Features of literary text translation

Any translation as a whole is a very painstaking and complex process that requires full dedication, concentration and attention from the translator. First of all, it is worth mentioning that translation can be technical and artistic. Literary translation is more difficult in terms of translatability than technical translation.

According to this Komissarov V.N. [Komissarov V.N. 2002] definition, literary translation is a type of translation activity, the main task of which is to generate a speech work on the TL that can have an artistic and aesthetic impact on the PR.

The main difference between a literary text and other types of translation should be recognized as belonging to the translated text of the translated language, which has artistic merit. In other words, literary translation is a type of translation activity, the main task of which is to generate a speech work in the target language that can have an artistic and aesthetic impact on the reader [Komissarov V.N. 1990].

In order to translate literary texts, the translator must not only have knowledge of the language, but also his background knowledge and mastery of the syllable play an important role. It is not enough to simply convey to the readership the meaning and content of the original, as mentioned earlier. You need to be able to do this so that the reader is imbued with the text of this author. Literary translation from any language must be done in such a way that the atmosphere of the plot, the style of the author are fully preserved.

Modern translation activity is associated with original texts of different styles. It is very difficult to convey the feelings, emotions, state and experiences of the author during translation. To do this, it is not enough to have a large vocabulary, although this plays an important role. It is necessary to be able to recognize the expression in the translated text. The translator sometimes deliberately resorts to the use of stylistic devices to give more expressiveness and sensuality to the created text.

The translation of metaphors, metonyms, comparisons, allusions, personifications and various epithets makes even the most professional translator treat the work very thoughtfully. It should also be noted that the problem of translating expression confuses not only beginners, but also professional translators.

For example, N. F. Danovsky [Danovsky, 1925] compares the art of translation with the art of war. He presents the stylistic requirements of the work as strategic issues. Take the word “poet” as an example. In Russian, this concept has many varieties, shades, synonyms: poet – piit – bard – vitiya – button accordion – minstrel – ashug – akyn – poet – versifier – storyteller – epic – buffoon – ditty – rhymer – rhymer – versifier – virsheplet.

But in order for the translator to decide which of the synonyms he should use in this particular text, he needs to turn to the stylistic structure, to the stylistic features of the original of the entire work. Thus, the specialist has a great opportunity to select stylistic and rhetorical figures and tropes. It is the stylistic correspondence that will be the final criterion for the translator, which will help him in the selection of the necessary vocabulary, grammatical forms and structures of sentences.

A professional translator uses the means of rendering some of the stylistic devices used in the original in order to give the text greater brightness and expressiveness. At all times, translators have faced a dilemma: either try to copy the technique of the original, or, if the former is impossible, create their own stylistic means in translation that have a similar emotional artistic effect. This principle is often called the principle of stylistic compensation, about which K. I. Chukovsky [Chukovsky, 1919] said that it is not a metaphor that should be conveyed by a metaphor, a comparison by a comparison, but a smile – a smile, a tear – a tear, etc. But the beginning “masters of the word ┬╗it is necessary to remember that it is not so much the form that is important, but the function of the stylistic device in the text. This means a certain freedom of action: grammatical means of expression can be transmitted lexically and vice versa. By omitting a stylistic phenomenon that is indescribable into Russian, the translator will return the “debt” to the text, creating in another place of the text – where it is most convenient – a different image, but of a similar stylistic orientation.

If a novice translator has no experience of comparing different translations or a translation with the original, then his attitude to some texts will be unambiguous: numerous adverbial phrases, all kinds of morphemes and allusions will cause him great difficulties. As a result, the translator and the translation are taken out of brackets. On the other hand, there is a possibility of the disappearance of the author himself, if the translator is aware of the complexity and importance of his work, is able to reason about it and compare, and has extensive experience. In this case, the text becomes the translator’s creation, replete with his personal thoughts, feelings, experiences. In both cases, it should be remembered that it is the translator who is responsible for the stylistic aspects of the text.

Many people like to read foreign authors. Should we not think that this is the merit of the translators? Consequently, when talking about their love for a particular foreign author, people to a large extent also mean the level of skill of the translator who made this text accessible to the readership.

Thus, we can say that the literary translation of prose or poetry is a real art, creativity. And creativity is incompatible with corrosive literalism. Thus, the translator of literary texts is the same writer who practically re-writes the book, re-creates it for the reader. Without at least a modicum of writing talent, a translator will not be able to create a high-quality, beautiful text of a literary original.

It is known that literary translation is one of the most difficult. It is no match for business translation, where formal phrases must convey the information that is expected. It does not look like simultaneous translation, where quick response and precise formulation of thoughts are important, but the lack of harmony in the sentence is quite excusable.

To manage to make the text interesting, readable, to preserve its style, to convey the author’s idea is the talent and merit of the translator who undertook this work. A real translator will have to master the theory and practice of literary translation all his life.

It is not surprising that literary translation has many features and problems, which we will consider in the next paragraph.

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