EXERCISE. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. SMALL BUSINESS AND INDIVIDUAL WORK

1. What distinguishes entrepreneurial activity?

1) regulation by law

2) the mandatory use of the labor of hired workers

3) the requirement for professional training of participants

4) focus on making a profit

Explanation.

Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activity – economic activity aimed at systematic profit from the production and / or sale of goods, the provision of services.

2. Violetta bought a new dress in the store for 6,000 rubles. What is the function of money in this example?

1) medium of exchange 2) means of accounting 3) world money 4) means of accumulation

Explanation.

medium of exchange.

Goods in exchange for money.

3. The level of wages in the labor market is determined under the direct influence

1) the cost of consumer goods 2) the volume of personal savings of citizens

3) the living wage established in the country 4) demand and supply of labor services

Explanation.

Setting the level of wages under the influence of changing conditions in the labor market stimulates workers to master those professions for which demand increases under the influence of structural adjustment and the requirements of scientific and technological progress.

4. The price of a bouquet of roses is 800 rubles. What function of money is reflected in this example?

1) measure of value 2) means of payment 3) world money 4) store of value

Explanation.

Basic functions of money

Money manifests itself through its functions. Typically, there are such functions of money as:

The measure of value. Dissimilar goods are equated and exchanged among themselves on the basis of price (the exchange rate, the value of these goods, expressed in the amount of money).

Recourse tool. Money is used as an intermediary in the circulation of goods.

Instrument of payment. The money is used to register debts and pay them.

A means of accumulation. Money accumulated but not used allows purchasing power to be transferred from the present to the future.

World money. Foreign trade relations, international loans, the provision of services to an external partner caused the emergence of world money.

5. Which of the following taxes is indirect?

1) for a motor vehicle 2) for real estate

3) for personal income 4 ) for value added

Explanation.

Indirect tax – a tax on goods and services, established as a surcharge on the price or tariff, in contrast to direct taxes, determined by the income of the taxpayer. Indirect taxes are always paid by the buyer of the goods.

All the rest are direct taxes (on whom they are directed, he pays).

6. The price of a rubber cap for swimming is 50 rubles. What is the function of money in this example?

1) world money 2) medium of circulation 3 ) measure of value 4) store of value

Explanation.

Money manifests itself through its functions. Typically, there are such functions of money as:

The measure of value. Dissimilar goods are equated and exchanged among themselves on the basis of price (the exchange rate, the value of these goods, expressed in the amount of money).

Recourse tool. Money is used as an intermediary in the circulation of goods.

Instrument of payment. The money is used to register debts and pay them.

A means of accumulation. Money accumulated but not used allows purchasing power to be transferred from the present to the future.

World money. Foreign trade relations, international loans, the provision of services to an external partner caused the emergence of world money.

7. Which of the following directly affects the wages of an employee in a market environment?

1) marital status 2) cost of the consumer basket

3) price stability for goods and services 4) qualifications and diligence

Explanation.

At the same time, the amount of wages in market conditions is determined by the quality of labor, qualifications, professional training of the employee, his experience and diligence.

8. Which of the following taxes is direct?

1) value added 2) sales

3) customs duty 4) on income of individuals

Explanation.

Indirect tax – a tax on goods and services, established as a surcharge on the price or tariff, in contrast to direct taxes, determined by the income of the taxpayer. Indirect taxes are always paid by the buyer of the goods. 1, 2, 3 – indirect.

A direct tax is a tax that is levied by the state directly on the income or property of a taxpayer. Only 4 is correct.

Direct taxes – to whom they are directed, he pays.

9. Independent activity of citizens, carried out at their own peril and risk, aimed at making a profit, is

1) competition 2) entrepreneurship 3) mediation 4) production

Explanation.

Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activity – economic activity aimed at systematic profit from the production and / or sale of goods, the provision of services.

10. The state finances the education system. What economic function does the state perform in this case?

1) filling the state budget 2) legal regulation of the economy

3) regulation of the money supply 4) production of public goods

Explanation.

Public goods are a set of goods and services that are provided to the population free of charge, at the expense of the state’s financial resources.

11. Which of the following refers to the factors (sources) of production?

1) supply 2) entrepreneurship 3) demand 4) competition

Explanation.

The main factors of production: labor, land, capital, entrepreneurial activity.

12. The economic sphere of society, in addition to the production, exchange, consumption of material goods, includes

1) creation of spiritual values 2) exchange of cultural achievements

3) distribution of material wealth 4) preservation of traditions and customs

Explanation.

The economic sphere is the area of production, exchange, distribution, consumption of goods and services. In order to produce something, people, tools, machines, materials, etc. are needed – productive forces. In the process of production, and then exchange, distribution, consumption, people enter into a variety of relations with each other and with the product – relations of production. Production relations and productive forces together constitute the economic sphere of society:

1) productive forces – people (labor force), tools of labor, objects of labor;

2) relations of production – production, distribution, consumption, exchange.

13. The state in a market economy

1) sets prices for goods 2) collects taxes

3) allocate resources 4) plan production

Explanation.

Usually, the following main functions of the state in a market economy are distinguished:

1. Establishment and enforcement of the legal foundations of a market economy, including the rights of private property.

2. Maintaining market competition and protecting consumer rights.

3. Solving issues related to externalities: costs and benefits.

4. Provision of public goods and services

5. Stimulating economic growth and stabilizing the economy.

6. Distribution and redistribution of national income through tax policy and provision of social and economic support.

7. Participation in economic activities.

14. A distinctive feature of a market economy is

1) centralized distribution of resources 2) free pricing

3) introduction of income tax 4) commodity deficit

Explanation.

The market economy is based on the principles:

1) entrepreneurship;

2) the variety of forms of ownership of the means of production;

3) market pricing;

4) contractual relations between economic entities (people, enterprises, etc.);

5) limited state intervention in economic activity;

6) appropriation of surplus value.

15. The process of transition of state enterprises into private hands is called

1) privatization 2) nationalization 3) modernization 4) socialization

Explanation.

Privatization is a form of property transformation, which is the process of transferring (full or partial) state (municipal) property to private hands.

Nationalization is the transfer of land, industrial enterprises, banks, transport or other property belonging to private individuals or joint-stock companies to the ownership of the state.

Modernization – the process of transition from the traditional society, which is identified Ch. arr. with social relations of the patriarchal-feudal type, to the modern society of the industrial capitalist type.

Socialization (from Latin socialis – public), the process of assimilation by a human individual of a certain system of knowledge, norms and values that allow him to function as a full member of society.

16. What applies primarily to the economic sphere of society?

1) consumption of spiritual values 2) distribution of material wealth

3) creation of legal norms 4) exchange of cultural achievements

Explanation.

The economic sphere is the area of production, exchange, distribution, consumption of goods and services. In order to produce something, people, tools, machines, materials, etc. are needed – productive forces. In the process of production, and then of exchange, distribution, consumption, people enter into various relations with each other and with the commodity – production relations. Production relations and productive forces together constitute the economic sphere of society:

1) productive forces – people (labor force), tools of labor, objects of labor;

2) production relations – production, distribution, consumption, exchange.

17. In both market and command economies

1) there is a shortage of goods 2) economic proportions are established

3) labor is a commodity 4) leading positions are occupied by state property

Explanation.

Commodity deficit and the leading role of state property only in a command economy. Labor is a commodity only in the market.

18. The state budget is planned by the state for the year

1) industrial production volumes 2) expenses and incomes

3) national economic proportions 4) indicators of economic growth

Explanation.

The state budget is a list of income and expenses.

Income:

1. Taxes.

2. Non-tax revenues.

3. Borrowing.

Expenses:

1. Social costs sphere.

2. Costs for household needs.

3. Administrative and management expenses.

4. Defense and foreign policy.

5. Payments for state. debt.

19. In a command economy, as opposed to a market economy

1) there is competition between producers 2) labor is a commodity

3) resources are distributed centrally 4) income tax is established

Explanation.

The market economy is based on the principles:

1) entrepreneurship;

2) the variety of forms of ownership of the means of production;

3) market pricing;

4) contractual relations between economic entities (people, enterprises, etc.);

5) limited state intervention in economic activity;

6) appropriation of surplus value.

Centralized distribution in a command economy.

20. Indirect taxes include

1) income tax 2) excise tax 3) income tax 4) property tax

Explanation.

Indirect tax – a tax on goods and services, established as a surcharge on the price or tariff, in contrast to direct taxes, determined by the income of the taxpayer. Indirect taxes are always paid by the buyer of the goods.

A direct tax is a tax that is levied by the state directly on the income or property of a taxpayer.

Direct taxes – to whom they are directed, he pays.

21. Mandatory payments levied by the state from individuals and legal entities are

1) tariffs 2) taxes 3) dividends 4) insurance payments

Explanation.

Tax is a mandatory, individually gratuitous payment collected by state authorities of various levels from organizations and individuals in order to financially support the activities of the state and (or) municipalities.

22. Mandatory payments that are paid to the state by its citizens, as well as enterprises, companies and firms, are

1) dividends 2) insurance payments 3) salary 4 ) taxes

Explanation.

Tax is a mandatory, individually gratuitous payment collected by state authorities of various levels from organizations and individuals in order to financially support the activities of the state and (or) municipalities.

23. The type of indirect tax levied on the buyer when he purchases certain types of goods and is usually set as a percentage of this price

1) tax on income of physical days 2) customs duty

3) excise tax 4) dividend

Explanation.

Indirect tax – a tax on goods and services, established as a surcharge on the price or tariff, in contrast to direct taxes, determined by the income of the taxpayer. Indirect taxes are always paid by the buyer of the goods.

24. Indirect taxes include

1) value added tax 2) personal income tax

3) property tax 4) corporate income tax

Explanation.

Indirect tax – a tax on goods and services, established as a surcharge on the price or tariff, in contrast to direct taxes, determined by the income of the taxpayer. Indirect taxes are always paid by the buyer of the goods.

A direct tax is a tax that is levied by the state directly on the income or property of a taxpayer. Direct taxes – to whom they are directed, he pays.

25. Non-participation in social production of the able-bodied population of working age

1) absenteeism 2 ) unemployment 3) dependency 4) delinquency

Explanation.

Unemployment is the presence of people of working age who are unemployed, fit for it and looking for it.

26. A distinctive feature of a market economy is

1) centralized distribution of resources 2) free pricing

3) introduction of income tax 4) commodity deficit

Task 8 No. 783

Explanation.

The market economy is based on the principles:

1) entrepreneurship;

2) the variety of forms of ownership of the means of production;

3) market pricing;

4) contractual relations between economic entities (people, enterprises, etc.);

5) limited state intervention in economic activity;

6) appropriation of surplus value.

Correct answer: 2.

Source: Typical Social Science Test Items. A. Yu. Lazebnikova, O. A. Kotova, E. N. Kalacheva – 2013, version 16.

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Non-participation in social production of the able-bodied population of working age

1) absenteeism

2) unemployment

3) dependency

4) offense

Task 8 No. 814

Explanation.

Unemployment is the presence of people of working age who are unemployed, fit for it and looking for it.

Correct answer: 2.

Source: Typical Social Science Test Items. A. Yu. Lazebnikova, O. A. Kotova, E. N. Kalacheva – 2013, version 17.

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Comments (1)

Indirect taxes are

1) income tax

2) excise

3) income tax

4) property tax

Task 8 No. 845

Explanation.

Indirect tax – a tax on goods and services, established as a surcharge on the price or tariff, in contrast to direct taxes, determined by the income of the taxpayer. Indirect taxes are always paid by the buyer of the goods.

A direct tax is a tax that is levied by the state directly on the income or property of a taxpayer. Direct taxes – to whom they are directed, he pays.

Correct answer: 2.

Source: Typical Social Science Test Items. A. Yu. Lazebnikova, O. A. Kotova, E. N. Kalacheva – 2013, version 18.

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In both market and command economies

1) there is a shortage of goods

2) economic proportions are established

3) leading positions are occupied by state property

4) labor is a commodity

Task 8 No. 876

Explanation.

Commodity deficit and the leading role of state property only in the command, labor is a commodity only in the market.

Correct answer: 2.

Source: Typical Social Science Test Items. A. Yu. Lazebnikova, O. A. Kotova, E. N. Kalacheva – 2013, version 19.

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What relates primarily to the economic sphere of society?

1) consumption of spiritual values

2) distribution of wealth

3) creation of legal norms

4) exchange of cultural achievements

Task 8 No. 907

Explanation.

The economic sphere is the area of production, exchange, distribution, consumption of goods and services. In order to produce something, people, tools, machines, materials, etc. are needed – productive forces. In the process of production, and then exchange, distribution, consumption, people enter into a variety of relations with each other and with the product – relations of production. Production relations and productive forces together constitute the economic sphere of society:

1) productive forces – people (labor force), tools of labor, objects of labor;

2) production relations – production, distribution, consumption, exchange.

Correct answer: 2.

Source: Typical Social Science Test Items. A. Yu. Lazebnikova, O. A. Kotova, E. N. Kalacheva – 2013, version 20.

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The initiative independent economic activity of a person, carried out at his own risk within the framework of the law, aimed at making a profit, is called

1) entrepreneurship

2) reform

3) production

4) creativity

Task 8 No. 950

Explanation.

Entrepreneurship is called an initiative independent economic activity of a person, carried out at his own risk within the framework of the law, aimed at making a profit.

Correct answer: 1.

Source: Demo version of GIA-2014 in social studies.

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Taxes in the form of surcharges on the price of goods and services are called

1) indirect

2) straight

3) income

4) property

Task 8 No. 1244

Explanation.

Taxes in the form of surcharges on the price of goods and services are called indirect taxes. Taxes levied directly on any income or property in a fixed amount are called direct taxes.

Correct answer: 1.

Source: MIOO: Training work in social science 10/14/2013 version OB90101.

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Taxes levied directly on any income or property in a prescribed amount are called

1) indirect

2) straight

3) excises

4) customs duty

Task 8 No. 1275

Explanation.

Taxes in the form of surcharges on the price of goods and services are called indirect taxes. Taxes levied directly on any income or property in a fixed amount are called direct taxes.

Correct answer: 2

Source: MIOO: Training work in social science 10/14/2013 version OB90102.

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Which of the following applies to government spending?

1) wages of employees of joint-stock companies with state participation

2) excise taxes

3) interest on government securities

4) the amount of administrative fines

Task 8 No. 1306

Explanation.

The payment of interest on government securities is included in the expenditure side of the budget. 2and 4 is the revenue part, 1 – has nothing to do with government spending

Correct answer: 3

Source: MIOO: Diagnostic work on social science 12/10/2013 version OB90601.

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Which of the following is true of family income?

1) payment of interest on a consumer loan

2) utility bills

3) funds for mobile communications

4) interest on a bank deposit

Task 8 No. 1337

Explanation.

A bank deposit brings income. 1,2,3 are expenses.

Correct answer: 4

Source: MIOO: Diagnostic work on social science 12/10/2013 version OB90602.

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The state in a market economy

1) determines the ratio of supply and demand

2) organizes the production of public goods

3) sets prices for goods

4) plans the scale of industrial production

Task 8 No. 1368

Explanation.

The state in a market economy organizes the production of public goods, since business will not be engaged in this due to lack of profit or low profit. 134 are the functions of the state in the administrative economy.

Correct answer: 2

Source: MIOO: Training work in social science 01/16/2014 version OB90701.

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Which of the following is characteristic of entrepreneurial activity?

1) increased political activity

2) egalitarian distribution of produced goods

3) lack of special abilities

4) the presence of economic freedom

Task 8 No. 1399

Explanation.

Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activity – economic activity aimed at systematic profit from the production and / or sale of goods, the provision of services. Entrepreneurial activity presupposes the existence of economic freedom. in 1 2 3 – no profit.

correct answer: 4

Source: MIOO: Training work in social science 01/16/2014 version OB90702.

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Direct taxes include(s)

1) customs duties

2) property tax

3) excise taxes

4) value added tax

Task 8 No. 1430

Explanation.

Direct taxes withheld from legal entities, corporate income tax (corporate tax), corporate property tax; land tax from the enterprise.

Indirect taxes (for example, excises) are paid by intermediaries (producers of taxed goods), who then reimburse them from other persons (consumers).

correct answer: 2

Source: MIOO: Diagnostic work on social science 04/02/2014 version OB91001.

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Free goods are

1) sunlight, forest air

2) furniture, household appliances

3) books, computers

4) services of a paid doctor

Task 8 No. 1461

Explanation.

Good is something that satisfies a human need.

Types of benefits:

1. economic – their reserves are limited (oil, gas)

2. non-economic or free – free access (sun, air)

3. public – they are represented by the state (transport, communications)

correct answer: 1

Source: MIOO: Diagnostic work on social science 04/02/2014 version OB91002.

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Direct taxes include(s)

1) customs duties

2) property tax

3) excise duties

4) value added tax

Task 8 No. 1492

Explanation.

Direct taxes withheld from legal entities, corporate income tax (corporate tax), corporate property tax; land tax from the enterprise.

Indirect taxes (for example, excises) are paid by intermediaries (producers of taxed goods), who then reimburse them from other persons (consumers).

correct answer: 2

Source: MIOO: Training work in social science 05/19/2014 version OB91101.

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Refers to land as a factor of production

1) forests, fields

2) factories, plants

3) scientific developments

4) computer software

Task 8 No. 1523

Explanation.

Forests, fields – land;

factories, plants, – capital;

computer software scientific developments – information.

Correct answer: 1

Source: MIOO: Training work in social science 05/19/2014 version OB91102.

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The object of taxation is

1) trading organization

2) property of citizens

3) scientific discovery

4) increased scholarship

Task 8 No. 1590

Explanation.

The object of taxation is what the tax is aimed at.

Correct answer: 2

Source: StatGrad: Training work in social science 12/10/2014 Variant OB90101.

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The subject of taxation is

1) scientific discovery

2) property of citizens

3) private enterprise

4) increased scholarship

Task 8 No. 1621

Explanation.

The subject of taxation is the one who pays taxes.

Correct answer: 3

Source: StatGrad: Training work in social science 12/10/2014 Variant OB90102.

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The initiative independent economic activity of a person, carried out at his own risk within the framework of the law, aimed at making a profit, is called

1) entrepreneurship

2) reform

3) production

4) creativity

Task 8 No. 1652

Explanation.

This is the definition of entrepreneurship

Correct answer: 1

Source: Demo version of GIA-2015.

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Anna Sergeevna received a salary and set aside some part to buy a new mobile phone. What function of money does this example illustrate?

1) accounting tool

2) means of accumulation

3) measure of value

4) medium of exchange

Task 8 No. 1683

Explanation.

Money here performed the function of a store of value. Correct answer: 2

Source: StatGrad: Diagnostic work on social science 01/16/2015 Option OB90701.

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The increase in the number of independent sellers in the household appliances market has led to a decrease in prices for it. This is the result

1) competition

2) technological progress

3) price collusion of producers

4) state regulation

Task 8 No. 1714

Explanation.

In the course of competition, the price may decrease, which is observed in this case.

Correct answer: 1

Source: StatGrad: Diagnostic work on social science 01/16/2015 Option OB90702.

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Compulsory, mostly non-refundable payments levied from citizens and organizations in order to financially support the activities of the state are called

1) tariffs

2) taxes

3) income

4) expenses

Task 8 No. 1746

Explanation.

Compulsory, mostly non-refundable payments levied from citizens and organizations in order to financially support the activities of the state are called taxes.

Correct answer: 2

Source: StatGrad: Training work in social science 02/16/2015 Variant OB90601.

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Income in cash received by an employee for the provision of a certain labor service is called

1) profit

2) salary

3) dividend

4) incentive

Task 8 No. 1777

Explanation.

The income in cash received by an employee for the provision of a certain labor service is called a salary.

Correct answer: 2

Source: StatGrad: Training work in social science 02/16/2015 Variant OB90602.

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The concepts of “excises”, “customs duty”, “antimonopoly law” are typical for

1) state regulation of the economy

2) the functioning of the stock market

3) credit development

4) business financing

Task 8 No. 1808

Explanation.

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