From the age of 14, criminal liability for intentional bodily harm, theft, malicious hooliganism and some other crimes begins; from the age of 16, the responsibility relies in full. The main duty of the inspectorates for juvenile affairs and the social worker is to prevent neglect and delinquency of adolescents, to provide them with the necessary educational influence. They deal with minors released from places of deprivation of liberty, convicted with a suspended sentence, systematically leaving the family at the age of 16, evading studies, using alcohol and drugs. A juvenile inspector is a lawyer and a teacher at the same time. A social worker is primarily a teacher and mentor. They must know each of their wards, control his behavior, do everything possible to prevent offenses. The inspector has the right to visit juvenile offenders at their place of residence, to conduct conversations with them and their parents; call them to the police to clarify the circumstances related to the offense; to apply an official warning about the inadmissibility of antisocial behavior both to the minors themselves and to their parents who do not fulfill the duties of raising children and their behavior contributes to the commission of offenses by minors. The inspector works, as a rule, in close contact with the commission on juvenile affairs, for consideration of which cases of offenses are submitted.
One of the most urgent and socially significant tasks facing our society today is to find ways to reduce the growth of crimes among young people and increase the effectiveness of their prevention. The need to solve this problem as soon as possible is due not only to the fact that a rather complicated criminal situation continues to persist in the country, but, above all, to the fact that more and more minors are drawn into the sphere of organized crime, dangerous crimes are committed by criminal groups created by teenagers, and the number their steadily growing. Crime is getting younger and takes on a steady recurrence character. And such a criminalization of the youth environment deprives society of the prospects for establishing social balance and well-being in the near future.
The main role in solving this most acute problem is assigned to social pedagogy and social work, although, of course, it can only be solved in a comprehensive manner, with the involvement of all the forces of society. However, the integration of the efforts of society can be carried out only within the framework of a scientifically based, provided with effective technologies, socio-pedagogical system of re-education of the personality of a minor through consistent pedagogical and educational and preventive influences that ensure the formation of a personality with firm and correct life attitudes.
The socio-pedagogical concept of prevention makes it possible to successfully overcome the one-sided approach prevailing for many years, which considered the personality only as a product of “educational influence”, and therefore did not take into account other objective factors, for example, potential conditions that affect the personality.
Many costs, omissions in education are the result of the fact that there is no proper system in the field of individual work, the organization of the educational and preventive process with specific offenders.
Individual prevention of offenses includes corrective and corrective influence as one of the elements, but is not limited to it. This is a purposeful process of managing the re-education of the individual, which consists in the fact that the offenders, under the influence of educators, the public and collectives, develop the right views and beliefs, master the skills and habits of socially positive behavior, develop their feelings and will, thus change the interests , aspirations and inclinations. On the other hand, individual prevention is aimed at eliminating adverse environmental influences on a particular personality. To effectively manage this process, it is necessary to choose preventive methods that provide:
development of moral consciousness
Formation of skills and habits of positive behavior,
education of strong-willed efforts to resist antisocial influences,
social improvement of the microenvironment.
It must be borne in mind that the re-education of the personality of a juvenile delinquent, the development of positive skills and habits, strong-willed efforts are associated with various, special areas of psychological activity, rely on certain physiological factors, the specificity of which cannot be ignored when choosing prevention methods.
In the structure of individual crime prevention, the following main tasks can be distinguished:
timely identification of persons with socially deviant behavior and those prone to committing offenses, as well as parents and other persons who negatively influence them;
study of the age and psychological characteristics of the personality of juvenile delinquents in order to prevent a conflict between a young person and society, to eliminate the causes and conditions contributing to it;
· development of a program of individual educational and preventive impact on the offender and his environment, taking into account the available forms and methods, the effectiveness of their application;
organization of interaction and continuity in the educational and preventive work of all subjects of socio-pedagogical activity, daily and continuous monitoring of the lifestyle of adolescents with deviant behavior, responding to “breakdowns” and encouraging positive changes.
Re-education is a complex process that requires enormous efforts, stress, the use of a diverse arsenal of preventive and moral influence, since one has to deal with the most neglected in the pedagogical, educational respect people who could not be given positive behavioral skills by either the family, or the school, or the labor collective . Working with them requires a special ability to highlight the potential of the individual and influence the person in the right direction, help him correct and re-educate. Success here largely depends on how the teenager himself seeks to eliminate negative aspects in his behavior, social lifestyle.
If, in form and purpose, individual prevention of offenses consists in identifying persons prone to committing antisocial manifestations and taking measures of educational influence in relation to them, then in essence it is an organized process of re-education of individuals, carried out for highly specialized purposes – to prevent the commission of repeated offenses.
The specifics of individual prevention, as well as the peculiarity of the objects of study and educational influence themselves, require consideration of:
psychological processes (features of imagination, attention, thinking, memory, perception, etc.);
· the level of ideological and moral development of a teenager-offender, moral motives inherent in this child (a sense of shame in front of relatives, friends, fear of punishment, condemnation of the team, etc.);
Characteristic features of the personality of the offender, the level of his consciousness, the motives driving him, as well as his behavior before and after the offense;
the circumstances under which the teenager had antisocial intentions, the determination to commit an offense or an immoral offense matured and was realized;
Negative factors of a particular environment (nearest
environment at school, in the family, on the street) that cause these motives for illegal behavior.
Often, the negative impact on a young person of the microenvironment, life’s troubles continues for a long time, changes his personality, and contributes to becoming on an antisocial path. Timely intervention of a social educator in this process can prevent a negative impact on a boy or girl, change their views, beliefs, direct energy in a socially useful direction.
When the subjective ideas, goals and intentions of the child who has committed an offense become known, the motives, beliefs, and values of the individual are understood and evaluated, one can proceed to a comprehensive development of a program of educational and preventive impact on the offender.
Preventive impact becomes optimal if it takes into account the characteristics and trends in the development of the individual and coincides with her inner motivations. The process of external preventive influence, then, as it were, merges with the process of self-education, self-development. Naturally, the results of such a coincidence are maximum. Very often this effect, in the prevention of offenses, depends not so much on the strength of the external influence, but on the ability to bring the external influence in line with the characteristics of the individual.
When developing an individual preventive impact program, the main goal is to change the personality of a minor in the direction of generally accepted norms, rules and other social values. Moreover, this goal is not realized immediately, but after months or years. Based on the goal, a range of tasks is determined. The main ones are: restoration and development of normal positive interests of a minor; normal communication; sense of social responsibility and discipline.
To achieve the goals of re-education of a minor, it is important to draw up a psychological, social, moral “portrait” of this child in order to identify, first of all, positive aspects in the lifestyle of this teenager, their stability, as well as his needs, interests, inclinations. The past experience of the child, specific criminogenic environmental factors are studied, his readiness to perceive the educational impact exerted on him and his attitude to socially useful values are assessed. Attention is drawn to the possibilities of the family in the re-education and correction of the behavior of a minor. At the same time, if parents are unable to control the aspirations of their child and allow the development of excessive claims in him, the appearance of elements of disregard for the norms of public life. Then the social educator needs to assess the role of the family in the process of re-education: either include the family in the process of correcting the adolescent’s behavior, or, if we are talking about persistent harmful influences within the family, removing the teenager from this environment.
The main criterion for the professionalism and performance of a social worker is that “the person or family whom he helps to get out of a difficult life situation can continue to do without his help and the help of officials of the social protection system, so that the “client” acquires (or restores , normalized) the ability to act independently in a certain social situation or a specific social context, and secondly, in social individualized adequate support for those persons who, due to limited physical and mental capabilities, are not able to independently function socially and take care of themselves.
To date, juvenile delinquency has been and remains one of the most significant social and legal problems of Russian society. Despite the efforts made by the state to prevent the criminal behavior of children and adolescents, significant progress in this area has not been achieved. Criminal statistics of recent years record an increase in the number of serious and especially serious crimes of minors, notes an increase in the share of violent crimes in the structure of juvenile crime, reveals a tendency towards an increase in the degree of organization of juvenile criminal groups, indicates certain changes in the motivation of criminal behavior of adolescents.
At the same time, the main thing that puts juvenile delinquency in a number of urgent problems is the nature of its social consequences: crime morally disfigures and exposes youth to social degradation, which is an active subject of social reproduction, an important reserve and guarantor of national security, economic well-being and spiritual development of Russia.
In conclusion, it is necessary to draw several conclusions on the work performed.
The problem of alcoholism is currently a branched complex of social pathologies that affect the normal functioning of society. The problem is as old as the world, but more relevant than ever.
Along with medical and social workers, the state as a whole, civil society and various public institutions are solving this problem. One of the ways to overcome this plague is effective prevention and promotion of a healthy lifestyle, illustrative examples of the social and medical consequences of alcohol consumption also effectively affect the minds of young people.
Today, the role of the state is growing in solving the problems of alcoholism, especially child and adolescent alcoholism, which is now gaining momentum, as one of the main threats to the entire nation. The problem of female drunkenness, which undoubtedly affects the demographic situation in the country, domestic drunkenness and alcohol abuse in families and at work, continues to remain unresolved.
The problem of alcoholism for our country is super-relevant. As you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to treat, therefore, in addition to treating the disease, which is currently ineffective, it is required to eradicate the causes of this problem. A relatively simple way out of this situation would be a radical increase in the price of alcoholic beverages, which would reduce their availability. Important social measures today are bans on drinking alcohol, high preventive and propaganda work, etc.
Today the problem of alcoholism is unresolved both in the world and in Russia. Now in Russia there are more than 2 million citizens suffering from alcoholism, which brings this problem from the number of private, local to the area of state problems. The problem of alcoholism has long turned into a large-scale medical and social threat to the Russian nation.
Thus, summing up, we can say that the purpose of this work was achieved: the problem of youth alcoholism was studied and the most adequate ways of solving it were identified.
In addition, all the tasks set were solved: the scientific literature was analyzed on the subject of social problems of today’s youth and the definition of youth as a special social group. The features and causes of alcoholism in the youth environment were considered.
1. Azarov Yu. Homelessness and juvenile delinquency// Education of schoolchildren. – 2002.-№7. – S. 60-63.
2. Bozhovich L.I. Personality and its formation in childhood. – M.: Vlados, 1998.
3. Veko A. V. Alcoholism: getting rid of addiction, treatment, prevention. Modern writer. Minsk, 1999
4. Goncharova T. Dysfunctional families and work with them. // Public education. – 2002. -№6.- P.161-169.
5. Georgievskaya Yu.V. Youth as an object of social impact: some factors that form deviant behavior in the youth environment // Humanitarian research. – 2005. – No. 4. – S. 42-51.
6. Gurova R.G. Modern Youth: Social Values and Moral Orientations // Pedagogy. – 2000. – No. 10. – S. 32-38.
7. Danilova E. A. Implementation of the state youth policy in the most important spheres of life // Sociology of Education. – 2008. – No. 7. – S. 71-77.
8. Dubin B. Up the stairs leading nowhere: life guidelines for modern Russian youth // Social and humanitarian knowledge. – 2003. – No. 1. – S. 16-21.
9. Dubin B. Lost illusions: a selection of articles about modern youth // Knowledge is power. – 2004. – No. 5. – S. 24-39.)
10. Dementieva I. School work with children at risk. // Education of schoolchildren. 2002. – No. 7. – pp. 21-26
11. Zdravomyslova O. Youth: deviant behavior.
12. Zhuravleva N. A. Dynamics of value orientations of youth in the context of socio-economic changes // Psychological journal. – 2006. – T. 27. – No. 1. – S. 35-44.
13. Ivantsova A. Social teacher and inspector for juvenile affairs // Education of schoolchildren.- 2000.- No. 8.- P.37-40
14. Lukov V.V. The problem of generalizing assessments of the situation of youth // SOCIS. 1998. No. 12.