textbook. – 5th ed., revised. and additional – M. : Yurayt, 2011 – 797 p.

4. Mudrik, A.V. Social pedagogy: a textbook for students. ped. universities; ed. V.A. Slastenin. – 3rd ed., corrected, add. – M.: Academy, 2000. – 200 p.

5. Social pedagogy: a textbook for bachelors / ed. IN AND. Zagvyazinsky, O.A. Selivanova. – M. : Yurayt, 2012. – 405 p.

6. Shtinova, G.N. Social Pedagogy: a textbook guide for students studying in the specialty “social pedagogy” G.N. Shtinova, M.A. Galaguzova, Yu.N. Galaguzova / under the total. ed. M.A. Galaguzova – M. : VLADOS, 2008. – 447 p.

[1] Ushinsky, K.D. Sobr. op. 11 vol., vol. 8. – M., 1950. – p. 38

[2] Novikova, L.I. School and environment. M., 1985; Karakovsky, V.A. Upbringing? Parenting… Parenting! : theory and practice of educational systems / V.A. Karakovsky, L.I. Novikova, N.L. Selivanova .- M., 1996; Sukhomlinsky, V.A. Education of a citizen. – M., 1980, etc.

[3] Mudrik, A.V. Introduction to social pedagogy: textbook. allowance. – Penza, 1994. – 171 p.; Mudrik, A.V. Socialization and education. – M., 1997. – 86 p.

[4] Mudrik, A.V. Social Pedagogy: a textbook for ped students. universities / ed. V.A. Slastenin. – M., 199. – S. 3-4

[5] Zagvyazinsky, V.I. Fundamentals of social pedagogy / V.I. Zagvyazinsky, M.P. Zaitsev [and others] / ed. P.I. piddly. – M., 2002. – p. 7-8

[6] Social pedagogy: textbook for bachelors / ed. IN AND. Zagvyazinsky, O.A. Selivanova. – M. : Yurayt, 2012 – S. 95, 113, 120, etc.

[7] Mardakhaev, L.V. Social Pedagogy: a course of lectures. – M., 2002. – S. 14-15.

[8] The subject and functions of social pedagogy / ed. G.N. Filonov. – Tyumen, 1998. – P. 9

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