V. N. Belovolov
SERVICE OF THE STATE
(UMANTS IN BATTLES AND CAMPAIGNS).
“ YOU SHOULD LOOK FOR YOUR ENEMY, FIGHT IN YOUR WAR, FOR YOUR CONVINCES. IF THE CONVINCES THAT YOU DEFENDED ARE DEFEATED, LET YOUR FAILTY TRIUMPH THE VICTORY!
FROM THE AUTHOR:
The reader’s attention is given to another local history collection dedicated to the history of the Kuban Cossacks. It includes both previously published materials (with significant additions and corrections) and previously unpublished articles. The author expresses his deep gratitude to VALENTIN MATVEEVICH MISHKIN (Moscow), PAVEL NIKOLAEVICH STRELYANOV (KALABUHOV) (Moscow), ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH AZARENKOV (Moscow), and VOLFGANG VIKTOROVICH AKUNOV (Moscow) for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of this book.
SERVICE OF THE STATE (UMANTS IN BATTLES AND CAMPAIGNS).
The Cossacks of the village of Umanskaya served mainly in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Uman regiments and the 17th Plastun battalion of the Kuban Cossack army. The regiments belonged to the Yeysk department and the Uman regimental district. The combat structure of the regiments was completed from the Cossacks of the following villages: Umanskaya, Kushchevskaya, Shkurinskaya, Kislyakovskaya with the village of Mikhailovsky, Ekaterinovskaya, Pavlovsky with the villages of Sosyksky (later the village of Atamanskaya) and Kurchansky, Nezamaevskaya with the village of Novoelizavetinsky, Kalnibolotskaya with the village of Novorogovsky, Staroleushkovskaya, Irklievskaya with the village of Balkovsky, Berezanskaya, Baturinskaya, the village of Troitskaya on the Srednechelbasskaya steppe, Krylovskaya with the village of Chelbassky, the colonies of Aleksandrovskaya and Mikhelstal (1). The 1st Uman regiment had seniority since 1788, and the regimental holiday was October 5th. It has a rich history. Here is a summary of his service.
1787 (July 3). Odnodvortsy settled along the former Ukrainian cordon line in the rewritten in the Cossack estate were formed
in the Yekaterinoslav Cossack army.
1788 (January 4). The composition of the Yekaterinoslav Cossack army included residents of Chuguev, Uman and serfs of Polish estates to
Prince Potemkin 1796 (June 5). The Yekaterinoslav Cossack army was abolished, and part of it was resettled to the Kuban.
1803 (June 8). From the former Cossacks of the Yekaterinoslav army, the Caucasian Cossack regiment of the Caucasian line was formed. 1845 (February 14). From half of the Caucasian Cossack regiment, the 1st Caucasian regiment of the Caucasian linear army was formed. 1861 (March 4). The regiment was named the 10th regiment of the Kuban army.
In 1861 (March 4), the 6th Black Sea Cavalry Regiment was named the 6th Regiment of the Kuban Army. 1870 (August 1) from the 10th and 6th regiments of the Kuban army, one three-component 4th regiment was formed, called Umansky.
1894 (May 24). The regiment of the first stage was called the 1st Uman regiment of the Kuban Cossack army.
1904 (August 26). The regiment received its final name – the 1st Uman Brigadier Golovaty Regiment of the Kuban Cossack Host. During this period, he was stationed in the city of Kars and was part of the 1st brigade of the 1st Caucasian Cossack division of the 1st Caucasian army corps of the Caucasian military district (2).
1, 2, 3 Uman regiments had the following regalia:
1 UMAN REGIMENT.
1. Regimental banner – St. George’s “For distinction in the conquest of the Western Caucasus in 1864”, granted on June 20, 1865.
2. 12 Georgievsky silver pipes “For the defense of the Zorsky pass on June 23 and 24, 1877”, granted on October 13, 1878.
3. Insignia for hats: 1st fifty of the 1st hundred – “For distinction in 1854”, 2nd fifty of the 1st hundred, 3rd, 4th, 6th hundreds – “For difference during the conquest of the Western Caucasus in 1864”, 2nd and 5th hundreds – “For distinction during the conquest of the Western Caucasus in 1864 and for the heroic defense of Bayazet from June 6 to June 28, 1877 and for distinction in the war with Japan in 1904 and 1905”, granted on July 30, 1911.
4. White braid on the collars of the beshmets and on the sleeves of the Circassians of the lower ranks, granted on December 6, 1908.
2 UMAN REGIMENT.
1. Banner with the inscription “For distinction in the Turkish war in 1829”, granted on April 6, 1830.
3 UMAN REGIMENT.
1. Banner with the inscription “For excellent and diligent service”, granted on June 25, 1851. (3).
A distinctive feature of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Uman regiments, according to the order of the military department N 228 of 1911, was the yellow encryption “1UM”, “2UM” or “3UM” on red shoulder straps at the lower ranks. The color of the encryption for officers and ensigns was the opposite of the device with large letters and numbers, 3/4 inch high and small, 3/8 inch high, printed type, both on shoulder straps and on officer epaulettes, at a height of 1/2 inch from the bottom edge of the shoulder strap. ( 4 ).
The Cossacks of the Uman regiments and the 17th battalion took part in many wars. Especially 1 Umansky. F.A. Shcherbina writes: “On October 14, 1803, by a special order for the Caucasian regiment, General Shepelev established temporary orders in the newly emerged unit. With a five-hundred-strong regiment, 1 centurion, 2 quartermasters and 2 cornets were assigned to each hundred. Each Cossack was required to have one riding and one pack horse, a gun, a pike, a pistol and a saber. The Cossacks were supplied with gunpowder and lead from the arsenal in Georgievsk. Headquarters was appointed in Art. Tiflis. The norms for small mobile parts of the regiment were established for the reserve in the village and for the patrols of 40 Cossacks and for the escort of 20 Cossacks. By decree on January 25, 1804, the military board approved the staff of the Caucasian Cossack regiment in 500 lower ranks with 1 regimental commander, 5 captains, 5 centurions, 5 cornets, 1 quartermaster and 1 clerk. The regimental commander was approved by the foreman of the Volga regiment Uskov. (5). Thus began the history of the Uman regiments.
From the beginning of the 19th century until 1864, the Umans took part in many campaigns against the highlanders. In 1813, the Caucasian regiment was enlarged to 800 checkers and introduced into the 1st brigade on the right flank of the Caucasian line. The Cossacks had to lead a life full of dangers and continuous battles with the highlanders.
Here is one of the episodes of their lives: “In October 1831, Lieutenant Colonel Vasmund (commander of the Caucasian regiment), with a small Cossack team of 9 people, left the village of Ubezhenskaya. As soon as the gates closed behind the Cossacks, Vasmund stumbled upon a huge crowd of highlanders of 1,500 people. The Cossacks turned back, but together with the Cossacks, the highlanders burst into the village gates. Fighting ensued in the streets and courtyards. Lieutenant Colonel Vasmund managed to collect the stanitsa reserve and non-serving Cossacks in one place. Together, the Cossacks attacked the highlanders who were robbing the village and forced them out of the village fence. The Cossacks managed to take away some of the prisoners and up to 100 head of cattle from the highlanders. (6).
On September 4, 1862, a team that included 35 Umanians as part of the 6th foot Kuban battalion fought 3,000 highlanders. During this heroic battle, the Cossacks from Art. Umanskaya: Semyon Andryushchenko, Dmitry Ryasik, Kozma Rodionenko, Trofim Solovyan, Kalenik Kozik, Vasily Filobok, Grigory Tinchuk, Kupriyan Ustimenko. Their names are immortalized on a monument of the end of the 19th century near the village of Neberdzhaevskaya near the Lipki farm (7). Cossacks and today annually commemorate their feat.
During the Russian-Turkish wars, the Umans also distinguished themselves in 1829 and 1877-1878. In 1877, in the Caucasian theater of operations, the regiment was part of a separate Caucasian corps of Adjutant General Loris – Melikov in the Erivan detachment of Lieutenant General A. A. Tergukasov. The detachment after the occupation of Bayazet wanted to divert the attention of Mukhtar Pasha from Kars; advanced to Alashkert and Dram-Dag. The offensive of the Erivan detachment was distinguished by high military skill and heroism of soldiers and Cossacks. On June 18, 1877, the Turkish detachment of Foyuk Pasha surrounded Bayazet, in which there were also two hundred Umans. The heroic defense of the city lasted 23 days (8). Feeling thirsty and hungry, the Russian soldiers bravely held out for almost a month, inflicting severe losses on the enemy. Dying not only from enemy bullets and shells, but also dying of hunger and thirst (at the end of the siege, the rate of daily issuance of water was 1 spoon, breadcrumbs –
an eighth of a pound (1 pound = 409.5 g.), Cossacks and soldiers still waited for the siege to be lifted by Tergukasov’s units that arrived in time. (nine). During the defense of Bayazet, 16 Cossacks fell. All participants in the Bayazet defense were awarded a special silver medal, and the Cossack of the 200th Uman regiment Semyon Molev received the first St. George Cross in the war of 1877-78. 2 degrees N 54 “For excellent courage and courage shown during military operations against the Turks in April, May and June, 1877, 23, 24 June 1877” (10). Our Cossacks distinguished themselves in the defense of the Zorsky Pass.
Two hundred of the 7th Plastun Battalion, led by Yesaul Bashtannik, became famous in the Balkan theater of operations. The battalion was formed on the personal order of the military ataman on November 20, 1876. The Cossacks received rifles and cartridges in the Uman regimental arsenal and gathered on the Church Square of the village. A banner was carried out of the Holy Trinity Church and the detached ataman delivered a speech: “Farewell Cossacks! I hope to see you as glorious warriors as you have always been, returning with victory over your enemies!”
Scouts participated in the capture of Kazanlak (1.07.1877). For valor in the battles in the Balkans received St. George’s crosses: Ivan Shramko (st. Pashkovskaya), Efim Radchenko 1st (st. Krylovskaya), Ivan Varivoda and Isaakiy Motko (st. Derevyankovskaya), Stepan Kulik (st. Kanevskaya), Ivan Rozhen (st. Shcherbinovskaya), Semyon Soroka (st. Kamyshevatskaya), Andrey Cherneikin, Afanasy Kazbanov, Grigory Prilipko, Georgy Gogoberidze. On September 20, 1879, the scouts returned to the Kuban. Arrived at st. Kislyakovskaya of the Rostov-Vladikavkaz railway, and then to Umanskaya. (eleven).
In 1864, the Umans took part in the conquest of the Western Caucasus.
By the end of the XIX century there were significant changes in the life of the Cossacks. On June 24, 1882, a decree was issued on service in the Cossack regions. According to him, 18-year-old Cossacks were enrolled in the preparatory category (they underwent 3 years of primary training). At the age of 21, they were called up for active military service (for 4 years). Then for 4 years they were enrolled in the second queue, and after another 4 years – in the third. After that, the Cossacks were transferred to the militia. The Cossacks of the second stage once every 4 years held a three-week military training camp. In peacetime, the Kuban Cossack army fielded the 1st Caucasian division (it included the 1st Uman regiment stationed in the city of Kars). In the event of a mobilization war, the regiments were tripled, while the “preferential” regiments bore the name of the first. In the regiments of the third stage, people from 30 to 35 years old served with their equipment and uniforms, while the state gave them horses. At the beginning of the 20th century, the village of Umanskaya became the center of the Yeisk department and the headquarters of the department, 2 Zaporizhzhya and 2 Uman regiments, as well as 17 plastun battalions and a regimental arsenal were located in it. The headquarters of the 1st Uman regiment was in the city of Kars.
In 1904 – 1905. Umanians took part in the Russo-Japanese War as part of the consolidated Caucasian division. On May 7, 1905, in a detachment led by Adjutant General P.I. Mishchenko, they took the battle with the Japanese at Qingxiaipao. Then, on the plain, the Caucasian division engaged in a deadly battle with the Japanese infantry near the village of Donsyaz. Cossacks of the 1st Uman Regiment under the command of the military foreman Glinsky stormed the fortified village of Shilaza, on the streets of which 7 brave Kuban died a death. The villagers were imperturbable about the battlefield, allowing themselves jokes like this: “Until the Uman regiment arrives, there will be no subjugation!” This throw of the Mishchenko detachment behind enemy lines was called the “Fakumynsky raid” (12). The future white general A.I. Denikin was at that time a communications officer at the headquarters of General Mishchenko. Here is what he recalls about the Fakumyn raid: “The detachment set out with 45 hundreds and 6 guns. In 4 days we went 170 km deep into the Japanese location, reached the river. Liaohe and the environs of Xingminting … The centurion of Chuprin died saving the wounded. The results of the raid were as follows: 2 transport roads with warehouses, supplies and telegraph lines were destroyed, more than 800 carts with valuable cargo were destroyed and more than 200 horses were taken away, 234 Japanese were captured, 15 officers were taken prisoner and at least 500 disabled. The raid cost us 187 people killed and wounded” (13). All Cossacks received medals for bravery, and many received St. George’s crosses.
2 Uman regiment in 1905-1906 participated in the suppression of the revolution. However, this does not mean at all that the villagers were all opposed to the revolution. Part of the Cossacks of the 17th free plastun battalion went on strike, not wanting to perform police functions. For this, the personnel were scattered to different places, and some of the Cossacks were sentenced to various terms from 3 years to 4 months, and a new composition of the 17th battalion was also assembled. He, in the words of General Dukmasov, “had an indifferent appearance, showed neither a firm desire to serve, nor repentance for previous crimes” (14). In addition to the Scouts, the 2 Yeysk Regiment also went on strike in the Uman training camp. It strengthened studies and did not allow visits from relatives. The indignant Cossack women beat the officer on duty and threw him into the Sosyk River. A couple of days later, the Cossacks were sent to the city of Rostov-on-Don, where they refused to follow the orders of their commander. Having booed him, some of the protesters went home. When General Melenin arrived with a check, they booed him too. For this, many were put on trial (15). In 1910, the 2nd Uman Regiment was again exposed to revolutionary propaganda, but its discontent was hushed up by the world.
From 1914 to 1918 the Umanians took part in World War I. Separate Cossack regiments began to be included in the consolidated Cossack divisions of 4 regiments. Two cavalry regiments in a division made up a brigade. On October 22, 1917, an order was issued to form Cossack corps.
The 1st Uman regiment, as a priority, was sent to the Transcaucasian front as part of the 1st Caucasian division. With the outbreak of war with Turkey, he was placed in the Sarykamysh detachment of the 1st Corps of General Berkhman. There is no information where the 3rd Uman regiment was located. The 2nd Umansky regiment entered the 1st Kuban Cossack preferential division (together with 2nd Zaporozhye, 2nd Tamansky, 2nd Poltava) and was sent to the West. The 17th Plastun Battalion was stationed in Batum.
October 19, 1914 1 Zaporozhye, 1 Uman, 1 Kuban regiments invaded Turkey from Karakurt along the right bank of the Araks River. Already on October 25, the Keprikey positions were taken, but the Turks launched a counteroffensive and had to leave the line. On December 20, 1914, the 1st Uman Regiment, as part of the 1st Caucasian Division of General Baratov, fought successfully near Sarykamysh. Later he moved to the Erzurum direction. In the meantime, the 3rd Consolidated Kuban (Yeisky) Regiment of the Consolidated Kuban Cossack Division, which was not provided for by the state in wartime, was formed in the village of Umanskaya. By the end of July 1915, the 1st Uman Regiment was in a detachment under the leadership of General Rybalchenko and participated in the capture of Dutakh.
In October 1915, the commander of the Caucasian Separate Army, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, ordered the creation of an Expeditionary Force under the leadership of General Baratov to be sent to Persia. It also included the 1st Uman regiment (16). For details about the stay of our Cossacks on the Persian front, see the article “Cossacks of the 1st Uman Regiment on the Persian Front” in this book.
The 2nd Uman Regiment fought on the Southwestern Front as part of the 1st Kuban Division, which formed the reserve of the 4th Cavalry Corps. The regiment participated in the famous Brusilov breakthrough, although it did not quite fulfill its task. May 23 (June 5), 1916 4th Cavalry. the corps with the 46th Army Corps on the right flank of the 8th Army lagged behind the attackers. With the beginning of the February Revolution of 1917, regimental soldiers’ committees appeared. However, the Cossacks of the 2nd Uman Regiment elected the commander of the regiment, Colonel Fedorenko, as the chairman of their committee. 3 Umansky regiment in 1917 was attached to the 12th corps of the Western Front. He never entered his military organization.
During World War I, many Cossacks of the Uman regiments and scouts showed themselves to be heroes. So, Andrey Burko received 3 St. George’s crosses. Vasily Kurochkin (st. Zassovskaya) also 3 crosses, Mikhail Vasilenko and Vasily Pavlogradsky – on the St. George Cross and a medal. In total, the natives of the village of Umanskaya received 19 St. George’s crosses and 20 medals. From the village of Kanevskaya, the cadet Ilya Kutovoy, the cadet Fyodor Bugay (both from the 1st Uman regiment), Fyodor Khristyuk (17th plastun battalion) received crosses. (fifteen).
A few words about the commanders of the Uman regiments. Today it is difficult to list all the commanders – the following names are known so far: 1803 – Yesaul Grechishkin; 1804 – military foreman Uskov; 1819 – major Dadymov; 1831 Lieutenant Colonel Wasmund; 1874 – lieutenant colonel Perepelovsky; 70 – 80 years. XIX century – Colonel Stoyanovskiy; 1900 – 1904 – Colonel Fisenko; 1904-1905 – military foreman Glinsky; 1906-1907 – Colonel Akulov (at that time a young officer and future white general A.G. Shkuro arrived in the regiment for service); 1915 – Colonel Leshchenko; 1916-1.1.1917 – Colonel Yakovlev N.N. ; on 06/20/1917 – Borodin A.I.; 1918 – military foreman Zharkov – these are the commanders of the 1st Uman regiment. 1900 – 1910 – military foreman Kokunko P.I.; 01/01/1917 – Colonel Fedorenko; 1917 – Colonel Fisenko; 06/18/1917 – Colonel Martynov – these are the commanders of the 2nd Uman regiment. 1915 – Colonel Udovenko K.Ya. – Commander of the 3rd Uman Regiment.
With the beginning of the October Revolution of 1917, the Russian army ceased to exist, with the exception of the Persian Front, where the corps of General Baratov operated until June 1918. A significant number of former soldiers and officers of the Russian Imperial Army took part in the flaring Civil War. So it happened with the Umans: some took the side of the Reds, others – the Whites.
At the end of 1917, the 1st Uman revolutionary detachment was formed, which then grew into the 1st Uman regiment, which became part of the Steel Division of D.P. Zhloba and traveled from the Kuban to the Volga. In the battles near Tsaritsyn, the regiment showed itself well, although it suffered heavy losses. The first commander of the regiment was L.M. Chikov. Our villagers distinguished themselves in the regiment: A.F. Shirman, L.I. Kunitsa, F.A. Chikov, P.G. Yachushko, M.G. Yachushko, K. Dubinin, Ya. P. Litvinov, V. P. Emelyanchenko, I. F. Mikhailov, F. Ya. Garagan, E. Ya. Lebedev, A. G. Ivanenko, V. S. Andryushchenko, P. G. Fomenko, A. F. Skripin, P.E. Voloshin, G.D. Bondarenko, V.P. Portyankin, T.P. Semergei, M.S. Kozlenko, G.P. Pochema and others (17). The Cossack element in this regiment was not predominant. In addition, it is known that at the beginning of 1918 the revolutionary committee of the village of Kanevskaya sent a team of 23 people led by T.S. Belonogov to the emerging 1st Uman revolutionary detachment. The entire team died with part of the detachment on June 13, 1918, when they were transferred by landing force from Yeysk near Taganrog on the ships of the Azov Flotilla. The Germans, who occupied Taganrog, destroyed the entire landing force (18).
There were 1, 2, 3 Uman regiments and the whites were part of the Caucasian Army of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia. Baron P.N. Wrangel writes: “The 1st Cavalry Division consisted of the Kornilov Cavalry Regiment, staffed by Cossacks from different departments, the 1st Uman Regiment (commander – Colonel Zharkov), and the 1st Zaporizhzhya Cossacks from the Yeysk Division, 1 Linear from the Cossacks-Labins and 2 Circassians. The division included 2 and 1 horse-mountain and 3 horse batteries from officers. Technical means in the division were almost absent. The supply of firearms was carried out exclusively at the expense of the enemy. During the reign of the Bolsheviks, most of the cartridges and weapons in the villages were hidden by the Cossacks, and when a particular village was liberated, the Cossacks appeared in most cases armed and with a certain supply of cartridges” (19).
During the Civil War, many Umans served in the Kornilov cavalry regiment, which consisted mainly of people from the Yeisk department. It is known that on April 21, 1919, a hundred replenishment of 21-year-old youth from the Uman, Khopersky, Labinsk regimental districts arrived in the regiment.
The combat path of the Umantsy in the ranks of the White Army can be traced chronologically according to the memoirs of P.N. Wrangel and F.I. Eliseev.
1 UMAN REGIMENT (1918)
May 6. – The regiment in a column with 1 Ekaterinodar, 1 Linear, 1 Zaporozhye, 2 Caucasian attacks the Reds at the Pishvanov winter hut. Battles near Velikoknyazheskaya.
June. – The regiment is part of the 1st Cavalry Division of General Erdeli.
August. – Three weeks of heavy fighting at Armavir.
18 – 19 September. – Fights in the Mikhailovskaya area, Art. Kurgannaya, near the river Chamlyk.
October 1st. – 1 Uman and 1 Zaporizhia regiments under the command of Colonel Toporkov set out through the station. Andrey – Dmitrievskaya on the Sinyukhinsky farms and st. Urupskaya.
2 October. – Regiment in the forefront. The Umanians captured 15 Cossacks mobilized into the Red Army from Art. Konstantinovskaya. They were shot by order of General Wrangel.
October 8th. – Fights in the area of Art. Urupskaya.
October 15th. – The Red Army broke through the front at the junction of the 1st Cavalry and Infantry Divisions of General Kazanovich. 1 Umansky and 1 Zaporozhye threw the Reds on the right bank of the river. Urup near the farms of Abdurakhmanov and Stasikov.
17 – 19 October. – In the village of Urupskaya.
The 20th of October. – Fighting north of Urupskaya.
22 of October. – Umantsy and Zaporozhye, on the orders of General Kazanovich, are pursuing a column of Reds near Armavir. Ovechka station was captured. The Cossacks acted in isolation from their division against the Taman Red Army.
29th of October. – Battles at Armavir.
Nov. 1. – Kornilov horse, 1 Uman, 1 Zaporozhye regiments captured the city of Stavropol.
November 6th. – Fighting in the Mikhailovka area. The convoy was captured and 1000 Reds were captured.
November 7th. – Fighting at Dubovka.
10th of November. – The village of Konstantinovskoye was taken.
11th of November. – The village of Petrovskoye was taken.
the 13th of November. – Retreat to p. Konstantinovsky with heavy fighting.
November 14th. – Again fighting for Konstantinovskoe.
November 22. – Near the village of Spitsevka, 2000 Reds, 40 machine guns, 7 guns were captured. However, the Cossacks were forced to retreat.
November 24th. – Heavy fighting near the river. Calaus.
December 17th. – The regiment fought off the offensive of the Reds near the settlement of Rovenka. The Reds lost 800 soldiers killed and wounded.
December 20. – Regiment at the village. Petrovskoe.
21 December. – Offensive in the area of Shishkino – Medvedskoye. Fighting near the village of Alexandria. By order of A.I. Denikin 1 Army Corps Kazanovich, 1 Cavalry Corps and a detachment of General Stankevich were united into a separate group under the command of P.N. Wrangel.
the 6th of May. – Taken Art. Velikoknyazheskaya and farms of Bezuglovy. The 10th Army of the Red Army was defeated. 15,000 soldiers, 55 guns, 150 machine guns were taken prisoner.
June 1st. – Battles near Tsaritsyn.
June 18th. – The Gumrak and Tsaritsyn railway stations were taken.
5’th of July. – 1 Cavalry Division near the village of Nikolaevka went to the rear of the 12th Soviet regiment, captured. Then she was taken prisoner in Rybinsk, the entire headquarters of the 2nd Soviet Rifle Brigade. As a result of the battles, 300 out of 500 sabers remained in the 1st Uman regiment.
July 20. – The Red Army launched a counteroffensive. However, on the Tsaritsyno Front, the Umans fought hard until December 1919.
August 1. – Heavy fighting near Tsaritsyn. A little more than 100 checkers remained in the 1st Uman regiment.
January 3rd – Umantsy across the Sal River under the leadership of General Pokrovsky. Desertion from the regiment began.
January 30. – 1 Cavalry Army S.M. Budyonny broke through the center of the Kuban army and went to the rear with. Trading, threatening the white troops near Tikhoretsk.
March 4th. – Umantsy taken away for the river. Kuban and r. Labu. Mass retreat of the White Army. These days, F.I. was retreating through the village of Umanskaya with his regiment. Eliseev. His description is of interest: “The most difficult way was to Umanskaya. There was little snow here, and so the carts sank into the sticky mud. All sleds are abandoned on the road. We entered the station in the evening. She surprised us with city views, buildings in the center. Elegant and roomy stanitsa board, schools. As a rarity in the Kuban, the main paved street. ”(21).
10th of March. – 1 Uman Cossack Regiment, consisting of 250 sabers and 5 officers to the music, with banners, arrived in the village of Krylovskaya, where he laid down his arms. However, the Bolsheviks were in no hurry to disband the surrendered Cossacks, since the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 was on the threshold and significant military forces were required to conduct a future campaign.
2 UMAN REGIMENT.
Little is known about him during the Civil War.
April 28th. – The regiment, together with the 2nd Zaporozhye regiment, was attached to the 1st Kuban Corps to the brigade of General Fostikov.
May 5 – The regiment crosses the river with a fight. Manych and occupies the winter quarters of Bezuglov.
September. – 2 Uman regiment as part of the 1 Kuban Cossack division of General Pokrovsky, together with 2 Zaporozhye, 2 Yekaterinodar, 2 Linear regiments.
October. – The regiment cut off the red route of withdrawal from the South from the Stavropol-Petrovskoye railway line.
January 10th. – Fights near Mozdok, Kalinovka, then the capture of Grozny and Kizlyar.
15 April. – Relocation to the Manych front.
March. – 2 Uman regiment laid down their arms.
3 UMAN REGIMENT.
The only thing known to the regiment is that the Umanians were transferred on foot near Maykop in May 1919, then by train to the Tuapse region for operations against the Greens. The first hundred were stationed at the Goitskh pass, the rest – at the Krivyanka station. By the summer of 1919, the 3rd Uman and 3rd Zaporozhye regiments formed the 2nd Kuban Separate Cossack Brigade under the leadership of F.P. Filimonov. The brigade did not participate in combat operations at the front.
In April 1920, the Kuban army capitulated near Adler and Sochi. Part of the Umantsy went to the Crimea to Wrangel, where they formed into a regiment, which, together with the Kornilov cavalry regiment, was destined to become a participant in the last cavalry attack against the Red Army in the Civil War in southern Russia near Perekop.
By the end of April 1920, a cavalry division was formed by the Reds as part of the 1st and 2nd Uman regiments, as well as the 1st and 2nd Zaporozhye and Zakuban regiments. The division was placed in Art. Umanskaya. The Cossacks soon revolted under the slogan: “Down with the war, down with the commune!” The rebellion was able to be extinguished peacefully, and the Cossacks were sent to war with Poland. Further, the fate of the Umantsy developed in different ways. Some surrendered to the Poles, some returned home to the village, and some migrated with the White Army.
In exile, their paths also diverged: some were hired in the French Foreign Legion, others, such as, for example, the Uman Yesaul S.V. Panasenko, participated in a group of horsemen organized by A.G. Shkuro and performing at the circus in Montrouge, a suburb of Paris. Others went to work in factories. For example, it is known that the Cossack Art. Vasily Umansky Lyulin died on March 15, 1927 from severe burns received at a factory in the French city of Rhomba. An old emigrant from France, Colonel Galushkin, Cossack st. Umanskaya, in 1945 he shot himself in Lienz, so as not to fall into the hands of the NKVD. And the banner of the 1st Uman regiment was kept in the 1930s. in Yugoslavia with veterans, his further fate is unknown.
NOTE: All dates are in old style.
1. Felitsyn E.D., Shcherbina F.A. Kuban Cossack army. 1696-1888. – Voronezh, – 1888.- p. 473, 474.
2. Galushko Yu. Cossack troops of Russia. – M., Russian world, 1993. – p. 90-91.
3. Decree. op. – ss. 91, 106.
4. Kazin V.Kh., Shenk V.K. Cossack troops. Reference book of the Imperial main apartment. – St. Petersburg, 1912. – ss. 464-465.
5. Shcherbina F.A. History of the Kuban Cossack army. – v. 2. – Ekaterinodar, 1913. – ss. 193-194.
6. Shcherbina F.A. Decree. op. – ss. 396-397.
7. Sviridova G.M. Pages of history \ Steppe dawns. – N 67. – 06/3/1999.
8. Strokov A.A. History of military art. – v. 4. – M., 1994. – ss.661-666.
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10. Decree. op. – with. 300.
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COSSACKS OF THE 1st UMAN REGIMENT ON THE PERSIAN FRONT (1915-1918)
The Umanians met the beginning of World War I in the Caucasian theater of operations against the Turkish troops. Failures of the Russian army on the Western Front
in 1914-1915 influenced the situation in Transcaucasia. A large landing operation on the Bosphorus failed and the Turks became significantly more active.
By October 1915, there was a serious threat that Iran would enter the war on the
rone of Turkey and Germany, despite the fact that among the Persian elite there were more
Lots of pro-Russian people. Natives served in the Russian army
from the noble aristocratic families of Iran, including representatives of the ruling
current shah dynasty. Under the guidance of Cossack instructors in 1882 from
Persians, His Majesty Shah’s Cossack brigade was formed – the most combat-
capable unit of the Iranian army. In addition, August 31, 1907 was
Russian-English agreement on the Middle East was signed, according to which
Iran was divided into spheres of influence: Northern Iran – Russia, Southern Iran –
Great Britain. Under the agreement of 1907, income control was established
Iranian government in order to receive timely payments from it
on loans to the Russian Accounting and Loan Bank and the English Shahinshah
bank. Thus, the Russian Empire had its strategic
interests and the falling of this country under the influence of Turkey during the war led
would have catastrophic consequences.
In October 1915, the Expeditionary Force was created under the leadership of the general
ral N.N.Baratov (8000 people), who received the following tasks:
1. The entry of troops into Persia.
2. Liquidation of the Turkish-German troops and agents.
3. Covering the left flank of the Caucasian army, the threat to which existed
in the event of a Turkish offensive.
The Expeditionary Corps became part of the Caucasian Army and from April 23, 1916 became part of the army.
became known as the “Caucasian Cavalry Corps”, from June 26, 1916 –
“1 Caucasian Cavalry Corps”, from March 1917 – “Separate Corps-
catfish”. It consisted of the following divisions:
1. 1st Caucasian Cossack division of Major General Raddatz (it included the 1st
Uman Brigadier Golovaty Regiment). N.N. Baratov personally commanded this di-
vision on the Turkish front.
2. Caucasian Cavalry Division of Lieutenant General Prince Beloselsky-
3. Consolidated Kuban Cossack division of Major General Rafalovich (in its composition)
ve was the 3rd Consolidated Kuban (Yeisk) Regiment, in which there were many Umanians).
On November 3, 1915, the 1st Uman regiment arrived in the city of Rasht. The day before, Russian
The Russian avant-garde advanced to Keredzha, not far from Tehran. Arrived there
3rd Consolidated Kuban Regiment, led by Colonel Adlerberg. By December 1
the Umans, as part of the detachment of Colonel Fisenko, entered the city of Hamadan. At the same time
I was fighting with the Turks, Kurds, Germans and Iranian gendarmes near Rabat-
Karim and Kum. On January 22, 1916, the Umanians fought a hard battle with the Turks in the district
one Kengaver, where the division of the 1st Uman regiment successfully repulsed the attack against
nickname (2 foot and 7 horse hundreds with 6 machine guns and 1 gun). Total vs Corpu-
Pusa General Baratov was concentrated up to 25,000 soldiers. In general, for 2.5-3
months of fighting, the Expeditionary Corps occupied a territory 800 miles deep.
By the spring of 1916, a rather difficult situation had developed for the British allies.
novelty: in Mesopotamia, the grouping of General Ch. Towns was blocked
genda. In this regard, Baratov’s corps received the task of advancing towards the city of Khan
throw to capture the strategic route to Baghdad. This led to a big
separation (about 1000 km.) from the main Russian base in Anzeli.
The commander of the 1st hundred of the 1st Uman regiment V.D. Gamaly in April 1916 semi-
issued order N515: set out with a hundred on Zeylan, Karkoy, Karozan, Zorbatia for
liaising with the British Army in Mesopotamia and gathering intelligence,
then return to Kermanshah. April 27, a hundred consisting of 4 chief officers, 107
Cossacks and 125 horses set out on a campaign. May 1 Cossacks, walking with great difficulty
without water through the land of the Lurs, descended from the Chakhardaol pass. Next
day they approached Emir-Abad and met 150 German mercenaries. May 3 hundred-
I was already with Zorbatia. Gamaly and interpreter Akhmet-Khan went to la-
the hero of the leader of the Lurs, Vali Pushti-Kukh. Vali denied the Russians passage on his own
the land and Gamalius had to work hard to convince him to help his father.
row. The Cossacks staged a jigitovka, bringing the Lurs into wild delight. May 5 hundred
went through the desert to Ali-Gharbi, and on the 6th, finally, there was a warm
meeting with the British. May 12, 1916 centurion Gamaly, cornet Perekotiy and
translator Ahmed Khan arrived by water in Basra at the headquarters of the English general
Leka. Lek awarded them military crosses. 5 more crosses later received order-
nicknames Gervasy Ovdienko, Pavel Klisch, Vasily Kryshtopa, orderly Daniel
Zaporozhets, Cossack Gordey Rodent.
On May 22, Gamaly with a hundred reconnoitred the area near Zorbatia, and then through the desert
Nu went back. The next day, the detachment caught up with the Lurs, explaining that the Kazakh
an ambush awaits. Indeed, after 5 days, the scouts learned that they were ambushed
on the Chakhardaol pass, two hundred of the 1st Uman regiment fell. In Osman-
Abad local khans helped the Cossacks to reach Karozan. Already on June 1, a hundred
arrived at the location of the Russian troops. For this glorious campaign, the Grand Duke
Nikolai Nikolayevich presented V.D. Gamaly with the Order of St. George, 4th class, officers
(among them the centurion Perekotiy, cornet Perekotiy, warrant officers Denisenko and
Lugovsky) received the Order of St. Vladimir with swords and a bow, and ordinary Kazakhs
ki hundreds of polls received St. George’s crosses.
At the end of May 1916, the corps of General Baratov inflicted a number of sensitive
ny defeats in the Khanekin area. By July, he was fighting on the front of a long
with a length of 200 versts along the line: Kergabad – Senne – Assad – Abad heights – Burud –
fat. Six months later, in February 1917, the corps launched a counterattack on
Hamadan, Kurdistan, Dovletabad directions. Russian troops
attacked from the northeast, at the same time the British troops – from the south (in
Mesopotamia. Umantsy, together with their 1st Caucasian Cossack division,
moved 400 miles deep in the Baghdad direction.
In the 1st Caucasian Cavalry Corps, special party
Zan (sabotage) detachments. Partisan Hundred of the 1st Uman Regiment under
leadership of the centurion Deinega distinguished herself in battle on September 10, 1916 in Hamadan-
gorge. By the spring of 1917, another partisan detachment was formed under
the leadership of L. Bicherakhov, which included the St. George Hundred of the 1st Uman
1st regiment of the commander V.D.Gamalia and the Partisan Hundred of the 3rd Consolidated Kuban
Cossack division of V.G. Voskresensky (de Basil).
After the February Revolution of 1917, the 1st Uman Regiment, together with its division
Zia was considered among the most combat-ready units, as well as the Yeysk regiment.
Meanwhile, under the influence of revolutionary events, the Russian army rapidly
was falling apart. When the Civil War was in full swing in Russia, the Persian
the front continued to hold back the Turks. June 10, 1918 Corps of General Baratov
was disbanded and the Cossacks left for their homeland. Kuban at that time was in the
sti reds who detained officers and cavaliers of St. George on the iron