The concepts of “ethics”, “medical ethics”.
The term “ethics” is of ancient Greek origin, introduced by the ancient philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC). It is Aristotle who is considered the founding father of ethics as an independent field of knowledge. The term “ethics” and the science of ethics were created in the 4th century. BC. There is a ” golden rule of ethics ” – “do not do to others what you do not wish for yourself.”
Ethics is a philosophical science that studies questions of morality and ethics.
Ethics studies the relationship of people, their thoughts, feelings and deeds in the light of the categories of goodness, justice, duty, honor, dignity.
And the relevance of ethical problems is enduring. The current stage in the development of ethical science is associated with issues on the solution of which the position of a person in the world largely depends. Every profession has its moral issues. Professional ethics is of paramount importance, first of all, for professions, the object of which is a person. Where representatives of a certain profession, due to its specificity, are in constant or even continuous communication with other people, there are specific (moral) codes .
Medical ethics studies and defines the solution to various problems of interpersonal relationships in three main areas.
medical worker – patient
medical worker – relatives of the patient
medical worker – medical worker
There are four universal ethical principles, which include: mercy, autonomy, justice and completeness of medical care.
Ø The principle of mercy says: “I will do good to the patient, or at least not harm him.” The main thing is that any action of a medical worker should be directed to the benefit of a particular patient!
Ø The principle of personal autonomy (confidentiality) means independence, the right to independently make decisions regarding health issues. In accordance with the principle of respect for the autonomy of the individual in modern medicine, an ethics of respect for the rights of the patient has been formed, the core of which is “informed consent”.
Ø The principle of fairness / non-harm requires equal treatment of medical professionals and the provision of equal care to patients, regardless of their status, position, profession or other external circumstances. This principle also determines that whatever assistance a medical professional provides to a patient, his actions should not harm either the patient himself or others.
Ø The principle of completeness in the provision of medical care implies the professional provision of medical care and a professional attitude towards the patient, the use of the entire available arsenal of health care for high-quality diagnostics and treatment, the implementation of preventive measures and the provision of palliative care.
The main legal documents that reflect ethical aspects:
Human rights in the field of protecting his health and receiving various types of medical care are reflected in many international and domestic legal documents.
• This is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948),
• Lisbon Declaration on Human Rights (WMA, 1981),
• Declaration on the policy of ensuring the rights of the patient in Europe (WHO, 1994),
• Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Council of Europe, 1996),
• Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993),
• 323 – Federal Law “On the fundamentals of protecting the health of citizens in the Russian Federation” (21.11.2011).
Ethical code of nurses in Russia.
In 1997, the Code of Ethics for Russian nurses was approved, but the development of nursing practice, medical science and technology, changes in social values and views on the role and place of the patient in the process of providing medical care made it necessary to revise and supplement certain provisions of the Code of Ethics. In September 2010, a new edition was adopted.
The new edition of the code, like the previous one, consists of 5 sections:
The structure of the code of ethics:
- General provisions.
- Nurse and patient.
- Nurse and her profession.
- Nursing and Society.
- The operation of the ethical code of the nurse.
The Code of Ethics of the 1997 edition included 19 articles, the new version of the code of 2010 consists of 26 articles. The most capacious in terms of the number of articles is Section 2 of the Code “Nurse and Patient”.
The key points of the ethical code of the Russian nurse are:
Ø Nursing care is aimed primarily at achieving the highest quality of life for the patient .
Ø The patient’s suffering can never be considered ethical in any way if this suffering could have been avoided.
Ø For the first time and openly raised questions about the professional incompetence of subordinates or colleagues.
Ø The ethical responsibility of the heads of nursing services is included in a separate article.
Ø The ethical responsibility of a nurse includes an active position in relation to non -professional colleagues.
Ø The Code of Ethics raises the problem of the emergence and ways of resolving ethical conflict in the conditions of the professional activity of a nurse.