Expressive styles of the Russian language

Introduction

The modern Russian language – one of the richest languages in the world – requires serious, thoughtful study.

The high merits of the Russian language are created by its huge vocabulary, wide polysemy of words, richness of synonyms, inexhaustible treasury of word formation, numerous word forms, peculiarities of sounds, stress mobility, clear and harmonious syntax, variety of stylistic resources.

It is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of the Russian national language and the literary Russian language. The national language – the language of the Russian people – covers all spheres of speech activity of people, regardless of education, upbringing, place of residence, profession; it includes dialects, jargons, that is, the Russian national language is heterogeneous: special varieties of the language function in its composition. So, an intelligent, educated person uses words and expressions familiar to him; uneducated and rude – uses a set of other speech means; the speech of an academician or journalist is unlike the speech of a village old woman who speaks the local dialect; a tender mother selects the most affectionate, sincere words for her baby; an irritated kindergarten teacher or an angry father speaks to a mischievous person in a different way … And they all use the same, common Russian language. In contrast, literary language is a narrower concept. The literary language is understood as the language processed by masters of the word, scientists, public figures.

Functional styles of the Russian language

The word “style” goes back to the Greek noun “style” – the so-called stick, which was used to write on a board covered with wax. Over time, style began to be called handwriting, the manner of writing, a set of techniques for using language means. The functional styles of the language got this name because they perform the most important functions, being a means of communication, communicating certain information and influencing the listener or reader. Functional styles are understood as historically established and socially conscious systems of speech means used in a particular area of communication and correlated with a particular area of professional activity. In the modern Russian literary language, book functional styles are distinguished: scientific, journalistic, official business, which appear mainly in written form of speech, and colloquial, which is mainly characterized by oral speech.

Some scholars single out artistic (fictional) as a functional style, that is, the language of fiction. However, this point of view raises fair objections. Writers in their works use the whole variety of linguistic means, so that artistic speech is not a system of homogeneous linguistic phenomena. On the contrary, artistic speech is devoid of any stylistic isolation, its specificity depends on the characteristics of individual author’s styles. Each functional style is a complex system covering all language levels: pronunciation of words, lexical and phraseological composition of speech, morphological means and syntactic constructions. All these linguistic features of functional styles will be described in detail when characterizing each of them.

Expressive styles of the Russian language

Modern language science distinguishes, along with functional styles, expressive styles, which are classified depending on the expression contained in the language elements. For these styles, the impact function is the most important. Expressive styles include solemn (high, rhetorical), official, familiar (reduced), as well as intimately affectionate, playful (ironic), mocking (satirical). These styles are opposed to neutral, that is, devoid of expression. The main means of achieving the desired expressive coloring of speech is evaluative vocabulary. In its composition, three varieties can be distinguished.

1. Words with a bright estimated value. These include the words “characteristics” (pioneer; idler, sycophant, slob, etc.), as well as words containing an assessment of a fact, phenomenon, sign, action (purpose, destiny, marvelous, miraculous, irresponsible, antediluvian; dare, inspire , to mess up).

2. Polysemantic words, usually neutral in the main meaning, but receiving a bright emotional coloring when used metaphorically. So, they say about a person: a rag, a mattress, an oak, an elephant, a bear, a snake, an eagle, a crow; verbs are used in a figurative sense: sing, hiss, saw, gnaw, dig, yawn, blink, etc.

3. Words with subjective assessment suffixes that convey various shades of feeling: positive emotions – son, sun, granny, neat, close and negative – beards, kid, bureaucracy, etc.

The book vocabulary includes lofty words that give solemnity to speech, as well as emotionally expressive words that express both positive and negative assessments of the named concepts. In book styles, vocabulary is ironic (beautifulness, words, quixotic), disapproving (pedantic, mannerisms), contemptuous (masque, corrupt).

Colloquial vocabulary includes words affectionate (daughter, dove), playful (butuz, laughter), as well as words expressing a negative assessment of the concepts called (small fry, zealous, giggle, brag).

In common speech, reduced words are used that are outside the literary vocabulary. Among them there may be words expressing a positive assessment of the concept being called (hard worker, brainy, awesome), and words expressing the speaker’s negative attitude towards the concepts they denote (crazy, flimsy, slick, etc.).

In expressive styles, syntactic means are also widely used to enhance the emotionality of speech. Russian syntax has enormous expressive possibilities. These are different types of one-part and incomplete sentences, and a special word order, and plug-in and introductory constructions, and words that are not grammatically related to the members of the sentence. Among them, appeals stand out especially, they are able to convey a great intensity of passions, and in other cases – to emphasize the official nature of the speech. The emotional tension of speech is also conveyed by connecting constructions, that is, those in which phrases do not fit immediately into one semantic plane, but form an associative chain of attachment. For example: I recognize the role of the individual in history. Especially if it’s the president. Moreover, the President of Russia (Chernomyrdin V. // Izvestia. – 1997. – January 29).

Punctuation allows the author to convey the discontinuity of speech, unexpected pauses, reflecting the emotional excitement of the speaker. Let’s recall the words of Anna Snegina in S. Yesenin’s poem: – Look … It’s already dawn. The dawn is like a fire in the snow… It reminds me of something… But what? … We sat together … We are sixteen years old …

Paths (gr. tropos – turn, turn, image) give special expressiveness to the speech – words used in a figurative sense: metaphors (Earth is a ship. But someone suddenly … She was sent majestically into the thick of storms and a blizzard); comparisons (I was like a horse driven in soap. Spurred by a brave rider); epithets (The golden grove dissuaded Birch, in a cheerful language); metonymy (Let the pencil ineptly whisper to paper about many things); allegories (My white linden has faded. The nightingale dawn has rang out) and other figurative expressions.

The lexical richness of the Russian language, tropes and emotional syntax create inexhaustible possibilities for expressive styles.

Conversational style

We do not speak the way we write, and if we write down colloquial speech, it will look so unusual that we involuntarily want to amend it in accordance with the norms of written speech. However, this should not be done, because conversational style obeys its own norms, and what is not justified in bookish speech is quite appropriate in a casual conversation.

The colloquial style performs the main function of the language – the function of communication, its purpose is the direct transmission of information, mainly orally (with the exception of private letters, notes, diary entries). The linguistic features of the conversational style determine the special conditions for its functioning: informality, ease and expressiveness of speech communication, the absence of a preliminary selection of language means, automatism of speech, everyday content and dialogic form.

The situation has a great influence on the conversational style – the real, objective situation of speech. This allows you to reduce the statement to the maximum, in which individual components may be absent, which, however, does not interfere with the correct perception of colloquial phrases. For example, in a bakery, the phrase does not seem strange to us: Please, with bran, one; at the station at the ticket office: Two to Odintsovo, for children and adults, etc.

In everyday communication, a concrete, associative way of thinking and a direct, expressive nature of expression are realized. Hence the disorder, fragmentation of speech forms and the emotionality of style. Like any style, conversational has its own special scope, a certain theme. Most often, the subject of conversation is the weather, health, news, any interesting events, purchases, prices … It is possible, of course, to discuss the political situation, scientific achievements, news in cultural life, but these topics also obey the rules of conversational style, its syntactic structure, although in such cases the vocabulary of conversations is enriched with book words and terms. For a relaxed conversation, a necessary condition is the lack of officiality, trusting, free relations between the participants in the dialogue or polylogue. The attitude towards natural, unprepared communication determines the attitude of speakers to linguistic means.

In the colloquial style, for which the oral form is the original, the most important role is played by the sound side of speech, and above all, intonation: it is she (in interaction with a peculiar syntax) that creates the impression of colloquialism. Casual speech is distinguished by sharp rises and falls in tone, lengthening, “stretching” of vowels, scanning of syllables, pauses, and changes in the pace of speech. By sound, one can easily distinguish the full (academic, strict) pronunciation style inherent in a lecturer, orator, professional announcer broadcasting on the radio (all of them are far from colloquial style, their texts are other book styles in oral speech), from incomplete, characteristic colloquial speech. It notes a less distinct pronunciation of sounds, their reduction (reduction). Instead of Alexander Alexandrovich, we say San Sanych, instead of Marya Sergeevna – Mary Sergeevna. Less tension of the speech organs leads to changes in the quality of sounds and sometimes even to their complete disappearance (“hello”, not hello, does not say, but “grit”, not now, but “lose”, instead of we will hear “buim”, instead of what – “cho”, etc.). This “simplification” of orthoepic norms is especially noticeable in non-literary forms of colloquial style, in common speech.

Radio and television journalism has special rules for pronunciation and intonation. On the one hand, in improvised, unprepared texts (conversation, interview), it is natural and natural to follow the pronunciation norms of conversational style, but not vernacular options, but neutral ones. At the same time, the high culture of the speaker’s speech requires the accuracy of pronunciation of words, the placement of stresses, and the expressiveness of the intonation pattern of speech.

Colloquial vocabulary is divided into two large groups: 1) commonly used words (day, year, work, sleep, early, you can, good, old); 2) colloquial words (potato, reader, real, nestle). It is also possible the use of colloquial words, professionalisms, dialectisms, jargon, that is, various non-literary elements that reduce the style. All this vocabulary is predominantly everyday content, specific. At the same time, the range of book words, abstract vocabulary, terms and little-known borrowings is very narrow. The activity of expressive-emotional vocabulary (familiar, affectionate, disapproving, ironic) is indicative. Evaluative vocabulary usually has a reduced color here. Characteristic is the use of occasional words (neologisms that we come up with just in case) – opener, goody, nutcrackers (instead of a nutcracker), to promote (accept according to the model).

In a colloquial style, the law of “saving speech means” applies, therefore, instead of names consisting of two or more words, one is used: evening newspaper – evening, condensed milk – condensed milk, utility room – utility room, five-story house – five-story building. In other cases, stable combinations of words are converted and one word is used instead of two: forbidden zone – zone, academic council – council, sick leave – sick leave, maternity leave – decree.

A special place in colloquial vocabulary is occupied by words with the most general or indefinite meaning, which is concretized in the situation: thing, thing, business, history. “Empty” words are close to them, acquiring a certain meaning only in the context (bagpipes, bandura, jalopy). For example: And where will we put this bandura? (about the closet); We know this music!

The conversational style is rich in phraseology. Most Russian phraseological units are precisely colloquial in nature (at hand, unexpectedly, like water off a duck’s back, etc.), colloquial expressions are even more expressive (the law is not written for fools, in the middle of nowhere, etc.). Colloquial and colloquial phraseological units give speech vivid imagery; they differ from bookish and neutral phraseological units not in meaning, but in special expressiveness. Let’s compare: to die – to play in the box, to mislead – to hang noodles on your ears (rub glasses, suck from your finger, take from the ceiling).

The word formation of colloquial speech is characterized by features due to its expressiveness and evaluativeness: here suffixes of subjective assessment are used with the meanings of flattery, disapproval, magnification, etc. as well as suffixes with a functional coloring of conversation, for example, for nouns: suffixes -k- (locker room, overnight stay, candle, stove); -ik (knife, rain); -un (talker); -yaga (hard worker); -yatin (yummy); -sha (feminine nouns for job titles: doctor, conductor, usher, etc.). Non-suffixed formations are used (snoring, dancing), word compositions (couch potato, windbag). You can also indicate the most active cases of word formation of adjectives with an estimated meaning: eye-eye, spectacles-eye, toothy; biting, brawling; thin, healthy, etc., as well as verbs – prefix-suffixal: to-shall-wait, to-speak, to-play-wat, suffixal: der-anut, spe-kul-nut; healthy; prefixal: to lose weight, to drink, to drink, etc. In order to enhance expression, doubling of words is used – adjectives, sometimes with additional prefixation (He is so huge-huge; the water is black-black; it is big-eyed-big-eyed; smart-premature), acting in superlatives.

In the field of morphology, the conversational style is distinguished by a special frequency of verbs, they are used here even more often than nouns. Indicative and especially frequent use of personal and demonstrative pronouns. Unlike other styles, only colloquial allows the use of a pronoun accompanied by a gesture without first mentioning a specific word (I will not take this; This does not suit me).

Of the adjectives in colloquial speech, possessive ones (mother’s work, grandfather’s gun) are used, but short forms are rarely used. Participles and gerunds are not found here at all, and for particles and interjections, colloquial speech is a native element (What can I say! That’s the thing! God forbid about this and remember something! Surprise on you!).

In a colloquial style, preference is given to variant forms of nouns (in the workshop, on vacation, at home; a glass of tea, honey; workshops, a locksmith), numerals (fifty, five hundred), verbs (I will read, but not read, raise, but not raise, do not see, not hear). In a live conversation, truncated forms of verbs are often found, which have the meaning of an instantaneous and unexpected action: grab, jump, jump, knock, etc. For example: And this one grabs his sleeve; And the grasshopper jumped – and into the grass. Colloquial forms of degrees of comparison of adjectives (better, shorter, harder than everyone), adverbs (quickly, more conveniently, most likely) and pronoun endings (the hostess herself, in their house) are used. Even colloquial forms are found here in playful contexts (her boyfriend, evon comrades). In colloquial speech, zero endings have been fixed in the genitive plural of such nouns as kilogram, gram, orange, tomato, etc. (one hundred grams of butter, five kilograms of orange).

Under the influence of the law of economy of speech means, the colloquial style allows the use of material nouns in combination with numerals (two milk, two fermented baked milk – in the meaning of “two portions”). Peculiar forms of address are common here – truncated nouns: mom! dad! Kat! Van!

Colloquial speech is no less original in the distribution of case forms: here the nominative dominates, which in oral replicas replaces book controlled forms. For example: He built a cottage – the station is nearby; I bought a fur coat – gray astrakhan fur; Kasha – look! (conversation in the kitchen); House of shoes – where to go? (in the bus); Turn left, crossing and sporting goods store. Especially consistently, the nominative case replaces all the others when numerals are used in speech: The amount does not exceed three hundred rubles (instead of: three hundred); with one thousand five hundred and three rubles (with one thousand five hundred and three); had three dogs (three dogs).

The syntax of colloquial speech is very peculiar, due to its oral form and vivid expression. Simple sentences dominate here, often incomplete, of the most diverse structure (definitely personal, indefinitely personal, impersonal, and others) and extremely short. The situation fills in the gaps in the speech, which is quite understandable to the speakers: Please show in a line (when buying notebooks); I don’t want a Taganka (when choosing theater tickets); To you from the heart? (in a pharmacy), etc.

In oral speech, we often do not name an object, but describe it: Did you wear a hat here? They like to watch up to sixteen (meaning movies). As a result of the unpreparedness of the speech, connecting constructions appear in it: We must go. In Saint-Petersburg. To the conference. Such fragmentation of the phrase is explained by the fact that the thought develops associatively, the speaker seems to recall the details and completes the statement.

Compound sentences are not typical for colloquial speech, non-union ones are used more often than others: I’ll leave – it will be easier for you; You talk, I listen. Some non-union constructions of the colloquial type are not comparable to any “lower phrases”. For example: Is there a rich choice or have you not been?; And for the next time, please, this lesson and the last one!

The order of words in live speech is also unusual: as a rule, the most important word in the message is put in the first place: Buy me a computer; He paid with the currency; The worst thing of all is that nothing can be done; Palace Square, coming out?; These are the qualities I appreciate. At the same time, parts of a complex sentence (main and subordinate clauses) are sometimes intertwined: I don’t know where to get water anyway; And I know hunger, and what cold is; Are you asking about her and what did I do?

Typical colloquial complex sentences are characterized by weakening the function of the subordinate clause, merging it with the main one, structural reduction: You could talk about whatever you wanted; You will work with whom they will order; Call whoever you want; I live as I please.

In a number of colloquial types of sentences, question-answer constructions can be combined and the structural features of dialogic speech can be reflected, for example: Whom I respect on the course is Ivanova; What I need is you.

The following features of colloquial syntax should also be noted:

· The use of a pronoun that duplicates the subject: Vera, she comes late; The policeman, he noticed it.

· Putting at the beginning of the sentence an important word from the subordinate part: I love bread, so that it is always fresh.

· Use of sentence words: Okay; It’s clear; Can; Yes; Not; From what? Certainly! Still would! Well, yes! Well no! Maybe.

· The use of plug-in constructions that introduce additional, additional information that explains the main message: I thought (I was still young then) that he was joking; And we, as you know, are always glad to have a guest; Kolya – he is generally a kind person – wanted to help …

· Activity of introductory words: maybe, it seems, fortunately, as they say, so to speak, let’s say so, you know.

Widespread lexical repetitions: So-so, just about, barely, far, far, fast-quickly, etc.

In conclusion, I note that the colloquial style, to a greater extent than all other styles, has a bright originality of linguistic features that go beyond the normalized literary language. It can serve as convincing evidence that the stylistic norm is fundamentally different from the literary one. Each of the functional styles has developed its own norms that should be reckoned with. This does not mean that colloquial speech always conflicts with literary language rules. Deviations from the norm can fluctuate depending on the intra-style stratification of the colloquial style. It has varieties of reduced, rude speech, vernacular, which has absorbed the influence of local dialects, etc. But the colloquial speech of intelligent, educated people is quite literary, and at the same time it differs sharply from the bookish one, bound by the strict norms of other functional styles.

book styles

All book styles, in contrast to colloquial, are realized mainly in writing, and this determines their common features. Book styles are characterized by strict observance of the literary norm at all language levels. The vocabulary is characterized by stylistic unity, “mixing of styles” occurs as an exception. It uses commonly used neutral vocabulary, against the background of which special words and terms are used in each specific text. Appeal to colloquial words, vernacular, dialectisms, jargon, expressive vocabulary, especially to words with suffixes diminutive, magnifying and others, is not justified.

The phraseology of book styles is neutral (it matters, plays a role, give a word, pay attention, etc.) and special, which is used in certain styles (scientific – center of gravity, bring to a common denominator; official business – takes place, testify , put into operation; journalistic – live, Black Tuesday). Most book phraseological units are devoid of expressive coloring (from time to time, each other, keep in mind, management, law enforcement agencies).

The word formation of book speech is distinguished by an abundance of book suffixes (essence, proofreading, exclamation, argumentation, gasification, Tolstoyism, Pushkiniana) and prefixes (asymmetric, anti-artistic, international, ultraviolet, extraordinary, explore, erect, subvert). Book speech is characterized by word composition (linguistics, local history, water meter, octahedron, electric pump, frost-resistant, fruitful, seriously injured, highly productive), the use of abbreviations (self-supporting, TASS, “MK”, JSC, research institutes, etc.).

The morphology of book styles is characterized by a clear preference for nouns over verb forms; frequent use of participles and participles; the use of quantitative and ordinal numbers with an almost complete absence of collective ones; selective attitude to pronouns (rejection of personal and most indefinite pronouns and the use of relative, demonstrative).

For book styles, the absence of interjections, onomatopoeic words, and most particles is indicative. There is also a preference for certain grammatical forms. So, if there are variants of inflection, only book ones are consistently used (shops, on vacation, editors, read, seventy-five); it is not desirable to replace numerals with countable nouns (a hundred, not a hundred, twelve, not a dozen, ten, not a dozen), as well as the use of feminine personal nouns (pharmacist, janitor, conductor). Short adjectives are used here (high indicators, methods are not new); book forms of degrees of comparison (a better option, a less justified way, the most effective, the latest); some pleonastic combinations (the closest way, the shortest way); elative forms of superlatives, meaning the highest degree of quality beyond comparison (higher mathematics, the latest achievements, the noblest goal). In constructions with a preposition, only analytical (complex) forms of the comparative degree of adjectives are used (in more difficult cases, with a less successful result, from a more knowledgeable person, etc.); the combinations “in cases more difficult”, “with worse results” have a bright colloquial coloring.

Book syntax is the exact opposite of colloquial and is distinguished by an abundance of complex, mostly complex sentences; incomplete, unfinished phrases do not find use here; from single-component, it is possible to use indefinitely personal (Iron is obtained by reducing it from oxides that are part of iron ores; Milk is called “light food”), definitely personal (Let’s describe the arc; Calculate the root mean square error); some types of impersonal ones (Builders have to build a complex… The preservation of legal relations by one of the parents should be indicated in the decision on adoption, etc.). However, some types of one-part sentences are uncommon in book speech (It freezes; Can’t sleep; I want to sleep; It hurts; Not a soul; No money; It’s time to go home; If you like to ride, love to carry sleds; You can’t order your heart). This is due to their expressiveness or thematic attachment to everyday speech.

In book styles, the correct word order dominates, inversion is rarely used, only in emphatically expressive speech. Exclamatory, interrogative, imperative sentences are also uncommon. Appeals and introductory words are used selectively (dear colleague, gentlemen; it should be noted, as already indicated, undoubtedly, firstly, secondly, finally).

Book styles are open to building complex syntactic constructions, sentences with many subordinate clauses, with different types of coordinating and subordinating connections. A citation is used here, but direct speech is extremely rare (in a journalistic style). Sentence words, one-word replicas (yes, no, of course), dialogic units are not common, book speech, with rare exceptions, is monologue.

scientific style

The scientific style has all the features of the book style and at the same time has a number of characteristic features that deserve to be studied. The specificity of scientific speech is determined to a large extent by extralinguistic (extralinguistic) factors: the main purpose of scientific works is the presentation of data obtained through research, acquaintance of the reader with scientific information. This predetermines the monologic nature of the language of science. The informative function of this style is also reflected in its genre originality: it is represented by scientific literature (monographs, articles, abstracts), as well as educational and reference. The content and purpose of these types of literature is diverse, but they are united by the nature of scientific thinking: its main form is the concept, and the language expression of thinking is judgments, conclusions, following one after another in a strict logical sequence. This determines such features of the scientific style as abstraction, generalization; it is structurally expressed logical presentation.

The abstractness and generalization of speech is manifested primarily in vocabulary: almost every word in a scientific text denotes not a specific, but a general concept or an abstract phenomenon. For example: Birch tolerates frost well (the word birch here indicates the type of tree, and not a single object, a specific tree). It is interesting to compare the use of the word oak in scientific (first example) and artistic speech (second example).

I. Oak growth continues for a very long time, up to 150-200 years or more. Oak develops a very powerful crown. Oak is a rather thermophilic breed. Oak grows in a variety of soil conditions. Oak has a large heat-producing (useful) capacity (M. Tkachenko).

II. On the edge of the road stood an oak tree… It was a huge, two-girth oak tree, with branches broken off, you can see for a long time, and with broken bark, overgrown with old sores. With his huge clumsy asymmetrically spread clumsy hands and fingers, he stood between smiling birches like an old, angry and contemptuous freak (L. Tolstoy).

As you can see, in the scientific text we are not talking about a specific tree, but about an oak in general, about any oak. In a literary text, we have before us an individual, concrete tree with its own unique features. And this is not just a tree, it is personified by the writer who created the artistic image: an old, angry and contemptuous freak between smiling birches. If artistic speech emphasizes the concrete and figurative in the word, then scientific speech emphasizes the general, abstract. However, scientific speech does not only select words with a general and abstract meaning from the language. It also changes the meaning of commonly used words in accordance with its principles. So, for many verbs in scientific speech, the lexical meaning is weakened, its specific meaning is erased and generalized. Such verbs turn into a kind of bundles that can connect any concepts, making out various scientific messages. These include, for example, the verbs serve, reckon, characterize, etc.

As Professor G.Ya. Solganik, the verb to compose, according to the dictionary of S.I. Ozhegov, has seven meanings: 1. Having collected, combined, united something, to form some kind of. whole. Compose a phrase. Compile a collection. 2. Putting, putting next to, connect. Compose two ladders … 3. Create through observations, conclusions (some kind of opinion). Form a definite opinion. Get an idea about something. etc.

However, in scientific speech, the verb to compose is realized in only one, the broadest and most generalized meaning: “to form oneself”.

For example: “Expense is 400 rubles. Labor costs make up a significant proportion of the cost of goods. Attention is an important part of skill.”

This is how a change occurs, the adaptation of the meaning of commonly used words to the tasks of scientific speech.

The vocabulary of the scientific style consists of three main layers: commonly used words (knowledge, work, one, one hundred, study, first, continue, etc.); general scientific (research, experimental, analyze, formulate, remote, unprecedented, etc.) and terms (syntax, molecule, lethal outcome, metastases, etc.). A distinctive feature of terms is their exact definition (definition). Terminological vocabulary is the “core of the scientific style”, it is the most essential feature of the language of science. Terms, denoting strictly scientific concepts, form a terminological system of a particular science, where similar meanings are conveyed by the corresponding terms. For example, the linguistic terms synonym, antonym, homonym, paronym are united by the Greek root “onyma”, denoting a name, denomination; in terms of homophone, homograph, homoform, the element “omo” means the same and emphasizes the systemic nature of these lexical phenomena.

As you can see, the systemic nature of terms receives a linguistic expression. Close to the terms are nomenclature names, which are also common in book styles, and in scientific in particular. As A.V. Barandeev in the manual “Fundamentals of Scientific Terminology”, the terms should not be confused with nomenclature designations, since the terms form terminology – a system of single, homogeneous, interdependent elements, and nomenclature is a collection of heterogeneous, internally unrelated elements within the whole. Nomenclature (from Lat. nomenclatura – a list, a list of names) is a broader concept than terminology, the names of such concepts, the objectivity of which is clearly expressed, should belong to the nomenclature. For example, the nomenclature of geography (more precisely, hydrography) will be composed of proper names – the names of rivers, streams, lakes, swamps, seas, oceans, etc.; nomenclature of geology – names of minerals; nomenclature of botany – names of plants. The nomenclature in economics is a classified list of manufactured products, that is, it is logical to refer to the nomenclature the names of various industrial products reproduced according to the same sample in a given quantity. These are, for example, the names-brands of turning, milling, planing machines; names-models of coats, raincoats, suits; names-brands of cars, TVs (“Volga GAZ-3110”, “Horizon TC-603”). However, it should be remembered that designations such as car, TV are terms. The nomenclature does not form a system, since it denotes a single, specific. It is impossible to build a definition for a nomenclature name, it is replaced by a description.

For the scientific style, the use of words in their exact meanings is indicative (the transfer of names is excluded here), the rejection of emotionally expressive vocabulary (words of affection, diminutives, etc.), from reduced, non-literary words. The semantic accuracy (unambiguity) of word usage, the rejection of figurative expressions, a certain dryness and rigor of presentation are quite typical for the language of science. However, the degree of manifestation of these features may vary depending on the genre, topic, situation of communication, the author’s individuality and other factors. The appearance of expressive elements can be caused by the polemical content of the text; philological studies gravitate towards emotional speech to a greater extent than studies in the exact sciences.

Lexical figurative means in a scientific style are sometimes used, but very purposefully, for example, comparisons help to explain this or that phenomenon (The tide raises waves like mountains; Ice floes stand like high hills). In popular science literature, imagery of speech is a familiar phenomenon (Spruce went under the canopy of a pine tree in a dense, close formation; Pine sheltered the first settlers; The cheerful appearance of undergrowth instills confidence in the success of the experiment).

The grammatical structure of the scientific style is also very peculiar. Let us characterize its morphological features. The speech of scientific works is, as a rule, nominal in nature, which leads to a quantitative predominance of nouns, adjectives before the verb and to the use of various kinds of verbal phrases and words. For example, the use of stable turns of speech with verbal nouns (used as synonymous with verb forms): to influence (influence) on …; be analyzed; become a causative agent, etc. very characteristic of the scientific style.

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